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trigger the reaction.

trigger the reaction. The hydrogen from the balloon reacts with the 21% oxygen in the atmosphere. Figure 3.1 More on Hydrogen . . . ! Hydrogen burns in pure oxygen producing temperatures as high as 2888°C (5230!). The operation of the oxyhydrogen gas welding torch is based on this reaction ! The Sun converts six hundred million tons of hydrogen per second into helium ! Hydrogen will play a much bigger role in our futures once we manage to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversions to produce hydrogen from water ! Hydrogen is used as rocket fuel in the NASA Space Shuttle program ! The destruction of the Hindenburg airship, which ‘deflagrated’ on 6 May 1937 at Lakehurst, New Jersey in the USA, was an infamous example of the flammable properties of hydrogen gas. The cause of the fire is debated and most of the visible fires were attributed to the ship’s framework. Due to hydrogen’s buoyancy in air, its flames ascend rapidly and cause less damage than hydrocarbon fires. Two-thirds of the Hindenburg passengers actually survived the hydrogen fire. 25

A. Preparing Hydrogen Gas [] Safety / Risk assessment ! Follow standard safety procedures when handling chemicals ! Work in a well ventilated area ! Wear gloves and eye protection throughout the preparation as well as ear protection when igniting hydrogen ! Wear a protective lab coat or apron ! No matches, sparks or flames should be brought close to the preparation area Chemical Safety Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) also known as caustic soda or lye is corrosive, destroys clothes and causes injury to the skin. Treat with the greatest respect and wash your hands under running water immediately after handling this chemical. Use protective gloves. Risk phrases: R35 Causes severe burns Safety phrase: S2/26/37/39 Keep out of reach of children; In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice; Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection. What you will need Chemicals • Sodium hydroxide (Caustic Soda): NaOH Figure 3.2 There is no need to use lab chemicals. Most supermarkets will stock this in their laundry section as it is used as a drain cleaner • Aluminium kitchen foil or aluminium pie pans. Any thickness and roll size will do Equipment • Balloons approximately 30 cm in diameter when inflated. It is better to use helium quality balloons if you plan to have the gas stored for an hour or two • Balloon clips from a party supply shop with pieces of string attached • Clear glass bottle with narrow neck. Wine bottles are just perfect for this job. Do not use a plastic bottle 26 Figure 3.3