Inside April 11, 2018 .qxp_Layout 1 4/10/18 8:17 PM Page 5 06 View DAILY HERITAGE WEDNESDAY, APRIL 11, 2018 Ghana’s sovereignty mortgaged: The radio spectrum control and warfare (Part I) BY KOFI B. KUKUBOR SINCE PARLIAMENT ‘approved’ (we do not know whether it was by rectification or ratification) the controversial Ghana/USA military ‘cooperation’, the debates on the benefits of the deal to Ghana have been cacophonic. The substance of the discussion is lost as the average Ghanaian is left to the mercy of partisan interests and confusion. The President, Nana Akufo- Addo’s attempt to clarify the deal to Ghanaians rather muddied the waters. In his speech, President Akufo-Addo believes he has done so much service to Ghanaians that he could not see the reason why Ghanaians would not give him a synchronised style of North Korea standing ovation. Indeed, the critiques of the military deal are hypocrites, traitors, and secret dealers in the United States of America (USA) yet with anti-American populist agenda. Mr President, the question as to what are the benefits of the military ‘cooperation’ to Ghanaians, and how Ghana’s sovereignty is guaranteed is still unanswered. I will attempt to serialise the contents of the agreement with the hope of escaping the terrain of extreme partisan mediocrities as epitomised in the President’s speech. This article focuses on the Radio Spectrum which the agreement gives FULL and UNFETTERED ACCESS to the USA military. Use of Radio Spectrum Article 14 of the agreement states that the USA military “shall be allowed to operate its own telecommunication systems (as telecommunication is defined in the 1992 Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union), and also “the right to use all necessary radio spectrum for this purpose. Use of the radio spectrum shall be free of cost to United States forces.” Radio Spectrum Simplified Anytime you hear of "AM radio" and "FM radio," "VHF" and "UHF" television, "community radio," "shortwave radio", etc., you are in a radio wave or in an electromagnetic wave propagated by an antenna. Radio waves have different frequencies and you can only pick up a specific signal when tuned into a specific or assigned frequency. In Ghana, it is the National Communication Authority that is mandated by law to decide who is able to use which frequencies and for which purposes, and it issues licenses to stations for specific frequencies. Common radio frequency bands include the following: AM radio, Short wave radio, Community band (CB) radio, Television stations, FM radio, Television stations, Garage door openers, alarm systems, Radio controlled CCTV/ security camera, Standard cordless phones, Baby monitors, Radio controlled airplanes, Radio controlled cars, Wildlife tracking collars, MIR space station, Cell phones and New cordless phones, Air traffic control, Global Positioning System (GPS), Marine control system, Wi-fi networks, Bluetooth, Deep space radio communications, Radio controlled mechanized farms, etc. Now, you will realise that Radio Spectrum controls every aspect of modern day life. That is why countries with a proper sense of security, national safety, and sovereignty, control their Radio Spectrum with high sense of security measures and diligence. The present-day and future warfare is and will be determined by the national military that has superior control over Radio Spectrums. The Radio Spectrum is now a warfare. “The electromagnetic spectrum touches everything we do, and we must make sure [that] use and protection of this spectrum include a whole-of-government and international approach.” (Air Force Maj. Gen. Sandra E. Finan, deputy CIO for C4 and Information Infrastructure and Capabilities a DoD, USA). Effects on the defence of Ghana Communications, navigation, battlefield logistics, precision munitions, etc., depend on complete and unfettered access to radio spectrum. And, it is a territory that must be vigilantly defended from enemy combatants. In international warfare, intelligence and trade, the USA, like any other foreign nation, is an enemy combatant in pursuing national interests. Having command of electromagnetic waves will allow USA forces to operate drones from a hemisphere away, guide cruise missiles inland from the sea. It will facilitate blocking enemies (including Ghana, depending on USA foreign and military interests at the time) from using the spectrum. This will be critical to hindering the ability of Ghana’s military in defending the country, preventing a takeover and abduction of Ghana’s Presidents as happened in Panama when a ‘useful tool’, General Manuel Antonio Noriega, Commander-in-Chief of the Panama Defense Forces ("PDF") and de facto leader of Panama, on February 4, 1988, was abducted because he ceased to serve American interests. Same applies to other leaders and nations that the USA invaded successfully. They first invade the Radio Spectrum to prevent host nations from communicating and, thereby, rendering them impotent of defending their countries. Again, in Iraq's communication radar, stations were taken over during the early hours of Operation Desert Storm. This will also give capability to USA military to stage elaborate electronic assaults that could result in nightmare scenarios on the battlefield of Ghana’s military radios that will abruptly fall silent in the thick of combat. The US may very well never engage in a head-to-head shooting war but, the ability to effectively control the radio spectrum is already becoming a new type of arms race: one that is just as volatile as intercontinental ballistic missile, ICBM race during the Cold War. The exposure of civilian privacy to the manipulation of US military With the full access of Radio Spectrum possible, soldiers known as spectrum managers will create detailed maps of all of Ghana’s electromagnetic activity, and gather intelligence on users. In addition to tracking and recording the emissions of every piece of military hardware, the managers will also compile a list of which frequencies were used by a galaxy of cheap civilian devices. With these data, the USA military can manipulate electronic devices of institutions and civilians, track or set them up for arrest or With the full access of Radio Spectrum possible, soldiers known as spectrum managers will create detailed maps of all of Ghana’s electromagnetic activity, and gather intelligence on users. In addition to tracking and recording the emissions of every piece of military hardware, the managers will also compile a list of which frequencies were used by a galaxy of cheap civilian devices. abduction to illegal prisons (e.g. Guantanamo Bay Prison) in the USA without any necessary or incriminating evidence. This will expose the Ghanaian from his CCTV gates, wifimobile handsets and GPS locations to the US Military. Indeed, any radio device could be corrupted and navigation data (electronic election results, etc.) misdirected. And what will be the benefits to Ghana? “Use of the radio spectrum shall be free of cost to United States forces.” Article 14 of the agreement refers. Ghana gains nothing. The impotency of Ghana’s constitution Article 3 of the agreement accord diplomatic immunity under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations of April 18, 1961. In other words, any violation, abuse, damage, and used data gathered through the Radio Spectrum is not subject to Ghana's Laws or the primacy of Ghana’s Constitution. Article 3 of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic clearly defines whose interests are paramount in carrying out diplomatic assignments. Article (3) (1) (b) protecting in the receiving State (Ghana) the interests of the sending State (USA) and of its nationals, within the limits permitted by international law; and (d) ascertaining by all lawful means conditions and developments in the receiving State (Ghana) and reporting thereon to the Government of the sending State (USA). In summary, the primary purpose of the military ‘cooperation’ is to protect the interests of USA, not Ghana. Whatever crime the military personnel and civilian personnel commit in Ghana in carrying out their functions in the interest of USA, the Constitution of Ghana shall be impotent as their acts, actions, commission, and omissions, whether genuine or deliberate, is under the privileges, exemptions, and immunities equivalent to those accorded to the administrative and technical staff of a diplomatic mission. Ghana and citizens of Ghana cannot claim any damages guaranteed by the constitution. Article 15 of the agreement refers. Conclusion This agreement violates Article 73 of the constitution as it is not “in a manner consistent with the National interest of Ghana”.The U.S. is noted to have the characteristic of violating the UK charter in pursuing her interests. The desire to label a President or other nations governments as rogue States when US interests are not met makes it difficult to trust US in such agreements. The invasion and abduction of General Noriega of Panama in 1988, and the illegal invasion of Iraq and the abduction and killing of Sadam Hussein and many more are clear evidence of US disrespect and violation of the UN Charter on the sovereignty of Nations. The Ghana/USA military cooperation does not only violate the engineering, regulatory, economic, legal, and management policy power of Ghana, but it is also a rape of Ghana’s sovereignty. Mr. President, now I put it to you. Who is ‘traitoring’ the sovereignty of Ghana? As I wait for the answer, I shall adjourn this article to the forenoon of Part II. Shalom. The author is a Governance and Policy Analyst.
Inside April 11, 2018 .qxp_Layout 1 4/10/18 8:17 PM Page 6 Health benefits of walking for middle-aged people Walking strengthens your heart Reduce your risk of heart disease and stroke by walking regularly. It is great cardio exercise, lowering levels of bad cholesterol while increasing levels of good cholesterol Lowers disease risk A regular walking habit slashes the risk of type 2 diabetes by around 60% and you are 20% less likely to develop cancer of the colon, breast or womb with an active hobby such as walking. Its helps you lose weight You will burn around 75 calories simply by walking at 2mph for 30 minutes. Up your speed to 3mph and it 99 calories, while 4mph is 150 calories. It prevents dementia Older people who walk six miles or more per week are more likely to avoid brain shrinkage and preserve memory as the years pass. Since dementia affects one in 14 people over 65 and one in six over 80, we reckon that is a pretty great idea. WWW.DAILYHERITAGE.COM.GH DAILY HERITAGE WEDNESDAY, APRIL 11, 2018 &Env. GAC tests 9,680 Kwahu Easter revellers for HIV THE TECHNICAL support Unit of the Ghana AIDS Commission (GAC), in the Eastern Region, has tested 9,680 people to know their HIV status. This was done during the justended Easter festivities on the Kwahu ridge. The number comprised 5,556 males and 4,124 females out of which 217 males and 247 females were tested during the pre-Easter HIV Testing Services (HTS) at Linda Dor Restaurant at Bunso. About 30 HTS sites were set up at strategic locations in 11 towns on the Kwahu ridge and offered counselling and testing services while education on the use of both female and male condoms and distribution were also intensified throughout the threeday period. Eastern Region is one of the regions heavily affected by the HIV and AIDS epidemic in Ghana and over the past years had consistently recorded the highest HIV prevalence. However Behaviour Change Communication activities and other testing services had gone down drastically. The celebration of Easter in Kwahu has assumed an international dimension for the past 10 years, due to the paragliding competition patronised by many foreigners and Ghanaians as well and has been characterised by activities such as street jams, discos, beauty pageants and many other socialisation activities. Briefing the GNA, Ms Golda Asante, the Eastern Regional Director of the GAC, observed that festive and socio-cultural activities were well patronised in the region and many people engaged in risky sexual behaviour during such periods, which could expose them to HIV. She said in order to ensure that the first 90 of the agenda 90-90- 90 was completely achieved, they had adopted the strategy to integrate HIV interventions in all such festivities such as Odwira, Ngmayem, Kloyosikplemi and the Eastern paragliding festivals to reach out to people. According to Ms Asante, in line with the ‘test and treat’ policy, all those who tested positive would be connected to care and treatment immediately, adding that logistics and funds had been made available for communication and follow-ups to ensure that people had been rolled onto care. She explained that testing without providing the necessary care and treatment was wasteful especially in the face of the agenda 90-90-90, which seeks to get 90 per cent of the population tested to be rolled onto care and treatment and subsequently reduce the viral loads of all carriers on treatment by 90 per cent by 2020. GNA Nipah virus predicted to cause next human pandemic BY KWASI DEBRAH GHANA’S VETERINARY Service is putting health officials on high alert after antibodies of a virus, known as Nipah virus, was detected in parts of Africa. Wildlife veterinary specialist, Dr Richard Suu-Ire, indicates the disease is predicted to potentially cause the next world pandemic. “We’ve proved beyond doubt this virus is now in Africa. So our medical colleagues should have this in mind that when there is an outbreak of unknown disease, it can only not be Ebola virus disease but can also be Nipah virus disease,” he warned. Dr Suu-Ire made the revelation at a forum on 'One World, One Health, One Medicine' by the Ghana Veterinary Medical Students Association in Kumasi. Dr Richard Suu-Ire said the virus was first detected in 1998 in the Malaysian forest of Kampung Sungai Nipah, from which it got its name. •Fruit bats are reservoir carriers of Nipah virus and other highly fatal viruses, including Ebola virus History Fruit bats are reservoir carriers of Nipah virus and other highly fatal viruses including Ebola virus. Large numbers were later spotted around orchards at pig farms in northwest Malaysia. Nipah virus was found in the saliva of bats in half-eaten fruit dropped and consumed by the pigs. During the outbreak in Malaysia over one million pigs were killed, 800 pig farms were demolished and 36,000 farmers lost their jobs. Humans have, in recent times, been battling with diseases of animal origin. In 2014, West Africa experienced the worst case of Ebola outbreak. Avian flu claimed lives of thousands of poultry in Ghana about two years ago. The disease continues to claim human life in the West African sub-region ‘One World, One Health, One Medicine’ concept seeks to create awareness on the link between animal diseases and public health. Professor Raphael Folitse, Dean of School of Veterinary Medicine at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, wants Ghana to go beyond collaboration on ‘One health’ to strengthen one health systems to curb the situation. “Many parts of the world are far, far ahead. For those of us in West Africa, we’re still behind,” he said. “We’ve proved beyond doubt this virus is now in Africa. So our medical colleagues should have this in mind that when there is an outbreak of unknown disease, it can only not be Ebola virus disease but can also be Nipah virus disease,” he warned.