The Journal of Textile and Clothing Science (JTCS) is a peer-reviewed (refereed) journal. Which is aimed at providing the platform to exchange information pertaining to all sectors of textile and the clothing industry among researchers, textile technocrats, fashion designers and industry experts. The journal focuses on scientific, technical, economical, managerial and all other aspects of textile activity at theoretical and experimental level. JTCS is aimed at publishing original research articles, review papers, short communications, and letters to the editor and book reviews catering the needs of both industry and academia.
Pore diameter (microns) Thickness (mm) Journal of Textile and Clothing Science impact of depth of penetration and punch density on properties of needle punched nonwoven fabric and the impact of number of layers isn't tremendously investigated thus it is worth to think about the impact of quantities of layers on the properties of the needle punched nonwoven fabric by keeping GSM Constant. This investigation will center around properties of needle-punched nonwoven by differing the quantity of layers keeping fabric areal density consistent. This parameter affects the properties of made nonwoven fabric that is dictated by describing the produced fabric tests. 2. Materials and Methods In this examination, reused polyester filaments were utilized to fabricate nonwoven with needle punching innovation. Nonwoven fabric tests were produced utilizing web having three diverse number of layers viz. 6, 8 and 10 to such an extent that areal density of fabric stays unaltered. Other machine parameters like punch density (180 punches/cm2) and depth of penetration (8mm) were kept steady. Test runs are appeared in table 1. Table 1 Sample runs Number Sample of layers NL6 6 NL8 8 NL10 10 Punch Density (Punches/cm 2 ) Depth of Penetration (mm) 180 8 All the fabricated fabric tests were described in standard barometrical conditions for various properties, for example, areal density, thickness, fiber orientation, porosity, air permeability, bursting strength, tensile strength. Subsequent to testing properties of nonwoven tests, the acquired outcomes were broke down by utilizing one way ANOVA. 3. Result and Discussion 3.1 Areal Density and Fabric Thickness The areal density (GSM) portrays the mass of material per unit territory of the material decided by ASTM D5261. It has been discovered that there is no critical impact of number of layers of GSM fabric as the investigation is conveyed by keeping the GSM of fabric consistent. The thickness of needle punched nonwoven fabric was tried by ISO 9073-2 standard on SDL Atlas advanced thickness analyzer. Fig. 1 demonstrates the impact number of layers on the thickness of polyester needle punched nonwoven fabric. 2.1 2.054 2 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.832 Figure 1: Fabric thickness From fig. 1, it can be unmistakably observed that with an expansion in number layers from 6 to 10 there is 12.11% expansion in fabric thickness. The impact number of a layer of fabric thickness is noteworthy. This can be credited to the way that, as number of layers expands the combination is somewhat poor and flawless conservativeness isn't accomplished because of a steady depth of needle penetration. This outcome in the arrangement of voids between the fabric layers which prompts expanded loftiness of the fabric and assistant the thickness of the fabric. Henceforth without modifying any machine (punch density, depth of penetration, speed, and so forth.) and also a material parameter (type, amount, and so on.) we can change the fabric thickness just by expanding the quantity of web layers keeping resultant areal density consistent. 3.2 Pore Diameter 1.928 NL6 NL8 NL10 Number of layers Porosity is the gross measure of open volume in the given nonwoven fabric. Pore measure appropriation is a pre-imperative to explore any vehicle wonders, particularly in a permeable incorporate filtration, separation . 3500 2987.934 2759.024 3000 2500 2241.485 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1304.5673 1714.3168 1191.3491 145.168 178.2182 95.0473 NL6 NL8 NL10 Number of layers Figure 2: Pore diameter small mean large 26 Volume: 01 Issue: 02 | January-March-2108, www.jtcsonline.com
Bubble point pressure (psi) SAP (cm3/s/cm) Journal of Textile and Clothing Science Testing of pore size of needle punched nonwoven fabric was done by ASTM F316-03. The pore diameter was acquired regarding little, mean and extensive by porosity test technique. Figure 2 shows the impact of number of layers on pore diameter of needle punched nonwoven fabric. From fig. 2, it can be watched that as number of layers increments there is a decline in little, mean and additionally huge pore diameter. Nonetheless, this pattern isn't noteworthy. One of the conceivable purposes for this pattern is covering of filaments. As the quantity of web layers increments, there is a more irregular game plan of filaments that causes covering of strands coming about enclosement of the pore. Due to enclosement of pores by resulting layers, there is a diminishment in pore diameter. 3.3 Bubble Point Pressure It is a pressure over the fabric required to shape a bubble at first glance. It relies upon the fiber course of action and pore diameter. Figure 3 demonstrates the impact of number of layers on bubble point pressure. 0.014 0.013 0.011 0.012 0.01 0.01 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 0 NL6 NL8 NL10 Number of layers Figure 3: Bubble point pressure From figure 3, it is obviously induced that the bubble point pressure fundamentally increments as the quantity of layers increments. As number of layers expands the randomization in the fiber game plan builds which bring about covering of strands. This covering of strands has a tendency to lessen the pore diameter and makes it minimal. For the minimized structure of the fabric with little pore estimate, more pressure is required to drive liquid of certain volume through it. Henceforth, more pressure drop is there over the fabric having 10 layers as it has littler pore estimate. Bubble point pressure increments by 30% from NL6 to NL10 fabric. 3.4 Sectional Air Permeability (SAP) Sectional air permeability is utilized to look at the permeability of various fabric tests. Air permeability does not demonstrate any association with fabric thickness. This is because of reason that permeability of the fabric can be considered as far as cross-sectional territory of every entire, depth of each opening per unit zone. It is possible that to the fabric may have same permeability. It is, along these lines, alluring to have figure free of thickness to speak to air receptiveness of fabric i.e. sectional air permeability characterized as air permeability of fabric . On TexTest-FX3300 machine, the testing of air permeability of nonwoven fabric is completed by ASTM D737-96 standard. The impact of number of layers on air permeability of polyester needle punched nonwoven fabric is appeared in fig.4. Fig. 4 gives the unmistakable thought that as number of layers builds sectional air permeability increments. The impact of number of layers on sectional air permeability is critical. In spite of the fact that air permeability does not appear to change with the thickness of fabric, the SAP changes proportionately with a thickness of fabric and a similar pattern was seen by Vinay Kumar Midha . 200 195 190 185 180 175 170 179.718 Figure 4: Sectional air permeability of fabric SAP diminishes with increment in fabric weight. While the expansion in number of layers, the fabric end up thicker. Despite the fact that the quantity of pores increments with increment in number of fiber, the pore estimate winds up littler. Most extreme pore measure dissemination and the diameter at greatest pore estimate conveyance increments as number of layers increments. SAP and thickness are adversely associated with noteworthy connection coefficient as appeared in both the diagrams. 3.5 Nonwoven Orientation 185.256 194.484 NL6 NL8 NL10 Number of layers The orientation of fiber that is in the nonwoven structure is a key component toward the path or level of orientations that influences the Volume: 01 Issue: 02 | January-March-2108, www.jtcsonline.com 27