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JTCS Volume 1 Issue 1

The Journal of Textile and Clothing Science (JTCS) is a peer-reviewed (refereed) journal. Which is aimed at providing the platform to exchange information pertaining to all sectors of textile and the clothing industry among researchers, textile technocrats, fashion designers and industry experts. The journal focuses on scientific, technical, economical, managerial and all other aspects of textile activity at theoretical and experimental level. JTCS is aimed at publishing original research articles, review papers, short communications, and letters to the editor and book reviews catering the needs of both industry and academia.

Nonwoven orientation

Nonwoven orientation Extension (mm) Breaking load (N) Journal of Textile and Clothing Science property, for example, tensile strength and extension. The course of action of strands in nonwoven is depicted by the fiber pressing game plan as well as by fiber directional game plan that is fiber orientation. The web structure assumes a noteworthy part in deciding the physical normal for needle punched fabric. Needle punched fabric is centered around weight consistency that is MD and CD [8]. The testing of nonwoven orientation is carried on lazing instrument NOS 200 machine by in house strategy. The impact of number of layers on fiber orientation is appeared if fig. 5. 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.352 Figure 5: Nonwoven orientation of fabric There is a huge impact of number of layers on fiber orientation. Fiber orientation increments as number of layers increments. There is 169.60% expansion in the orientation from number of layer 6 to number of layer 10. There is a huge impact of number of layers on the nonwoven orientation of the fabric. As the quantity of layers builds the randomization of the of the strands increment which is spoken to by MD/CD ratio. The randomization is because of more number of filaments are laid in an alternate bearing for steady GSM of the fabric. 3.6 Tensile Strength 0.534 0.949 NL6 NL8 NL10 Number of layers Mechanical properties of the material are critical where the material is subjected to stacking amid its execution. The tensile strength of needlepunched nonwoven is tried by ISO 9073-3 standard on Instron 5967. From fig. 6, we can presume that there is no critical impact of number of layers on the tensile strength of fabric both in the machine course and cross bearing. There is no huge impact of number of layers on breaking heap of the fabric. This is on the grounds that all the fabric tests were produced by keeping steady areal density. Due to which the heap bearing segment per unit zone of fabric stays same in unit zone. Thus, tensile properties are unaffected. 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Figure 6: Breaking load of fabric (MD and CD) 3.7 Extension Fig. 7 shows the impact of number of layers on the extensibility of tests. 170 166 162.5 165 158.83 160 155.46 155 149.83 150 145 138.56 140 135 130 125 120 NL6 NL8 NL10 Figure 7: Extension of fabric From fig. 7, it can be watched that there is no huge impact of number of layers on the extension of the fabric i.e. drift is vague. This pattern is because of reality that more randomized orientation. This randomized orientation prompts uniform dissemination of the heap toward all path. 3.8 MD/CD Ratio 238.27 217.51 227.14 165.43 249.13 192.01 NL 6 NL8 NL10 Number of layers MD CD Number of layers MD CD MD/CD ratio is the pointer of an anisotropic normal for fabric. From MD/CD ratio, we come to think about directional impacts. Fiber orientation influences this ratio. Fig. 8 demonstrates the impact of number of layers on the MD/CD steadiness ratio of fabric. 28 Volume: 01 Issue: 02 | January-March-2108, www.jtcsonline.com

Bursting strength (Kpa) MD/CD Ratio Journal of Textile and Clothing Science 2.5 1.5 0.5 0.8719 0.9128 Figure 8: MD/CD Ratio There is no noteworthy impact of number of layers on MD/CD ratio. Fabric demonstrates comparable properties in the machine and additionally cross heading. This is a direct result of expanded fiber randomization. 3.9 Bursting strength 1.0845 1.373 1.2974 The bursting strength of needle punched nonwoven fabric was conveyed with ISO 9073-2 standard. Fig. 9 demonstrates impact number of a layer on bursting strength of the fabric. 930 927 925 920 915 910 905 900 895 3 2 1 0 NL6 NL8 NL10 Load Number of layers 906 Extension Figure 9: Bursting strength of fabric 921 NL6 NL8 NL10 Number of layers 1.0457 As we find in the fig.9, there is no critical impact of number of layers on bursting strength of the fabric. It is verifiable truth that with an expansion in weight, there is an expansion in bursting strength however in this, the GSM of fabric is steady consequently there is no huge impact on bursting strength. The other reason can be given as the rate distinction is the base from number of layer 6 to number of layer 10 i.e. 0.64%. That there is no critical impact of number of layers on bursting strength of the fabric. 4. Conclusion With the expansion in number of web layers fiber orientation turn out to be more arbitrary and builds fiber covering. Expanded fiber covering at a higher number of web layers encases pores coming about decreased pore diameter. Bubble point pressure increments with increment in number of layers. Because of consistent weight per unit, a territory the heap bearing part stays steady so tensile properties stay unaltered. By expanding number of web layers, there is a huge change in auxiliary attributes of polyester needle punched nonwoven fabric. In any case, mechanical attributes stay unaltered. Consequently, we can plan a fabric of wanted filtration qualities without modifying different properties. An example having 10 layers has a superior filtration trademark that shows ideal thickness with wanted porosity and permeability with same areal density. 5. References Bergado D.T., Manivannan R. and Balsubramaniam A.S., “Filtration criteria for prefabricated vertical drain geotextile filter jackets in soft bankok clay”, Geosynthetics International, A.S.1996, vol.3, no.1, pp.63-83. Kopitar Dragana, Skenderi Zenun, Rukavina Tatjana, “Influence of pressure on water permeability and characteristics opening size of nonwoven geo textile”, Journal of fibre Bioengineering and Informatics 6:1, pp.103- 115, 2013. Tharewal P. G., Landage S. M., Wasif A. L., “Application of nonwoven for air filtration”, Indian Journal of Advanced Research in IT and Engineering, Vol. 2, February, 2013, ISSN:2278-6244. Russell S. J., “Handbook of Nonwoven”, Woodhead Publishing, 2007, eBook ISBN: 9781845691998. Rawal A., “structural analysis of pore size distribution of nonwovens”, The Journal of the textile institute, April 2010, vol.101, pp.350- 359. “Handbook of Geotextile”, The Bombay Textile Research Association, 2012, ISBN: 9788176741323. Midha V. K., Alagirusamy R. and Kothari V.K., “Studies on properties of hollow polyester needle-punched fabrics”, IJFTR, vol.29, pp.391- 399, December 2004. Dan F., Kusters A., “Web Forming and the impact on fabric performance”, April 18, 2012, www.inda.org/BIO/cab2012_449_PPT.pdf Volume: 01 Issue: 02 | January-March-2108, www.jtcsonline.com 29

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