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perspectives) or

perspectives) or theories directed at explaining the role of personality in occupational behaviours (occupational-oriented personality theories). We also emphasise the importance of culture in perceptions of personality and the efforts to explain personality from specific cultural contexts such as an African and Asian perspective. It is important to realise that the various theories and concepts are conceptual tools or thinking frameworks to help us understand and facilitate employee behaviours in the work context. The various theories use different concepts to describe and explain personality. These different concepts sometimes differ semantically, but have more or less the same meaning, for example: • ego, trait, habit, construct • ego, proprium, self • self-actualisation, fictional finalism, individuation • homeostasis, equilibrium, consonance, balance, and so on Chapter 13: Assumptions Another way to study and understand personality is to examine the way in which assumptions on personality are emphasised in different ways by the various theoretical perspectives. These assumptions are often rather controversial because some aspects may still be quite speculative, while other aspects are accepted widely as psychological facts because they have been empirically proven. For example, will we ever know everything about personality? For obvious reasons there will always be speculation about the causative factors of personality. There is a long-standing controversy regarding genetic versus environmental causes of behaviour, although much has been verified by research. Today we know a lot about hereditary and environmental causation and also how these factors interact. It is also a fact that some theories study personality ideographically, with the emphasis on the uniqueness of individual behaviours, while others emphasise general behavioural rules (nomothetic view), and so on. Such similarities and differences in assumptions also exist between different theories in terms of, for instance, concepts for motivation, development and so forth. 12

IOP1601/001 Chapter 13: Assessment and research Assessment and research of personality are done according to theoretical concepts and preferences. Personality assessment in the work context for various purposes is very important, for instance, in selection to determine the best fit between employee and work environment. We use concepts from personality structure, motivation, development and adjustment to assess personality, such as personality traits (e.g. intelligence, interests, values, and attitudes), needs and emotions, career maturity, stress and anxiety. The many assessment methods can be classified along different lines, for instance, as assessment of cognitive aspects or non-cognitive behaviours, or as belonging to different types of applications, etc. The assessment of personality in work context is not simplistic and many variables with regard to the person, the environment and the assessment situation may determine the relationship between personality and occupational behaviours. The ethical and social issues in assessment and research in human behaviour is discussed in more detail in Bergh and Geldenhuys (2013). Chapter 13: Different theoretical perspectives on personality Chapter 13 is an integration of the many aspects of and approaches to personality which is discussed in more detail in Bergh and Geldenhuys (2013). These are different approaches, paradigms or assumptions about the nature of people, what personality is made up of, factors which influence behaviour, how people are motivated, how to measure and control behaviour and why maladjusted behaviour occurs. The applicability of and empirical support for concepts (research findings) are the most important criteria for a successful theory. Therefore, throughout Bergh and Geldenhuys (2013), work-related examples, research findings and applications are cited. Remember that the examination questions are aimed at testing your knowledge, insight and application. Chapter 13: Test your knowledge 13