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People can control their

People can control their learning by means of self-regulation, selective attention, and personal and cognitive control. Chapter 15: Motivation Instructions: Motivation is explained through reinforcement, primary and secondary drives, habits, and various concepts that indicate cognitive control Various types of internal and external stimuli or cues direct behaviour. Examples are internal primary drives such as biological needs, and secondary drives such as environmental stimuli or rewards which motivate people to repeat certain types of behaviours. Habituation may also motivate certain actions. Drives as activators Drives are stimuli that activate responses from people. Drives are internally biological, but also acquired social states. They cause tension or stress that motivates people to act in ways to reduce, dismiss or change the tension. Therefore, drive theories emphasise homeostasis (creating stability in behaviour). Habituation The formation of habits is the simplest form of learning and motivated behaviour. Habits can become ingrained when initial stimuli are frequent, important or coupled to emotions. The processes of reinforcement, generalisation and extinction are also important in forming and repeating behaviour. Reinforcement Behaviour is motivated and directed by conditioning or reinforcement processes in the learning responses. Reinforcement is used to strengthen or increase certain behaviour. It can be a stimulus, an event and a situation. In a school setting, reinforcement can include praise, sweets, extra time for playing and other fun activities. Reinforcement of behaviours is shaped through positive reinforcement such as praising an employee. Positive reinforcement stimuli will cause such behaviours to be repeated. If certain 24 behaviours do not serve a purpose anymore or are continually discouraged, responses

could be extinguished IOP1601/001 Personal and cognitive regulation (S-O-R) is important for the choices people make and expectancies they have, as many uncertainties and feelings of helplessness may be due to faulty learning and loss of control. Person-environment interaction, cognitive control and behaviour regulation People have freedom to influence the environment and regulate their own behaviour. The social-cognitive perspective emphasises that behaviour is influenced by feelings, thoughts, physiological processes and consequences. Positive behavioural concepts Psychological situations (signature situations) are situations that are relevant to a person and his/her behaviour (scientist wear lab coats, judges wear togas, pilots wear uniforms, etc.). Cognitive control involves a situation whereby people perceive, interpret and think about stimuli, rewards and how they want to react. Cognitive control enables people to expect and predict outcomes, as well as which behaviours to use in which situations. Central to the idea of being in control of the consequences of behaviour is the concept of expectancies, whereby people believe that certain reinforcement will result from certain behaviours in certain situations. Locus of control The concept of the locus of control explains people's expectancies that outcomes of their behaviour can be or are controlled. Locus of control survey (available online) An internal locus of control occurs when people believe that they have control of their accomplishments because of their competencies. In contrast to this, people who believe that their behaviour and accomplishments are ruled by luck, fate, other people and circumstances have an external locus of control. Self-efficacy Self-efficacy concerns people's beliefs regarding their competence at achieving or producing the expected outcomes. Self-efficacy concerns people's self-evaluation and intrinsic motivation to be in control and to realise their potential. Vicarious learning 25