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Vicarious learning is

Vicarious learning is social learning that comes from observing others (models) while they perform certain behaviour. Vicarious learning emphasises experiential teaming whereby people correct themselves by self-criticism or give self-praise. Learned helplessness In contrast to self-efficacy and an internal locus of control, the concept of learned helplessness indicates people's real or perceived Inability to be in control of their lives in general or during specific life events. Learned helplessness could result from negative reinforcement of self-control or a perception of helplessness. The fear of success and failure is called a self-handicapping psychological fear. Certain types of situations may also motivate some people differently than others. Chapter 15: Learning in Personality Development Instructions: Learning theories view personality development as continuous learning through reinforcement processes. Social reinforcements are found all around us- a smile from a friend, a nod from your boss, praise from a parent etc. You can also praise or reward yourself for a job well done - this is self- reinforcement. Over time, we learn that certain behaviour is acceptable in specific situations and we develop responses for these situations - called "contingencies". These response patterns can change over time and as our experiences in certain environments change, we learn to adjust our behaviour accordingly. 26

IOP1601/001 Throughout our lives, our personality is shaped by various forms of learning, such as the schooling system, our family life, friends, our culture and the generation we form part of (Gen X, Y, Baby Boomers, etc.). So what does this theory say? That we are born with a personality and we can't change it? No! According to this approach, personality development does not take place in stages, but is a continuous lifelong process as a result of the interaction between people and their environments. Most human behaviours are learned through classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is associated with involuntary behaviour and many negative responses can be unlearned by classical conditioning. Operant conditioning is a form of behaviour modification through progressive and controlled rewards if certain behaviours occur. At home, school and work, performance can be facilitated by a system of token economy whereby certain rewards will be allocated only if certain behaviours occur. Children develop through the imitation of parents and many other models in their social environment. Much learning takes place as a result of cognitive processes such as thinking, perception, interpretation and anticipation. In this respect, competency can be described as the developed cognitive ability to perform behaviour that will suit the demands of situations. Chapter 15: Psychological maladjustment Instructions: Adjustment and maladjustment based on the learning theories Psychological maladjustment and negative emotions are viewed as resulting from incorrect learning, loss of personal control, reinforcement of faulty behaviour and poor environmental stimulation. Psychological maladjustment is viewed as maladapted habits and a lack of life skills and knowledge owing to faulty learning and inappropriate reinforcement. Psychologically healthy people, however, have correctly learned to react so as to receive positive reinforcement and avoid negative stimuli and behaviours with unpleasant outcomes. Operant conditioning can be responsible for behaviour deficiencies as a result of incorrect reinforcement. People will behave in deficient ways if they are rewarded for it. Depressive people's behaviours can be caused by insufficient reinforcement from their 27