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Work dysfunctions

Work dysfunctions involve the impairment of work performance due to individual emotional problems (e.g. psychopathology) or the interaction between the employee and the work environment. The role of work in psychological well-being Work is a powerful determinant of adjustment because of the role and value of work in people lives. Compare the advantages of work with unemployment or the loss of a job! Change and discontinuity in work, the work environment and its demands, are important in the manifestation of work-related adjustment and stress reactions. Types of work dysfunctions • Impairment in the employee due to interaction with work and work-environment problems. • Not all work-related problems are psychological dysfunctions, for example personnel turnover, unemployment, etc. • Disturbances in the capacity to work in terms of willingness, attitudes and motivation • Patterns of undercommitment, underinvolvement, under-achievement, work impediments, procrastination, misfits, fear of success, fear of failure, absenteeism, and personnel turnover. • Patterns of overcommitment, for example workaholism, burnout, and other stress- related problems (type A personality). • Work-related anxiety and depression, for example general anxiety, specific fears, personal uncertainty, specific aspects such as fears for failure and success, emotional changes. • Personality dysfunctions and work. • The influence of personality disorders or symptoms thereof (psychopathology), for example symptoms such as aggression, compulsion, paranoia, dependence, etc. Work-non-work conflicts Spillover effects, due to work and non-work roles (e.g. family and free time), inter and between role conflicts because of conflictual interests in terms of tasks and time, role overload, multiple roles, etc. 62

Career development problems (Campbell & Cellini's taxonomy): IOP1601/001 • Problems in taking career decisions • Problems in implementing career plans • Problems in organisation/institutional performance • Problems in adjusting in and to the organisation Managerial stress and "organisational health" Organisational health can be explained from different perspectives, all of which are interrelated. Organisations often experience problems because of the demands of their interaction with internal subsystems and external systems. Chapter 20: Promoting and managing well-being at work Instructions: Organisational effectiveness and employees’ physical and psychological well-being should be equally important. The industrial psychologist’s role in the work context is diagnostic, preventive and remedial in nature. His or her role also includes research. Work adjustment is ensured by using a holistic approach which includes policy as well as integrated programmes and strategies to address employee and corporate health at various levels. Specific interventions should include health management and training by employees themselves, actions by and in the organizations and possible external sources. Various models can be used to redesign the workplace e.g. Job Characteristics. Various service delivery approaches and Employee Assistance Programmes (EAP’s) can be utilised to maintain organisational health and employee well-being. 63