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CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS IN CROATIA Site name: Kandija Mala Position: City walls Place/Municipality: Nin Head of excavations: Mate Radović Institution: Archaeological Museum in Zadar Excavation period: October - November, 2015 Type of excavation: rescue archaeological excavation Total excavated area: 50 m 2 Chronological and cultural attribution of the site: Classical Antiquity, Late Middle Ages, Early Modern Ages NIN – KANDIJA MALA ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS In late 2015, as part of the conservation, consolidation and reconstruction of the city walls of Nin, the northwest face of the city walls was rebuilt, as well as the Kandija Mala tower, which is a part of the Nin fortification. Before the conservation work, workers from the Museum of Nin Antiquities (under the Archaeological Museum in Zadar) had done archaeological excavations at the location of the tower during October and November. In historical sources, the Kandija Mala tower is mentioned under different names: Tower of Pag, St. Mary’s/Marcella’s Tower, as well as St. John’s Tower. The earliest source that could confirm the existence of the tower at this location is Mateo Pagano’s wood-engraving from the first half of the 16 th century. Nonetheless, it is still doubtful how accurate the data collected by Pagano is or how faithful the wood-engraving was to the actual situation. After the Candian War (1645–1669), the city walls began to be rebuilt, presumably including the tower, which, at that time, was given the name Kandija Mala. The research of the Nin city walls conducted to date has established that their irregularity was caused by the natural shape of the small island, so that they often turn at different angles. One such place in the north-western part of the island, where the wall bends at a 90 degree angle, is where the Kandija Mala tower is located. Before the excavation, the remains of the tower were barely noticeable, primarily as a result of family homes being built nearby during the 1970’s. Due to their orientation towards the sea, the city walls were damaged in that part, as was the tower. The conducted archaeological excavations confirmed four phases of development of that part of the city wall. The first phase includes the rectangular city walls dated to the Late Antiquity, which are full of antique spolia. The second phase is represented by the medieval city walls that follow the city wall line from the east. The city walls built in the Middle Ages avoid the earlier line of city walls built in the Late Antiquity, meaning that, on the eastern, outward facing side of the city, they create a new angle. The third phase can be seen in the medieval layer of the tower, which was created as defence from the Turks in the late 15 th century or, at the latest, during the first half of the 16th century. The fourth and last phase is evident in the tower rebuilt at the end of the Candian War, when it was roughly stratified from the outside, and well built inside. The dimensions of the tower are 554cm from southwest to northeast, and 546cm from southeast to northwest. The width of the city walls ranges from 125 to 130cm, which results in an almost perfect interior square room that measured 300x300cm in the earlier, and 300x200cm in the later phase. This can be nicely seen in aerial photographs. Unfortunately, a part of the southwest wall of the tower, and adjacent city walls, were destroyed when a waste pit was built for a nearby structure. A smaller amount of fragmented pottery dated to between the 4th and the 17 th century was found on the site, as well as several Roman stone monuments built into the later city walls. It is very important to note that the excavations have confirmed the accuracy of the layout drawn by the Danish archaeologist Ejnar Dyggve. This is very important for precisely locating the remains of St. Mary’s Church, primarily the part of the church that was not destroyed by newly built structures. Translated by Alen Obrazović

CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS IN CROATIA Site name: Nin - Ždrijac Position: Ždrijac Place/Municipality: Nin Head of excavations: Dino Taras Institution: Archaeological Museum in Zadar Excavation period: 7 th – 27 th January 2016 Type of excavation: Rescue Total excavated area: 150 m2 Chronological and cultural attribution of the site: Classical Antiquity NIN – ŽDRIJAC ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS After finding multiple amphorae in situ during the construction works on the pipeline route at the Ždrijac site, a rescue archaeological excavation was conducted. An area of approximately 150 m 2 in the pipeline excavation was delineated. Excavation had to be done in three stages because the dug-out parts of the terrain, both on the southern and northern side of the trench, were filled with seawater. First, the central third of the trench was explored; after that, the southern and, finally, the northern third. A dam was constructed, using an excavator, to separate the northern and central sections and stop the sea from overflowing from the northern part of the excavated area. The whole trench area is in the same stratigraphic situation: the amphorae were detected at the bottom of the surface layer of brown soil. With further removing of the brown layer it was established that the amphorae were buried in a dark grey layer throughout the entire trench area. The amphorae were mostly preserved to shoulder height and only three had fragmented necks (all three were found inside the amphorae), while one neck had been buried just like the rest of the amphorae. The amphorae were buried without apparent order or regularity. On the whole trench area, 60 amphorae were documented, and all of them were ascribed to the Lamboglia 2 type. The southern third of the probe is sterile. The entire excavation area was photo-documented and geodetically recorded using a total station. The dark grey layer with remaining vegetation is sterile under the surface of the buried amphorae. Alongside the western rim of the pipe excavation, near the north side of the trench, 10 more amphorae were detected in situ. Given that those were within the monitoring area, they were documented and extracted. The situation that was determined was the same as in the trench area, consisting of a sterile surface layer and amphorae buried in a dark grey layer. Work was hindered by the weather conditions (such as rain and wind), as well as high tides which would, almost daily, fill the trench with 20-30 cm of seawater throughout the whole trench area, because the dark grey layer was below sea level. Translated by Barbara Peranić

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