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AMZ_TAIUH_2017_ prijevodi na engleski


CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS IN CROATIA Site name: Vetovo-Lukač, archaeological site Kagovac-Gradac Position: N 5034666⁰, E 602087.5⁰ HTRS96/TM Place/Municipality: Lukač, city of Kutjevo Head of excavations: Hrvoje Potrebica, PhD and Marta Rakvin Institution: Centre for Research into Prehistory Excavation period: April-June 2017 Type of excavation: Rescue archaeological excavation Total excavated area: Approximately 400 m² Chronological and cultural attribution of the site: Early Iron Age ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS AT THE KAGOVAC SITE With the help of airborne laser scanning and a systematic field survey, an enormous Hallstatt complex has been discovered at the Kagovac site. The site is situated on a forest plateau above the village of Lukač, and comprises a hilltop settlement with terraces on Gradac hill, as well as two necropolises under tumuli, situated west and east from it. The excavations of Tumulus 1 in the western necropolis took place in 2014 and 2015. The central grave construction of the tumuli consisted of a wooden burial chamber which was walled in and covered with a monumental construction comprised of stacked unprocessed stones, against which several other dry-stone wall structures made from unprocessed stone abutted. In the chamber, burnt human remains were found in a bowl which seems to have been wrapped in textile and enclosed with seven bronze fibulae, as well as a great number of ceramic bowls which made up a feasting set. Based on the found fibulae, the grave can be dated to the beginning of the Early Iron Age (8 th century BC). On the flattened part of the site, between Tumuli 1 and 2, a flat Hallstatt grave was also found. Although the grave was demolished by a tree which had grown out of it, it can be attributed to the developed Hallstatt culture. It included a bountiful set of pottery vessels, which had most likely contained grave goods. During the excavation of the grave, it was also ascertained that there had been a Copper Age settlement of the Kostolac culture at that location. The settlement was almost completely demolished by the construction of the tumuli and probably by the digging of graves in the Iron Age. In 2017, Tumulus 2 was fully excavated (the excavation started in 2016). It measures 20m in diameter and 4m in height. Beneath the earthen dam, there was a wooden chamber walled with a double dry-wall stone construction in which an urn with the remains of the deceased had been laid, together with clothing, weaponry, and a luxurious feasting set. This grave unit could be preliminarily dated to the second half of the 8 th century BC. The amount and the composition of the finds, among which a decorated bronze axe with flaps, an axe with handles, an iron spear and a bronze needle stand out, indicate that this is probably the most abundant unit from this period in Croatia, and possibly even the world. Tumulus A was excavated in the southern necropolis. The extremely low height (0.75m in its highest part) and simple structure of this tumulus are in complete disproportion with the abundance and the significance of remains discovered there (an iron axe with handles, an iron axe with flaps, a short iron spear, a bronze decorative item with two opposed bovid heads made by casting, a bronze pearl decorated with plastic applications, and a set of ceramic vessels). The finds make this unit one of the richest and most significant warrior graves in the Požega basin. The grave should be dated to the late HA C1 or early C2 phase (that is, immediately after Tumulus 2 on the western necropolis). Translated by Mirna Zaimović

CURRENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS IN CROATIA Site name: Viškovci Position: Gradina Place/Municipality: Viškovci, Osijek-Baranja County Head of excavations: Jacqueline Balen, PhD Institution: Archaeological Museum in Zagreb Excavation period: 2012 - 2017 Type of excavation: systematic excavation Total excavated area: 125 m 2 Chronological and cultural attribution of the site: Late Copper Age and Early Bronze Age, Late Vučedol and Vinkovci cultures ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS AT THE SITE OF VIŠKOVCI The site of Viškovci consists of three positions: Vinogradi, Petljak and Gradina, which are located south of the road connecting Viškovci and Forkuševci. Gradina (hillfort), whose southern and eastern hills slope down towards the Crna Bara creek and the present day impounded Lake Jošava, dominates the landscape. The plateau is elongated and triangular, with its narrower side facing the southeast, while its wider side in the northwest vertically meets an elongated flood zone, which is oriented in the same direction as Lake Jošava. The plateau has two steeply dropping sides. The precipices are covered with tall and short vegetation, while the central part of the plateau is made up of arable land, as is the flood zone. The entire plateau surface is rich in archaeological material, mostly in fragments of prehistoric pottery. The site has been known since the mid-20 th century, when Hedviga Dekker described the finds from the position. The presence of pottery belonging to the Sopot, Vučedol and Vinkovci cultures was established in a set of field surveys during the 1970s, and the finds dating from Classical Antiquity were discovered there as well. Field surveys were conducted again in 2009, when geological tests were carried out on the hillfort plateau. Not only were the trenches dug across the centreline of the plateau, from northwest to southeast, but also perpendicularly to the centreline. Geological testing has established that cultural layers have been preserved only in the central part of the plateau where loess (the sterile layer) appears at the relative depth of 1.85m, while the sterile layer appears already at about 0.60m on the southern precipice. Systematic archaeological excavations have been conducted since 2012, and so far four trenches have been dug. Two of them were dug in the central part of the plateau and explored completely, while Trench 3 and Trench 4, both located in the southwestern part of the site, where there is no arable land but a thicket, are still being excavated. Trench 3 was dug in 2014, and Trench 4 in 2015. In 2017, the excavations focused on the Vinkovci layer in Trench 3, where traces of above-ground structures and two waste pits were recorded. Preliminary analyses of animal bones confirmed the dominance of cattle. Beef must have prevailed in the diet, but what should not be disregarded is that cattle were also used in farming and for products such as cheese and milk. The vessels are mostly of coarse structure. When it comes to coarse ware, the most used types of decoration were finger impression, plastic applications and plastic bands, as well as horizontally arranged barbotine. On the other hand, incising and punctuating decorative techniques are present as well, but on fine ware. Jars constitute the largest pottery group, especially those of coarse ware. Most of them have slightly outward-facing rims. Bowls appear in several shapes – those with an ‘S’ profile and those whose rims are more outwardly drawn. There are individual examples of vessels on a foot, otherwise found in the late Vučedol culture, and single-handled jugs of fine ware. Lipids were found on 10 samples of vessels (11 samples belonging to 9 different vessels were analysed – 2 pans, 3 cups, 1 jug, 1 small plate, 1 large bowl, 1 sieve). Excavations have confirmed that Viškovci-Gradina should be considered an interesting archaeological site, with a great potential for further excavations. It is possible to conclude from the present excavations that this site is a hillfort with established cultural layers which can be attributed to the Vinkovci and the late Vučedol cultures. Translated by Ivan Žufić

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