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2017 Annual Report of the Delaware River Basin Commission

Designated Use The Next

Designated Use The Next Chapter In the Story of Clean Water The DRBC approved a resolution in September 2017 recognizing the significant water quality improvements in the Delaware River Estuary and providing for a formal review of the designated aquatic life uses and water quality criteria necessary to support these uses. The resolution outlines a deliberative, scientific process to further study evidence on the reproduction of resident and migratory fish in a 38-mile section of the tidal Delaware River stretching from Wilmington, Del. to just above the Tacony-Palmyra Bridge connecting Philadelphia and New Jersey. This study will allow the Commission to determine the “designated use” of this reach of the river and provide data and information to establish revised water quality criteria to protect that use. It also affirms the important goal of continued water quality improvement. The DRBC-approved resolution provides for scientific and technical studies to be performed over the next 3.5 years for the following purposes: • To conduct additional field studies of the occurrence, spatial and temporal distribution of the life stages of important fish species that utilize the estuary; • To determine the dissolved oxygen (DO) requirements of these fish species and the oxygen-depleting nutrient loadings from point (end-of-pipe) and nonpoint (runoff) sources that can be discharged into the tidal river while maintaining the DO levels in the water; • To conduct an analysis to determine the attainability of DO requirements and water quality standards that would result in an upgrade in the designated aquatic life use in this 38-mile section of the river, including technical, social and economic factors; and • To identify and evaluate opportunities for early action to reduce discharges of oxygen-depleting wastes to this stretch of river in the short term. 20 VALUE THROUGHOUT THE YEAR The Delaware Estuary with the Walt Whitman Bridge in the background.

The resolution directs the initiation of DRBC rulemaking to revise the designated aquatic life uses consistent with the results of these scientific and technical studies as well as the federal Clean Water Act. The Commission seeks to issue a final rule and an implementation strategy within six years, dependent on the availability of resources to fund the effort. When the DRBC was created in 1961, little or no DO was present in the Delaware River from Wilmington to Philadelphia for periods of up to six months each year. To combat this serious challenge, DRBC in 1967 established designated aquatic life uses for the estuary and associated numerical water quality criteria necessary to protect those uses. The designated use in the 38-mile stretch of river between Wilmington and Philadelphia was “maintenance” (survival) of resident fish and movement of migratory fish through these waters to and from spawning areas. Significant improvements in DO levels have occurred throughout this stretch of river since 1967. By the late 1980s, over one billion dollars had been spent on improving wastewater treatment facilities throughout the basin, which benefitted communities along the river and strengthened fish populations. The data in this graphic were generated from sampling during July on the Delaware River at the Ben Franklin Bridge, which connects Philadelphia, Pa. and Camden, N.J. It shows a steady improvement in dissolved oxygen levels since the mid-1960s. The scientific and technical studies to be undertaken as the result of the approved resolution will help to better inform decision makers on DO requirements of resident and migratory fish species since the early life stages of estuarine fish species are generally more sensitive to DO levels than are the adults living in the river stretches or just passing through these waters to reach spawning areas. DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Annual Report 2017 21

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