Evaluating groundwater contamination of Urmia plain by using GIS

Abstract The purpose of this study is to update the information and determining the chemical quality of ground water in Urmia plain in order to control the contamination and optimal utilization of these resources. In this research, to evaluate chemical parameters of water quality (Sodium, hardness, bicarbonate, calcium, sulfate, chloride, electrical conductivity and pH and total soluble salts) 70 wells were selected. Then maximum, minimum, average, standard deviation and coefficient of variation were determined by using GIS package and Excel software. The average of each parameter was analyzed during 2001-2011 and compared with international standards. The results demonstrate that average of sodium and electrical conductivity in drinking water is close to Europe standards and average of pH and chloride is less than mentioned standards. Based on the chemical composition of water and zoning maps, it seems that agricultural activities (excessive use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and agricultural waste) and Urmia saline lake were effective in contaminating eastern parts of the plain.

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