EDITORIAL ThUrSdAy, mArch 29, 2018 4 Acting Editor & Publisher : Jobaer Alam Telephone: +8802-9104683-84, Fax: 9127103 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Thursday, march 29, 2018 colossal loss and stresses from traffic jams T raffic congestion in Dhaka eats up around 5 million working hours every day and the average speed of vehicles during rush hours has come down to 5kmph, according to the Accident Research Institute (ARI) of Buet. The congestion causes an annual loss of between Tk 20,000 crore and Tk 55,000 crore, says ARI, citing findings of organisations working on the issue."However, about 50 to 70 percent of the losses can be avoided through proper actions," ARI Director Prof Moazzem Hossain told a roundtable last week."Sixty percent of Tk 37,000 crore [half way between Tk 20,000 crore and Tk 55,000 crore] can be saved by those actions," he said, In July last year, a World Bank analysis had said in the last 10 years, average traffic speed in Dhaka dropped from 21kmph (kilometres per hour) to 7kmph, which was slightly above the average walking speed.The speed may drop to 4kmph by 2035, slower than the walking speed, it added."Congestion in Dhaka eats up 3.2 million work hours per day. This cost the economy billions of dollars every year," said the analysis. Dhaka, a city of over 15 million and Bangladesh's biggest city in terms of population, is noted to be a specially long suffering one by its residents for the traffic jams they always face on its roads. Thus, it was hoped that the present government with its pledged enthusiastic approach to many issues of major public interest, would move with particular speed and effectiveness to address this long lingering issue of traffic jams that take a huge and regular toll from stressed nerves and health, costlier operations of transports and other forms of losses. But the traffic scene in this city has been turning only worse and people are desperate for a deliverance. According to reports, progressively traffic movement conditions in the city have been turning worse and worse. In many places and most of the time, traffic gets held up motionlessly for more than half an hour or so without any plausible explanation for the same. Thus, a destination to be arrived at in twenty minutes needs at least one and half hours or more to be reached. The horrendous traffic jams are creating great hardships. Many people are known to be falling ill as a result. If the traffic situation is so bad, how severely it would stress them during the coming Ramadan month when their coping strengths would be understandably at a lower level from fasting, the sufferers wonder. Traffic department officials on being asked say many things ranging from inadequate roads in the city and the absence of a sufficient number of infrastructures such as flyovers and expressways. But only more devoted traffic management by traffic policemen or their doing their job with enthusiasm and care, can much alleviate the traffic related agonies suffered by the city's residents. As it is, the traffic policemen are seen doing a very sloppy job specially at intersections with their hand signalling althoughsignalling lights were set up for doing this work at great costs. But media reports say that most of these lights are out of order. Why the lights should be inoperative and whose responsibility is it to operate them in support of easing traffic jams ? Traffic policemen hold up traffic for unreasonably long periods of time with their manual signalling that lead to long queus of transports forming and creating jams. Proper use of the automatic signalling lights can much reduce this malaise and speed up traffic movement. Then the policemen also do nothing to buses stopping not at bus stops but arbitrarily anywhere on the roads to allow passangers to embark or disembark. But this practice holds up other vehicles on the rear creating jams. Real estate developers and others keep construction materials heaped up on roads but nobody obliges them to keep the roads free and clean from such encroachments. Traffic policemen turn a blind eye to rickshawpullers not moving in a single file or in lanes on roads earmarked for them but in a most carefree manner. The rickshaws, thus, get in front of engine driven vehicles and create tangles that force the latter to slow down and add to the jams. Transports are also allowed to be parked similarly carelessly that lead to constricting of roads spaces hindering easier traffic movement. The roads are in tatters in many places. Traffic movement over these crumbled or pot-holed roads automatically become too slow. Only repairing them can quicken traffic movement. According to experts, only introducing one way movement in some sections such as in the Rampura road will very significantly add to ease of movement between the central and relatively newer parts of the city. All of the above reasons and more for traffic jams do not call for building costly infrastructures . Just more caring and efficient traffic policing can mean so much of a difference for the better in traffic movement in the city. MOVIE lovers from my generation can probably recall the movie, Trading Places; in essence a tragedy but deceptively depicted as a comedy, starring Eddie Murphy and Dan Aykroyd. The storyline in brief is that the Duke brothers, influential and respected commodity traders, have bribed someone, which happens all the time in business, to get a government report in advance on oranges, pursuant to their business plan of making a killing on the commodities market and getting richer. And obviously, there is nothing illegal with having a business plan to get richer. The reality is that across the globe today, income inequality is simply accepted as collateral damage for growth; the rich need to get richer so that they can create more employment for the poor! Horrendously, the villainous ungrateful employees of the Dukes, characters played by Messrs Eddie and Dan, steal - which is a criminal offence - and substitute the report - thereby conning - another offence, the Dukes into betting on the wrong side of the market, and the poor chaps end up losing their shirts. And this dastardly deed is supposedly done in the name of revenge, pursuant to a personal bet between the Duke brothers, who are simply trying to find answers to an intellectual riddle; nothing wrong with that. History is replete with instances where the rich experimented on the SyEd BAKhTiyAr KAzmi poor, or took them for granted, in the noble pursuit of commercial and technological development... It's not illegal to have a business plan to get richer. While the movie does correctly depict that trade without physical exchange of underlying goods is primarily speculative in nature and akin to gambling, it counterfactually promotes, once again, the absolutely false notion that underdogs can win; in the real world they never do. On the other hand, perhaps Hollywood's obsession with victorious underdogs, and also that of all other similar "Woods", may have to do with the fact that their audience primarily is the underdog. Cinema is the poor man's entertainment; it allows him to dream and have hope. Imagine, in a world devoid of any illusion of the underdog zyN ANG winning, the ruled would have a hopeless existence which would ultimately result in chaos. Arguably, as far as providing hope for the underdog goes, democracy is perhaps the true claimant to the throne. And if making movies closer to real life where the underdog always gets kicked in the nether regions is fatal for cinema, legislators' selling their votes during on the other hand, perhaps hollywood's obsession with victorious underdogs, and also that of all other similar "Woods", may have to do with the fact that their audience primarily is the underdog. cinema is the poor man's entertainment; it allows him to dream and have hope. imagine, in a world devoid of any illusion of the underdog winning, the ruled would have a hopeless existence which would ultimately result in chaos. Senate polls is an existential threat for democracy. For if the ECP's notice of horse-trading allegations in the Senate, pursuant to all major parties levelling accusations against each other, results in incriminating findings, that might be, in substance, democracy's obituary, signed sealed and delivered. If at all hundreds of crores were responsible for the election of the chairman, Senate, then rationally speaking, the argument that all this money was spent with the honourable objective of getting an opportunity for serving the nation is, at best, amusing. Righteous men, for whatever reason, are not known to trade their conscience. Further, admission that the precious one vote is a tradable commodity, consequently provides credence to the notion that democracy is comparable with trading places of the genre satirised here and hence another opportunity for the rich to get richer; such an admission can potentially bring down democracy's house of cards! And let's not even go down the proof of corruption path. So, isn't it baffling that the electronic media, a key beneficiary and hence an ardent supporter of democracy, provided, thoughtlessly I might add, camera eye and hence credibility to all the rumours relating to trading of horses in the Senate? On a lighter note, a little horse, well because birdies stand discredited already, has informed me, based on credible sources that horses may be contemplating a dharna at D- Chowk to protest against defamation. They do have a point. Spending money to buy votes in the Senate does not strictly fall in the definition of political horse-trading which term is simply indicative of complex and shrewd bargaining and reciprocal concessions; a bit of horse sense is required! Source : Dawn Strawberry Generation': The time for activism is now My fellow teenagers, Our generation has caught flak for many things. We are "too loud." "too narcissistic," "too lazy" and "too sheltered." We are the "Strawberry Generation" - characterized by our easily bruised self-esteem, inability to weather hardships, and over-reliance on the shelter of our parents. As tech natives born in the unique time where we remember life with phones and feel more at ease with a touchscreen than a keyboard, we've been subjected to endless "when I was your age…" lectures that berate our seeming attachment to our iPhones and our lack of exposure to the "real world." We are easy targets, and I can find many faults with us myself. Case in point: by most measures, we are the most educated yet entitled generation in history. However, I don't think we should be too disheartened just yet - we have something the adults don't. Our "weaknesses" have morphed us into a force to be reckoned with. Our "weaknesses" have morphed us into a force to be reckoned with Before you get too excited, the power to make change isn't a special ability isolated to just our generation. Look to any era and you'll find dynamos that changed their communities, and history, forever. In the 1950s and 60s, United States President Donald Trump is getting serious about translating his disregard for the international system into concrete policies. His decision to impose $50 billion (Dh183.9 billion) in punitive import tariffs on many Chinese goods could severely disrupt global trade. And while he made a last-minute decision to exempt European Union (EU) goods from such tariffs, Europe may yet end up in the line of fire. Trump's "America First" approach will not, it is now clear, leave the rules-based international order unscathed. The United States developed the post-war order, and has enforced its rules for decades. But that is no longer the case. Indeed, Trump's recent actions are not just about trade, but about America's departure from Pax Americana itself. Few countries are more connected to the post-war order than Germany, which, like Japan, owes its economic resurgence after 1945 to the rules-based trading system. Germany's economy relies heavily on exports, which means that it is acutely vulnerable to trade barriers and punitive tariffs imposed by major trading partners. Trump's protectionist policies thus challenge the entire German economic model as it has existed since the 1950s. The fact that Trump has repeatedly singled out Germany, one of America's closest allies in Europe, is no small matter. While optimists will say that Trump's bark is worse than his bite - that his pronouncements on trade, like his threats towards North Korea, are simply part of a negotiating strategy - pessimists can respond with a reasonable question: What if Trump really does mean what he says? Trading places student committees played an essential role in the civil rights movement in the United States, fighting for blacks to gain equal rights under the law. Students were involved in all levels of the movement, from pushing for desegregation of schools to the organization of non-violent protests, and were instrumental to its success. The movement in America against the Vietnam War was started by a small but passionate group of left-leaning students on a college campus. As public dissent over the war grew, over 100,000 students marched, conducted sitins, and agitated against the war. There were casualties from the violent protests, but ultimately, the pressure from the protests America First’ attitude damages international order In Germany, there should be no illusions about what a transatlantic trade war would mean. Despite belonging to the EU and its single market, Germany would be one of the biggest losers, owing to its trade dependencies and the current state of transatlantic power relations. To be sure, EU member-states that have accused Germany of arrogance might view this outcome with a quiet chuckle. But a weakening of the EU's largest economy would have immediate negative effects on the entire bloc. And now is hardly the time for disunity. The United Kingdom's withdrawal from the EU is already causing political dissonance among member-states, and anti- European populists have just won a combined parliamentary majority in Italy. Making matters worse, neither Germany nor the European Commission, which deals with trade issues on behalf of EU member-states, is currently in a strong position to stand up to Trump. The JoSchKA FiSchEr helped motivate America's withdrawal from Vietnam in 1973. The Arab Spring of 2010 could never have occurred without the involvement of furious and fearless youths. Frustrated with endemic corruption, systemic injustice, government oppression and a mangled economy, youths took to the streets to protest tyrannical regimes. While youths The Arab Spring of 2010 could never have occurred without the involvement of furious and fearless youths. Frustrated with endemic corruption, systemic injustice, government oppression and a mangled economy, youths took to the streets to protest tyrannical regimes. While youths were not the only ones carrying out mass demonstrations, it is widely acknowledged that they were vital in sparking the protests. were not the only ones carrying out mass demonstrations, it is widely acknowledged that they were vital in sparking the protests. On March 24, the March for Our Lives movement held a rally of 800,000 people in Washington, DC to campaign for stricter gun control measures. It was spearheaded by five 17-year-old survivors of the Marjory Stoneman foolishness of German policymakers who chose to ignore long-standing criticism of the country's persistently high currentaccount surplus has been laid bare. Had the last German government reduced the surplus - which reached a new record high last year - by boosting domestic investment, Germany would be in a far better position now to respond to Trump's threats. When thinking about the possibility of a transatlantic trade war, we Trump's protectionist policies thus challenge the entire German economic model as it has existed since the 1950s. The fact that Trump has repeatedly singled out Germany, one of America's closest allies in Europe, is no small matter. While optimists will say that Trump's bark is worse than his bite - that his pronouncements on trade, like his threats towards North Korea, are simply part of a negotiating strategy - pessimists can respond with a reasonable question: What if Trump really does mean what he says? should also recall the saying, usually attributed to Mahatma Gandhi, that, "An eye for an eye only ends up making the whole world blind". A tit-for-tat transatlantic trade war would produce losers on all sides, and could usher in a new period of isolationism and protectionism. If it goes far enough, it could even lead to a collapse of the global economy and the disintegration of the West. For this reason, the EU has no choice but to negotiate, however grudgingly. One foreseeable consequence Douglas High School Shootings, which claimed 17 lives. These youths were tired of the "thoughts and prayers" often sent by politicians and demanded tighter gun control. These youths from the 1950s until now are proof that we have it in us to do more for our communities. They show us that our young people are an asset to society. We have wider social circles, a better grasp of new media, more time, fewer considerations that hold us back, and more chances to take risks and upend the status quo - let's take advantage of that. Deep within you, there must be an idea that makes your heart race with excitement, an aspect of your community that makes you furious, or a policy that you think can be improved. Find that cause within you and act on it, so that you can enrich your life with a purpose greater than yourself. I believe that a life that has purpose is one well lived. Our youth has equipped us with invaluable skills that will make us formidable change-makers. Create that petition. Call up that organization. Campaign for that cause. Source : Asia times of Trump's trade revolution is that it will push Europe closer to China, which is already reaching out to the EU through its Belt and Road Initiative of investment and infrastructure projects across Eurasia. As Eastern-oriented alternatives to transatlanticism increase in the years ahead, striking the right balance between East and West will be one of Europe's most difficult challenges. Europeans now have to worry not just about Russia, but also about a new Chinese superpower. Destroying or disturbing transatlantic trade relations is in the interest of neither US nor Europe. Chinese leaders are probably privately celebrating the Trump administration's promise to "make America great again", because, so far, it has merely undercut US interests and promised to help make China great again. Indeed, notwithstanding Trump's justannounced tariffs on China, in response to its alleged intellectual property violations, one could be forgiven for thinking that Trump's main foreign-policy goal is to aid the Chinese in their bid for global influence! Upon taking office, one of Trump's first moves was to withdraw the US from the Trans-Pacific Partnership, a trade deal that would have created a bulwark against China in the Asia-Pacific region. Now, China has a chance to set the rules of trade in an area comprising some 60 per cent of the world economy. Likewise, the effects of Trump's import tariffs on steel and aluminium will mostly help China, while hurting America's European allies. If the Chinese seek to capitalise on their unexpected windfall, one can hardly blame them. Source : Gulf News
HEALTH tHUrSDAY, MArcH 29, 2018 5 Getting familiar with human body’s new organ SArAH GibbenS Lurking just under your skin might be a new organ only now identified for the first time, say a team of scientists. In a new study published in the journal Scientific Reports, researchers from New York University's School of Medicine say they have found a new organ they're calling the "interstitium." It's nearly everywhere-just below the skin's surface, surrounding arteries and veins, casing the fibrous tissue between muscles, and lining our digestive tracts, lungs, and urinary systems. It looks like a mesh. The interstitium is a layer of fluid-filled compartments strung together in a web of collagen and a flexible protein called elastin. Previously, scientists thought the layer was simply dense connective tissue. The organ has seemingly been hidden in plain sight, and scientists say they missed it because of the way tissue is studied. Before being placed under a microscope, samples are thinly sliced and treated with chemicals that allow researchers to identify key components more easily. While the process is helpful for more easily spotting details, it drains fluid from the sample. Devoid of their fluid, the compartments collapse, like a building with the floors suddenly knocked out, leaving the whole structure to flatten like a pancake. To find these pockets of interstitial fluid, medical researchers looked at living tissue instead of sampling dead tissue samples. They did this by using a probing technique called confocal laser endomicroscopy. The method entails using a tiny camera probe that takes a microscopic look around a human body. Tissue is lit by the endoscope's lasers and the fluorescent patterns it then reflects are analyzed by sensors. Scientists first noticed the compartments when looking at a bile duct. They saw what they thought might be tears in dense tissue. The images were taken to Neil Theise, a professor at NYU's School of Medicine and author on the paper. "You're talking about the remaining extracellular fluid that's unaccounted for," Theise says. About 70 percent of the human body is made of water, and about two thirds of that is found in cells. The remaining third, says Theise, is only partially known. In addition to accounting for bodily fluid, the compartments may help explain essential functions. "It's like a shock absorber," says Theise. "Not a the interstitium, scientists found, is under our skin and between our organs. Photo: neil theise hard, stiff material." Among Theise's theories for the purpose of the interstitium is that it's a source of lymph, a fluid that moves through the body's lymphatic system and supports immunity. He says that knowing how diseases spread through this part of the body could help researchers better understand how cancer spreads. "Can we detect disease earlier by sampling fluid from the space? Can we figure out mechanisms to stop spread?" He asks. Jennifer Munson is a biomedical engineer at Virginia Tech who has looked at fluid in the body. She was not involved with the study but says its findings are promising. "I think what the paper shows is the benefit of having new ways to image and look at tissues. Previous methods dehydrate the tissues, and you lose so much structural information," Munson notes. She says she's fairly convinced these structures exist but wants to see more research before speculating on what they do, and whether its accurate to call them a new organ. "I'm really excited about the find but, as with all scientists, I approach everything with a little skepticism," she adds. Theise says he's aware of some of the skepticism surrounding his findings, but it's territory he's not shy about wading into. In 2005, he wrote an essay in Nature challenging the importance of "cell theory"-a concept that holds cells as the basic structure of all organisms, and in 2001, he published a paper finding that adult stem cells could be made to act similarly to embryonic cells. "There's always going to be stuff we haven't seen before that we don't know," he adds. "I'm awestruck that nature is more complicated than we allow ourselves to think." Male pattern baldness is common for any man at the age of fifty. Photo: Andreas Koerner natural cures for male baldness HeAltH DeSK Male pattern baldness is a common dilemma for any man at the age of fifty. But even males on the younger side can suffer from it due to a lot of different reasons: it can be stress, it can be hereditary, and it can be poor hair care habits. No matter what the cause is, there is a cure for it. So let's look at cures that are effective, affordable, and not so popular. Coconuts can give several benefits not only for your hair, but also for your overall health. If you suffer from male pattern baldness, you can use this to promote hair growth, while also conditioning it to become stronger. Thanks to its essential nutrients such as protein, potassium and iron, it provides quick results once applied to hair. It won't instantly let your scalp grow more hair, mind you. But it will instantly put it in the right condition to grow more eventually. Plus it leaves the hair you do have looking smooth and shiny. If you want to know how to reap the full benefits of coconut milk, we have you covered: Grab a coconut, grate it, and then add it to a pan of water. Let it simmer for around five minutes before straining it. Squeeze the milk out, and you now have your very own coconut milk! You can then apply it thoroughly to your scalp, and onto the rest of your hair. Wear a shower cap and leave it on for about 20 minutes. Afterwards, make sure to rinse it off completely, so that your hair won't feel sticky. Once it is removed, you can shampoo your hair for maximum effect. Some people add fenugreek seeds to the coconut milk before using it. Another alternative would be black pepper - just mix it in thoroughly. You can also target a specific area with the coconut milk, applying it directly to the spot where you notice thinning or balding. Up next on our list of the best natural hair cures for male pattern baldness, we have onion juice. As you may already know, onions are rich sources of sulfur. This helps in promoting hair growth while simultaneously controlling hair fall. Did you know that using its juice on your scalp can go a long way in combating male pattern baldness - unless you are allergic to it, of course. As with any other advice you can take from the internet, be sure to consult with a physician before fully committing to this one. It sure has a lot of benefits, but every person is different. Now the reason onion juice is so effective is not just because of its sulfur content - it also helps improve your blood circulation. This stimulates the growth of hair follicles while also reducing inflammation. Add in the fact that it has antibacterial properties, and you've got a truly spectacular solution to male pattern baldness. christin lipinski was infected with Streptococcus bacteria. Photo: Dr Kari lounatmaa Skin spray heals US woman’s flesh-eating bacteria wounds why dreams are vital to emotional health Dr. AnDrew weil Does insomnia cause depression? Does depression cause insomnia? Chronic insomnia is strongly associated with mood disorders, but which way does the causality run? I think it's likely that cause-andeffect can go in either direction, but surprisingly, there is little experimental research on the connection between sleep and emotions. What there is mostly tracks the effects of enforced sleep deprivation. A typical experiment restricts the amount of sleep subjects are allowed to get over days or weeks, then measures the resulting cognitive and emotional effects. Such research shows that sleep restriction tends to make people less optimistic and less sociable. One study at the University of Pennsylvania found that subjects limited to four to five hours of sleep per night for one week reported feeling more stressed, angry and sad. Their moods improved dramatically when they resumed normal sleep. sleep. While sleep is clearly vital to emotional well-being, what is it, exactly, about sleep that is so necessary? As it turns out, mood disorders are strongly linked to abnormal patterns of dreaming. Rosalind Cartwright, Ph.D., a leading sleep and dream researcher at Chicago's Rush Medical Center and author of The Twenty-four Hour Mind: The Role of Sleep and Dreaming in Our Emotional Lives, has shown that individuals who dream and remember their dreams heal more quickly from depressive moods associated with divorce. Rubin Naiman, Ph.D., a sleep and dream expert on the clinical faculty of the Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine, believes that "dream loss" rather than sleep loss per se, is "the most critical overlooked socio-cultural force" in the development of depression. This is important information because many medications used to help people sleep also suppress dreaming. These drugs have become some of the most widely used in our society. Many antide- quently impossible to thoroughly deconstruct by a community of researchers. But dreaming matters. If you dislike or even fear dreaming because the emotional content of your dreams tends to be negative, keep in mind that "bad dreams" may serve a vital function. Consider Dr. Naiman's view that dreaming is "a kind of psychological yoga," that contributes to emotional wellness. He says that dreams "in the first part of the night appear to process and diffuse residual negative emotion from the waking day; dreams later in the night then integrate this material into one's sense of self." The bottom line: There is good reason to believe you must get sufficient sleep, and embrace rather than suppress your dreams, if you want to experience better moods. If you have difficulty sleeping or are not getting enough sleep or sleep of good quality, you need to learn the basics of sleep hygiene, make appropriate changes, and possibly Alice Klein An experimental skin spray has given a US woman back her skin after drug-resistant bacteria devoured most of the flesh on her left side. In January, Christin Lipinski, 37, developed flu-like symptoms and pain under her armpit. Doctors at Maricopa Integrated Health System - a hospital in Phoenix, Arizona - found she was infected with a vicious, flesh-eating strain of Streptococcus bacteria. "When we took her to the operating room we realised it was worse than we thought," says her treating doctor Kevin Foster. The bacteria had spread from her armpit down most of her left torso and arm. To prevent further spread, Foster's team cut away the infected tissue. "It was so deep we basically went down to muscle," he says. Normally, large skin wounds are patched up using skin grafts from another part of the body. But because Lipinski had already lost a third of her skin, she couldn't afford to lose any more. Running out of options, Foster decided to appeal to the FDA for compassionate use of an experimental skin spray called ReCell. The spray is currently being trialled as a treatment for severe burn wounds. To make the spray, doctors take a small patch of skin from another part of the patient's body. A special enzyme is used to break the tissue into individual skin cells, which are then sprayed in a fine mist over the wound. Once they settle, the individual skin cells divide and spread until they join up to cover the wound. "Normally, a wound heals from the edges, which takes time, but this allows it to heal everywhere at once," says Michael Perry at Avita Medical, the biotech company developing the treatment. Foster's team began treating Lipinski with ReCell on 23 February after getting FDA approval. They used it in combination with a meshed autograft - a piece of skin they took from her thigh and pierced with small holes to make it stretch over a larger area. When they took the dressings off a week later, they were shocked to find the wound had already 95 per cent healed. The skin is still a bit red and bumpy, but Foster believes it will settle down over the next few weeks. The results are far better than would be expected for a meshed autograft alone, says Foster. "We think the skin spray made a real difference," he says. It's still unclear how the otherwise healthy mum of three contracted the infection. "It was probably just bad luck," says Foster. There's evidence that some people's genes make them more vulnerable to attack by Streptococcus bacteria, but we don't know for sure. About 600 to 1200 people in the US are affected by flesh-eating disease - also known as necrotising fasciitis - each year, and a quarter do not survive. Lipinski is expected to be discharged from hospital in the next couple of weeks. Dreams play a key role in boosting creative thought and mental health. It's difficult to run experiments in the other direction - that is, to make people stressed, angry and sad for days or weeks and note the effect on their sleeping ability - but virtually every human being can vouch that emotional upset can severely impact pressant drugs suppress dreaming as well. I think mainstream research tends to discount the value of dreaming because the experience is utterly subjective. Dreaming is a phenomenon of purely individual consciousness, and conse- Photo: Patryk Hardziej consult a sleep expert. You might also keep a dream journal at your bedside, which will help you develop the habit of recalling your dreams upon waking, which in turn can help you to embrace and value dreaming.