PRONOUNS Adhrynn pronouns are rich and complex, containing vestiges of a case-system that is no longer used elsewhere. The First Person Singular (1PS) has masculine and feminine forms, and is declined for the agent (I), emphatic agent (I who), reflexive agent (I to myself), non-agent (me, to me) and possessive (my): ne/na arne/arna nennes/nannes nes/nas ennen/annen 1PS agent: I (masculine/feminine) 1PS emphatic agent: I who (masculine/feminine) 1PS reflexive agent: myself (masculine/feminine) 1PS non-agent: me (masculine/feminine) 1PS possessive: my (masculine/feminine) The First Person Plural (1PP) has a neuter gender, but has collaborative (speaker and listener), inclusive (speaker, listener and third party) and exclusive (speaker and third party) forms. It is declined for the agent (we), emphatic agent (we who), reflexive agent (we to ourselves), non-agent (us, to us) and possessive (our): nyn/ynd/ynde arnyn/arn/arne nynnes/ynnes/yndes nys/ys/ysse nynnen/ynnen/ynden 1PP agent: we (collaborative/inclusive/exclusive) 1PP emphatic agent: we who (collaborative/inclusive/exclusive) 1PS reflexive agent: ourselves (collaborative/inclusive/exclusive) 1PP non-agent: us (collaborative/inclusive/exclusive) 1PS possessive: our (collaborative/inclusive/exclusive) The Second Person Singular (2PS) has masculine and feminine forms, and is declined for the agent (you), emphatic agent (you who), reflexive agent (you to yourself), non-agent (you, to you) and possessive (your): fhen/fhan arfhen/arfhan fhennes/fhannes fhes/fhas fhenne/fhanne 2PS agent: you (masculine/feminine) 2PS emphatic agent: you who (masculine/feminine) 2PS reflexive agent: yourself (masculine/feminine) 2PS non-agent: you (masculine/feminine) 2PS possessive: your (masculine/feminine) The Second Person Plural (2PP) has a neuter gender, but has immediate (you here) and indirect (you and others) forms. It is declined for the agent (you), emphatic agent (you who), reflexive agent (you to yourselves), non-agent (you, to you) and possessive (your): fhyn/afhyn arfhyn fhynnes/afhynnes fhys/afhys fhynne/afhynne 2PP agent: you (immediate/indirect) 2PP emphatic agent: you who (immediate and indirect) 2PP reflexive agent: yourselves (immediate/indirect) 2PP non-agent: you (immediate/indirect) 2PP possessive: your (immediate/indirect) The Third Person Singular (3PS) has masculine, feminine and genderless genders. It is declined for the agent (he, she, this/that), emphatic agent (he who, she who, that which), reflexive agent (he to himself, her to herself, this/that to itself), nonagent (him, to him, her, to her, this/that, to this/that) and possessive (his, her, of this/that): len/lan/dhe adren/adran/ar lennes/lannes/dhenne les/las/dhes lenne/lanne/dhen 3PS agent: he/she/this or that 3PS emphatic agent: he who/she who/that which 3PS reflexive agent: himself/herself/this or that to itself 3PS non-agent: him/her/this or that 3PS possessive: his/her/of this or that The Third Person Plural (3PP) has neuter and genderless genders. It is declined for the agent (they, these/those), emphatic agent (they who, these/those which), reflexive agent (they to themselves, these/those to themselves), non-agent (them, to them, these/those, to these/those) and possessive (their, of these/those): lyn/ydhe ardryn/yr lynnes/dhynne lys/dhys lynne/dhyn 3PP agent: they/these or those 3PP emphatic agent: they who/these or those which 3PP reflexive agent: themselves/these or those to themselves 3PP non-agent: them/these or those 3PP possessive: their/of these or those The deployment of pronouns is covered in a later section on sentence structures.
Verbs Adhrynn verbs are marked for tense on a scale relative to the past, present and future of an event or state. There are four tenses in total, and each can be used to construct the active and passive voices and form infinitives. 1. Predictive Tense - Describing the period before an event or state is instigated I was going to eat I am going to eat I will be going to eat He was to become strong He is to become strong He will become strong I was to come to love her I am to come to love her I will come to love her He was to become a great king He is to become a great king He will become a great king 2. Incomplete Tense – Describing the period after an event or state is instigated but before realisation I had started to eat / I was eating I have started to eat / I am eating I will have started to eat / I will be eating He was becoming strong He is becoming strong He will be becoming strong I have started to love her I have started to love her I will have started to love her He was becoming a great king He is becoming a great king He will be becoming a great king 3. Complete Tense – Describing the period after an event or state is realised I had eaten I have eaten I will have eaten He had become strong He has become strong He will have become strong He had come to love her He has come to love her He will have come to love her He had become a great king He has become a great king He will have become a great king 4. Timeless Tense – Describing a period in which an entire event or state is instigated and realised I ate I eat I will eat He was strong He is strong He will be strong He loved her He loves her He will love her He was a great king He is a great king He will be a great king Verbs are inflected to show voice (active and passive) and sometimes with prepositional morphs. Tense information and negation is contained in a separate particle (called a marker) which usually sits between the agent and patient of the verb (or between the agent and the actual verb in the case of intransient verbs). The word order of clauses is agentmarker-(patient)-verb for the active voice and patient-marker-verb for the passive voice. In the active infinitive, the agent is completely dropped, and in the passive infinitive the patient is dropped. Ditransitive verbs are handled a little strangely, with the recipient usually acting as the patient (we will discuss this in depth in the next section). In the following examples of verb phrase formation, we render the Adhrynn sentences into English present tenses, although each example, of course, can be used to describe the past or future.