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Adhrynn v1.2

An a priori artlang

THE COPULA Markers

THE COPULA Markers without a verb form copulas, assigning the agent of the action as a noun or describing it with an attributive noun quality. The Predictive, Incomplete and Complete tenses intrinsically contain a sense of ‘becoming’ or transformation from one state to another, whilst the Timeless tense suggests an unchanging state (at least in the time period being talked or written about). The structure employed is agent-marker-verb (or marker-verb in the infinitive): Predictive Tense: 1. He is going to become a great king len dhra amydh 1. Neg. He is not going to become a great king len nadhra amydh 1. Inf. To be going to become a great king dhram amydh 1. Inf. Neg. To not be going to become a great king nadhram amydh 1. He is to become strong len dhra lordhm 1. Neg. He is not to become strong len nadhra lordhm 1. Inf. To be going to become strong dhram lordhm 1. Inf. Neg. To not be going to become strong nadhram lordhm The Predictive Tense can be given a sense of imminent instigation using the adverb edhra after the noun or attributive. Thus, len dhra amydh edhra he is soon going to become a great king or dhram lordhm edhra to soon be going to become strong. In negative statements, edhra provides a sense that instigation is not imminent: len nadhra amydh edhra he is not going to become a great king any time soon or nadhram lordhm edhra to not be going to become strong any time soon. Incomplete Tense: 2. He is becoming a great king len agra amydh 2. Neg. He is not becoming a great king len nagra amydh 2. Inf. To be becoming a great king agram amydh 2. Inf. Neg. To not be becoming a great king nagram amydh 2. He is becoming strong len agra lordhm 2. Neg. He is not becoming strong len nagra lordhm 2. Inf. To be becoming strong agram lordhm 2. Inf. Neg. To not be becoming strong nagram lordhm The Incomplete Tense can be given a sense of recent instigation using the adverb braya after the noun or attributive. Thus, len agra amydh braya he has just started to become a great king or agram lordhm braya to have just started to become strong. In negative statements, braya provides a sense that instigation has not yet occurred: len nagra amydh braya he has not yet started to become a great king or nagram lordhm braya to have not yet started to become strong. Another adverb, nafhray, gives the Incomplete Tense a sense that realisation is imminent: len agra amydh nafhray he has almost become a great king or agram lordhm nafhray to have almost become strong. In negative statements, nafhray gives a sense that, although the process is ongoing, realisation is far from being reached: len nagra amydh nafhray he is becoming more like a great king, but is currently far from being one or nagram lordhm nafhray to be becoming stronger, but to be far from strong at this time. Complete Tense: 3. He has become a great king len adra amydh 3. Neg. He has not become a great king len adranna amydh 3. Inf. To have become a great king adram amydh 3. Inf. Neg. To have not become a great king adrannam amydh 3. He has become strong len adra lordhm 3. Neg. He has not become strong len adranna lordhm 3. Inf. To have become strong adram lordhm 3. Inf. Neg. To have not become strong adrannam lordhm The Complete Tense can be given a sense of recent completion with the adverb sorn placed after the noun or attributive. Thus, len adra amydh sorn he has just/recently become a great king or adram lordhm sorn to have just/recently become strong. In negative statements, sorn gives a sense that the state has not yet been reached: len adranna amydh sorn he has not yet become a great king or adrannam lordhm sorn to not yet have become strong.

Timeless Tense: 4. He is a great king len a amydh 4. Neg. He is not a great king len anna amydh 4. Inf. To be a great king am amydh 4. Inf. Neg. To not be a great king annam amydh 4. He is strong len a lordhm 4. Neg. He is not strong len anna lordhm 4. Inf. To be strong am lordhm 4. Inf. Neg. To not be strong annam lordhm The Timeless Tense can be given a sense of enduring action using the adverb agrean after the noun or attributive. Thus, len a amydh agrean he is always great, as a king or am lordhm agrean to be, at all times, strong. In negative statements, it suggests the action is never performed: len anna amydh agrean he is never great, as a king or annam lordhm agrean to never, at any time, be strong. Another adverb, nagread, gives a sense of regularity: len a amydh nagread he is often great, as a king or am lordhm nagread to be, more often than not, strong. In negative statements is suggests the frequency of the action is low: len anna amydh nagread he is seldom great, as a king or annam lordhm nagread to seldom be strong. Any of the four tenses can be augmented with the adverb heord, which indicates that the action of the verb has undergone a change in potential. Thus, len dhra amydh heord he is now going to become a great king, len agra amydh heord he is now becoming a great king, len adra amydh heord he has now become a great king or len a amydh heord he is now a great king. In negative statements, it also implies a change in potential: len nadhra amydh heord he is no longer going to become a great king, len nagra amydh heord he is no longer becoming a great king and len anna amydh heord he is no longer a great king. The heord adverb is never used, however, with negative statements in the Complete Tense (which would make no sense, since a completed action is, by definition, unchangeable).

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