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Adhrynn v1.2

An a priori artlang

INTRANSITIVE VERBS

INTRANSITIVE VERBS Intransitive verbs (or transitive verbs used intransitively) have no patient. The structure employed is agent-markerverb (or marker-verb in the infinitive), and the verb is uninflected: Predictive Tense: 1. The mother is going to weep mayan dhra creodh 1. Neg. The mother is not going to weep mayan nadhra creodh 1. Inf. To be going to weep dhram creodh 1. Inf. Neg. To not be going to weep nadhram creodh 1. He is going to kill len dhra sloud 1. Neg. He is not going to kill len nadhra sloud 1. Inf. To be going to kill dhram sloud 1. Inf. Neg. To not be going to kill nadhram sloud 1. She is going to come to love lan dhra meld 1. Neg. She is not going to come to love lan nadhra meld 1. Inf. To be going to come to love dhram meld 1. Inf. Neg. To not be going to come to love nadhram meld The Predictive Tense can be given a sense of imminent instigation using the adverb edhra after the verb. Thus, mayan dhra creodh edhra the mother is soon going to weep, dhram sloud edhra to soon be going to kill or lan dhra meld edhra she is soon going to come to love. In negative statements, edhra provides a sense that instigation is not imminent: mayan nadhra creodh edhra the mother is not going to cry any time soon, nadhram sloud edhra to not be going to kill any time soon or lan nadhra meld edhra she is not going to come to love any time soon. The Incomplete Tense: 2. The mother is weeping mayan agra creodh 2. Neg. The mother is not weeping mayan nagra creodh 2. Inf. To be weeping agram creodh 2. Inf. Neg. To not be weeping nagram creodh 2. He is killing len agra sloud 2. Neg. He is not killing len nagra sloud 2. Inf. To be killing agram sloud 2. Inf. Neg. To not be killing nagram sloud 2. She is coming to love lan agra meld 2. Neg. She is not coming to love lan nagra meld 2. Inf. To be coming to love agram meld 2. Inf. Neg. To not be coming to love nagram meld The Incomplete Tense can be given a sense of recent instigation using the adverb braya after the verb. Thus, mayan agra creodh braya the mother has just started to weep, agram sloud braya to have just started to kill or lan agra meld braya she has just started to come to love. In negative statements, braya provides a sense that instigation has not yet occurred: mayan nagra creodh braya the mother has not yet started to weep, nagram sloud braya to have not yet started to kill or lan nagra meld braya she has not yet started to come to love. With nafhray, the Incomplete Tense is given a sense of imminent realisation: Thus, mayan agra creodh nafhray the mother has all but finished weeping, agram sloud nafhray to have almost finished killing or lan agra meld nafhray she has nearly come to love. In negative statements, nafhray gives a sense that, although the process is ongoing, realisation is far from being reached: mayan nagra creodh nafhray the mother is far from done weeping, nagram sloud nafhray to be far from having killed or lan nagra meld nafhray she is nowhere near having come to love. The Complete Tense: 3. The mother has wept mayan adra creodh 3. Neg. The mother has not wept mayan adranna creodh 3. Inf. To have wept adram creodh 3. Inf. Neg. To have not wept adrannam creodh

3. He has killed len adra sloud 3. Neg. He has not killed len adranna sloud 3. Inf. To have killed adram sloud 3. Inf. Neg. To have not killed adrannam sloud 3. She has come to love lan adra meld 3. Neg. She has not come to love lan adranna meld 3. Inf. To have come to love adram meld 3. Inf. Neg. To have not come to love adrannam meld The Complete Tense can be given a sense of recent completion with the adverb sorn placed after the verb. Thus, mayan adra creodh sorn the mother has just finished weeping, adram sloud sorn to have just killed or lan adra meld sorn she has recently come to love. In negative statements, sorn gives a sense that the state has not yet been reached: mayan adranna creodh sorn the mother has not yet wept, adrannam sloud sorn to have not yet killed or lan adranna meld sorn she has not yet come to love. The Timeless Tense: 4. The mother weeps mayan a creodh 4. Neg. The mother does not weep mayan anna creodh 4. Inf. To weep am creodh 4. Inf. Neg. To not weep annam creodh 4. He kills len a sloud 4. Neg. He does not kill len anna sloud 4. Inf. To kill am sloud 4. Inf. Neg. To not kill annam sloud 4. She loves lan a meld 4. Neg. She does not love lan anna meld 4. Inf. To love am meld 4. Inf. Neg. To not love annam meld The Timeless Tense can be given a sense of enduring action using the adverb agrean after the verb. Thus, mayan a creodh agrean the mother weeps constantly, am sloud agrean to habitually kill or lan a meld agrean she eternally loves. In negative statements it suggests that the action is never performed: mayan anna creodh agrean the mother never weeps, annam sloud agrean to never kill, lan anna meld agrean she has never loved. Another adverb, nagread, gives a sense of regularity: mayan a creodh nagread the mother often weeps, am sloud nagread to regularly kill or lan a meld nagread she sometimes loves. In negative statements, it suggests that the frequency of the action is low: mayan anna creodh nagread the mother seldom weeps, annam sloud nagread to seldom kill or lan anna meld nagread she hardly ever loves. The Four Tenses can be augmented with the adverb heord, which indicates that the action of the verb has undergone a change in potential. Thus, mayan dhra creodh heord the mother is now going to weep, len agra sloud heord he is now killing, lan adra meld heord she has now come to love or len a sloud heord he now kills. In negative statements it also implies a change in potential: mayan nadhra creodh heord the mother is no longer going to weep, len nagra sloud heord he is no longer killing, lan anna meld heord she no longer loves. The heord adverb is never used, however, with negative statements in the Complete Tense (which would make no sense, since a completed action is, by definition, unchangeable). Infinitive Forms: In the infinitive, intransitive verbs usually drop their agent. The agent, however, can be retained if followed by the particle y: am creodh am mayan y creodh to weep for the mother to weep Pronouns, when employed in these structures, retain their case stubbornly (unlike English): adrannam sloud adrannam len y sloud to have killed for him [he] to have killed

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