An a priori artlang
THE DUAL Things that naturally come in pairs (e.g. eyes, hands, parents) or any things there are exactly two of form plurals in a special way when they denote a full pair. Final Consonant Changes (Dual) r rres l lles d dras nd ndras rd rdas ld ldas dh dhras ndh ndhras rdh rdhas ldh ldhas gh ghmas ngh nghas rgh rghas m mmes n nnes s sses rm rmas rn rnas nadhras (both) beautiful ones lammes (both) quantities of milk droghmas (both) duties leommes (both) flowers mydhras (both) kings meghmas (both) girls bradhras (both) tables mourres (both) men dhrynnes (both) languages lordhas (both) strong ones droudhras (both) dogs raghmas (both) quantities of blood heornas (both) eyes radhras (both) people fheandras (both) swords sdharres (both) omens fhemmes (both) noble ones sfhraunnes (both) boys flesses (both) bows scronnes (both) warriors gaurnas (both) lakes smaunnes (both) harps gleannes (both) hands soghmas (both) quantities of wood gordhas (both) bears sedhras (both) sweet ones gronnes (both) quantities of iron masses (both) brave ones hendras (both) children mayannes (both) mothers hesses (both) green ones lermas (both) cups hronnes (both) brothers mayosses (both) quantities of water Like the plural, the dual can be given gender. The suffixes –eyas (male) and –ayas (female) are used, replacing the final as or es. Thus, massayas both brave females, fhemmeyas both noble males, gordhayas both female bears, etc. The dual can take a number, indicating the number of pairs, although this tends only to occur with body parts. las gleannes three pairs of hands, dar heornas two pairs of eyes.
THE COMPLETE PLURAL A special plural marks all instances of a root idea within the frame of reference of the speaker or writer. Final Consonant Changes (Complete Plural) r rren l llen d dran nd ndran rd rdan ld ldan dh dhran ndh ndhran rdh rdhan ldh ldhan gh ghman ngh nghan rgh rghan m mmen n nnen s ssen rm rman rn rnan nadhran (all of the) beautiful ones lammen (all of the) milk droghman (all of the) duties leommen (all of the) flowers mydhran (all of the) kings meghman (all of the) girls bradhran (all of the) tables mourren (all of the) men dhrynnen (all of the) languages lordhan (all of the) strong ones droudhran (all of the) dogs raghman (all of the) blood heornan (all of the) eyes radhran (all of the) people fheandran (all of the) swords sdharren (all of the) omens fhemmen (all of the) noble ones sfhraunnen (all of the) boys flessen (all of the) bows scronnen (all of the) warriors gaurnan (all of the) lakes smaunnen (all of the) harps gleannen (all of the) hands soghman (all of the) wood gordhan (all of the) bears sedhran (all of the) sweet ones gronnen (all of the) iron massen (all of the) brave ones hendran (all of the) children mayannen (all of the) mothers hessen (all of the) green ones lerman (all of the) cups hronnen (all of the) brothers mayossen (all of the) water Forced gender of the complete plural is formed with the suffixes –eyan (male) and –ayan (female), replacing the final an or en. Thus, nadhrayan all of the beautiful females, droudhreyan all of the male dogs, etc. The complete plural can, like the common plural, be preceded by numerals. When this occurs, the meaning of the numeral becomes “of a greater number of”: hem gordhan dar radhran las fheandran one of the bears two of the people three of the swords To show a part of a greater quantity, two numerals separated by the particle san are used. Without the second number, the implication is that all of the available number is being talked about: hem san las gordhan dar san las radhran dar san fheandran one of the three bears two of the three people all three of the swords To show a fractional quantity, the particle sydh is used instead: hem sydh las lammen one third of the milk