A researcher wants to study differences in opinion on environmental issues among different socioeconomic groups. Ideally, the researcher should use __________ sampling. A. stratified random B. nonrandom C. environmental D. ad hoc Question 25 of 40 0.0/ 2.5 Points Matched random assignment is used in situations in which random assignment would: A. increase chances of unequal sample sizes. B. cause possible confounding because the groups may be unequal on key dimensions. C. not be possible because the researcher has too much prior knowledge about the participants. D. not be possible because the researcher has too little prior knowledge about the participants. Question 26 of 40 0.0/ 2.5 Points The reduction of extraneous variables is typically an advantage of: A. natural environments. B. laboratory settings. C. lower-constraint laboratory settings only. D. non-laboratory settings. Question 27 of 40 2.5/ 2.5 Points A researcher wants to do a study of pretest anxiety. He devises two possible ways of measuring pretest anxiety: (1) attaching electrodes to the palm and measuring the amount of sweat produced; (2) having observers rate participants on how anxious they look. Which of the following is true? A. Both are subjective measures. B. Both are objective measures. C. #1 is objective; #2 is subjective. D. #1 is subjective; #2 is objective. Question 28 of 40 2.5/ 2.5 Points In considering whether the independent variable was responsible for observed changes in the dependent variable, the type of validity that we would be addressing is __________ validity. A. external B. internal C. construct D. statistical Question 29 of 40 2.5/ 2.5 Points If we select participants on the basis of extremely high or low scores on a test, the most likely threat to validity is: A. testing bias. B. diffusion of treatment. C. attrition. D. regression to the mean.
Question 30 of 40 0.0/ 2.5 Points In a double-blind control procedure: A. the participants and researcher are blind to assignment of participants. B. the laboratory is not illuminated. C. the researcher and the research assistant(s) are blind to assignment to the experimental group. D. no one knows which participants are assigned to the experimental group. Question 31 of 40 2.5/ 2.5 Points Creating a laboratory setting that is highly controlled can result in poor __________ validity. A. internal B. face C. external D. statistical Question 32 of 40 2.5/ 2.5 Points Experimenter expectancies might be responsible for all of the following EXCEPT: A. directly influencing the participant's behavior toward support of the hypothesis. B. selecting data that best support the hypothesis. C. minimizing demand characteristics. D. interpreting results in a biased manner. Question 33 of 40 2.5/ 2.5 Points McAuliff and Kovera (2009) found that when mock jurors realized no control group was being used in the study presented by the expert, jurors tended to rate the expert as being less credible: A. thus making it more likely they would rule in favor of the plaintiff. B. thus making it more likely they would rule in favor of the defendant. C. yet did not use this information when deciding on a verdict. D. only if the employees were similar to the plaintiff’s workplace (e.g., trucking company). Question 34 of 40 2.5/ 2.5 Points When research participants give information to prospective participants about the procedures, the research could be affected by the confounding variable of: A. the bystander effect. B. diffusion of responsibility. C. diffusion of treatment. D. regression to the mean. Question 35 of 40 2.5/ 2.5 Points