5.0/ 5.0 Points Even though there are many different F-ratios, each F-ratio represents a comparison of: A. overall variance to within-groups variance. B. between-groups variance to within-groups variance. C. overall variance to between-groups variance. D. main effects to interactions. Question 5 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is generally useful for: A. the removal of interaction effects. B. the statistical removal of variability caused by extraneous variables. C. analyzing more than one independent variable. D. All of the above. Question 6 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points In a crossover effect, maturation is an unlikely alternative hypothesis because: A. maturation cannot affect the control group. B. maturation cannot affect the experimental group. C. if maturation were responsible, it is unlikely that the effect would markedly differ for both groups. D. it is likely that both groups mature at a different rate. Question 7 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points The ideal design (i.e., the design with the most control) for use in program evaluation is the: A. randomized control-group design. B. single-subject, randomized, time-series design. C. correlational design. D. reversal or ABA design. Question 8 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points What does an A X B interaction mean in a two-way ANOVA? A. There must be significant main effects for Factors A and B. B. The main effects for Factors A and B must be short of significance. C. The effect of A was different depending on the level of B. D. If there are significant main effects, they must be interpreted first, before interpreting the interaction. Question 9 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points Which of the following is true for experiments in field settings? A. They cannot draw causal inferences. B. They can provide only observations of contingencies. C. They can allow causal inferences. D. They can generate hypotheses but not test them. Question 10 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points What is one of the reasons why program evaluation research poses significant ethical problems? A. The programs were created by politicians. B. The program staff may not approve of the evaluation. C. It would be impossible to identify a control group. D. The research participants are typically recipients of the services of the program and therefore may feel obliged to participate. Question 11 of 20
5.0/ 5.0 Points In a factorial design, the notation "2 X 3 X 2" tells us that the design has __________ independent variables. A. 3 B. 12 C. 7 D. 9 Question 12 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points Hu and colleagues (2001) studied how organizational citizens affect customer service. The conclusions they drew were limited because tellers were not randomly assigned to treatment conditions. How did they address such concerns? A. Participants were randomly assigned to branches. B. The branches selected were matched based on performance. C. They controlled for important confounds using an ANCOVA. D. They trained participants to have equal levels of citizenship behavior. Question 13 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points Which of the following is an accurate statement about high-constraint, laboratory research? A. It has high internal validity but may have low external validity. B. It is necessarily high in both external and internal validity. C. It is so constrained that it has no external validity. D. It must include at least four groups for proper controls. Question 14 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points In a within-subjects factorial design, we need ten participants in each of the four cells. In total, we need __________ participants. A. 40 B. 20 C. 30 D. 10 Question 15 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of quasi-experimental designs? A. They include specific procedures for testing hypotheses. B. They include some controls for threats to validity. C. They include random assignment of participants to groups. D. They include a causal hypothesis. Question 16 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points Which of the following does NOT apply to conducting experimental research in natural settings? A. We often cannot obtain enough participants for the creation of experimental and control groups. B. We cannot test the external validity of causal conclusions arrived at in the laboratory. C. Random assignment is often impossible. D. Manipulation of independent variables is usually difficult, if not impossible. Question 17 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points Two common confounding variables that must be controlled in a nonequivalent control-group design are: A. selection and regression to the mean. B. selection and maturation. C. maturation and regression to the mean. D. sequence effects and maturation.