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PS400 Cognitive Psychology Exam 8 Answers (Ashworth College)

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Question 5 Which approach to problem solving attempts to minimize the "distance" between an initial state and a goal state by breaking the problem down into a series of subgoals? Question options: Gestalt approach Behaviorist approach GPS approach Structuralist approach Question 5 / 5 points 6 Looking at a sequence of numbers (e.g., 2, 4, 6, 8) and trying to figure out the correct next number in the sequence would be considered: Question options: an arrangement problem. a divergent problem. a transformation problem. an induction problem. Question 5 / 5 points 7 Using problems that have already been solved as aids for representing and solving the problem currently being faced is termed: Question options: an algorithm. reasoning by analogy. Question 5 / 5 points 8 Suppose I am planning a wedding with 200 guests, and everyone is going to have a designated place at 22 different dinner tables. Trying to figure out who is going to sit where, and with whom, would be considered: Question options: an arrangement problem. a divergent problem. a transformation problem. a deduction problem. Question 5 / 5 points 9 "Correct specification of the problem space" would be the way in which the General Problem Solver framework describes: Question options: functional fixedness. creativity. problem representation. problem solution. Question 0 / 5 points 10 Which of these is NOT one of the assumptions of the information-processing (GPS) approach to problem- solving? Question options: Solution involves a sudden realization or breakthrough Solution involves a serial process that moves one closer and closer to the ultimate goal Solution involves breaking a problem down into manageable parts Problem solving involves movement through what is termed "problem space"

Question 5 / 5 points 11 Algorithm is to heuristic as __________ is to __________. Question options: right; wrong efficient; inefficient computers; humans science; math Question 5 / 5 points 12 In a study on stereotype threat, Quinn and Spencer (2001) had female and male participants engage in mathematical reasoning tasks. In one condition (group A), participants were told that the test was gender fair, yielding equivalent performance between men and women. The other group (group B) was given no such instruction. The results showed that: Question options: men outperformed women, but only in group B. men outperformed women, but only in group A. men outperformed women in both groups. women outperformed men in both groups. Question 5 / 5 points 13 What did German and Defeyter (2000) find regarding development and functional fixedness? Question options: Younger children are more likely than older children to demonstrate functional fixedness. Older children are more likely than younger children to demonstrate functional fixedness. There is no difference in functional fixedness demonstration between children and adults. Children do not demonstrate functional fixedness, only teenagers and adults. Question 5 / 5 points 14 Trying to think of as many uses for a paper clip as you can would be considered: Question options: an arrangement problem. a divergent problem. a transformation problem. a deduction problem. Question 5 / 5 points 15 In the classic study of using analogies to aid in problems, Gick and Holyoak (1983) found that only one condition was successful in triggering participants to notice and successfully apply an analogy. Which condition was it? Question options: The condition in which they were given a diagram of the source problem. The condition in which they were given two source problems and had to map out their relationship. The condition in which they were given a source problem and a statement of the underlying general principle. None of the analogy conditions was better than just presenting the participants with the target problem alone. Question 5 / 5 points

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