scores. It can be used to identify clusters of correlated items that are assumed to measure the same underlying trait, ability, or aptitude. A. Psychometric B. Factor C. Behavioral D. Intelligence quotient Question 5 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points When John worries about getting bit by a shark when swimming at the beach, but doesn’t worry about getting cancer from the cigarettes he smokes, he is A. avoiding loss. B. exhibiting confirmation bias. C. overestimating the frequency of the event. D. exhibiting hindsight bias. Question 6 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points _______ is defined as a general intellectual ability assumed by many theorists to underlie specific mental abilities and talents. A. Metacognition B. An intelligence quotient C. Mental age D. The g factor Question 7 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points Between World War I and the 1960s, the intelligence tests developed for use in schools favored A. white children over nonwhite children. B. rural children over city children. C. poor children over middle-class children. D. extroverted children over introverted children. Question 8 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points _______ refers to the cognitive skills and specific knowledge acquired over a lifetime; it is heavily dependent on education and tends to remain stable over time. A. Fluid intelligence B. Working memory C. Crystallized intelligence D. Metacognition Question 9 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points The tendency to think, mistakenly, that human beings have nothing in common with other animals is called A. anthropodenial. B. anthropomorphism. C. stereotype threat. D. tacit knowledge. Question 10 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points Sara has had a string of failed romantic relationships over the past three years. Her partners tend to tell the same story: Sara often can’t tell when they’re mad at her, and doesn’t seem able to express her own feelings. If her exes’ complaints are accurate, Sara would likely score low on tests of _______ intelligence. A. emotional B. componential C. general D. tacit Question 11 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points As an African American, Damon is aware of the negative stereotypes regarding racial differences in intelligence. If he experiences stereotype threat while taking an intelligence test, it’s likely that A. Damon’s self-conscious awareness of the stereotype may worsen his test performance. B. Damon’s test score will be unaffected, but he will feel uncomfortable throughout the test. C. Damon’s awareness of the stereotype will motivate him to excel on the test. D. Damon will return the test to the administrator completely blank.
Question 12 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points _______ is the study of cognitive processes in nonhuman animals, especially in natural environments. A. Psychometrics B. Cognitive ethology C. Factor analysis D. Metacognition Question 13 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points David Wechsler designed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) to produce A. a componential IQ score, an experiential IQ score, and a contextual IQ score. B. a general IQ score and also separate scores for verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, processing speed, and working memory. C. a measure of a child’s mental age. D. a culture-free IQ score and a general knowledge IQ score. Question 14 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points Peter’s mental representation of Thanksgiving includes associations about turkeys, attitudes toward the holiday, and expectations about the weight he would gain! These are all part of his _______ for the holiday. A. hindsight bias B. heuristic C. cognitive schema D. algorithm Question 15 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points Tacit knowledge refers to A. strategies for success that aren’t explicitly taught but instead must be inferred. B. the knowledge of one’s own cognitive processes and how they can be used effectively. C. recognition that a problem exists and selection of a strategy based on previously acquired knowledge. D. learning new knowledge quickly so that one can cope effectively with novel situations. Question 16 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points _______ learning is defined as learning that occurs when you acquire knowledge about something without being aware of how you did so and without being able to state exactly what it is you’ve learned. A. Convergent B. Implicit C. Explicit D. Divergent Question 17 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points Our ability to multitask is due, in large part, to our ability to perform _______ cognitive tasks. A. conscious B. deliberate C. subconscious D. nonconscious Question 18 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points Logan understands the concepts in his statistics class. However, during tests, he spends the entire time on the most difficult problems and never gets to the problems that he can solve easily. Logan’s inability to adapt his strategy to the testing situation indicates that he has low A. emotional intelligence. B. contextual intelligence. C. cognitive dissonance. D. justification of effort. Question 19 of 20 0.0/ 5.0 Points The day after the election, Josephine says that she knew all along who the winner would be. Although it’s