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S03 HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT EXAM 7 Answers (Ashworth College)

Question 4 of 40 5.0/

Question 4 of 40 5.0/ 5.0 Points The preschool years largely encompass what Erikson called the __________ stage. A. self-concept B. autonomy-versus-shame C. individualistic orientation D. initiative-versus-guilt Question 5 of 40 5.0/ 5.0 Points According to developmental research, what contributes to the decline of aggression in preschool children? A. More access to better child care B. Personality and social development of the child C. More authoritarian parenting D. More authoritative parenting Question 6 of 40 5.0/ 5.0 Points Western cultures, unlike many Asian cultures, foster a view of self that is reflected in a(n): A. self-concept. B. collectivistic orientation. C. initiative-versus-guilt stage. D. individualistic orientation. Question 7 of 40 5.0/ 5.0 Points What is the term for play in which children manipulate objects to produce or build something? A. Functional B. Parallel C. Cooperative D. Constructive Question 8 of 40 5.0/ 5.0 Points What is a sex-related biological characteristic that affects gender-based behaviors? A. Height and weight B. Hormones C. Brain size/development D. Prenatal development Question 9 of 40 5.0/ 5.0 Points Gender, the sense of being male or female, is well established by the time children are: A. adolescent age. B. around 8 years old. C. infants. D. preschool age. Question 10 of 40 5.0/ 5.0 Points Gender, the sense of being male or female, is well established by the time children are: A. adolescent age. B. around 8 years old. C. infants. D. preschool age. Question 11 of 40 5.0/ 5.0 Points According to Erikson, what is the term for development that encompasses changes both in the

understanding individuals have of themselves as members of society and in their comprehension of the meaning of others’ behavior(s)? A. Initiative-versus-guilt B. Self-concept C. Psychosocial development D. Individualistic orientation Question 12 of 40 5.0/ 5.0 Points What is the term for abuse that occurs when parents or other caregivers harm children’s behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or physical functioning? A. Cycle of violence hypothesis B. Parent-child cycle C. Victim-aggression theory D. Psychological maltreatment Question 13 of 40 5.0/ 5.0 Points The difference between a 3-year-old’s development of “pretend” compared to his/her development of “belief” can be illustrated by: A. show and tell. B. hide and seek. C. false belief task. D. truth or dare. Question 14 of 40 5.0/ 5.0 Points Prosocial behavior that is learned indirectly by observing the behavior of others is called: A. moral development. B. modeling. C. empathy. D. social learning. Question 15 of 40 5.0/ 5.0 Points While “spanking” may produce immediate compliance of children, the long-term side effects may include all of the following EXCEPT: A. poorer mental health for both child and parent. B. higher levels of delinquency and anti-social behavior. C. that children are taught that violence is an acceptable solution to problems. D. the child will develop a greater sense of independence and autonomy, and will adhere to social and cultural norms. Question 16 of 40 5.0/ 5.0 Points What type of parents show almost no interest in their children and demonstrate indifferent, rejecting behavior(s)? A. Permissive B. Authoritative C. Authoritarian D. Uninvolved Question 17 of 40 5.0/ 5.0 Points Ethnologist Konrad Lorenz, evolutionary theorists and sociobiologists all suggest that aggression includes all of the following EXCEPT:

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