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Technical Details –

Technical Details – Capacitors for Fluorescent and Discharge Lamps Parallel compensation During parallel compensation, each lamp circuit is assigned to a capacitor connected in parallel to the mains. Only one capacitor providing sufficient capacitance is needed for luminaires with several lamps. Parallel compensation does not affect current flow through a discharge lamp. The requirements placed on parallel capacitors are clearly lower than those for series capacitors. However, parallel compensation can be subject to limitations when using audio-frequency ripple control pulses if the system operates with a connected rating of over 5 kVA and ripple control frequencies of over 300 Hz are used. The respective power utility company should be consulted for advice in such cases. Parallel compensation of a fluorescent lamp circuit Parallel compensation is used in fluorescent lamp and high-pressure discharge lamp circuits. As parallel compensation offers substantial advantages, this has become the accepted method in the last few years. Metallised polypropylene film capacitors Parallel compensation of a high-pressure discharge lamp circuit with a superimposed ignitor Metallised polypropylene film capacitors are designed to compensate the inductive idle current drawn by discharge lamps (fluorescent lamps, high-pressure mercury vapour lamps, high-pressure sodium vapour lamps and metal halide lamps with a ceramic discharge tube) in 50 Hz/60 Hz grids. All Vossloh-Schwabe compensation capacitors for luminaires feature a metallised polypropylene film dielectric. Compensation capacitors help to increase the power factor to values of over λ 0.85 as required by power utility companies. Construction of metallised polypropylene film capacitors VS MPP capacitors contain a low-loss metallised polypropylene film dielectric, which is produced by depositing a thin layer of zinc and aluminium or pure aluminium vapour onto one side of the polypropylene film. The contacts at either end of the capacitor coil are created by spraying on a layer of metal and thus guarantee a high current-carrying capacity as well as a low-inductive connection between the terminals and the coils. Parallel compensation of a high-pressure discharge lamp circuit with a pulse ignitor All capacitors with a nominal voltage upwards of 280 V are filled with oil or resin after the coils have been inserted and then hermetically sealed. This protects the coils from environmental influences and reduces partial discharge, which contributes to a long service life and stable capacitance. The effects of partial discharge only play a minor role for capacitors with a nominal voltage of under 280 V so that these devices do not need to be filled. 244

Technical Details – Capacitors for Fluorescent and Discharge Lamps Hermetically sealed, filled capacitors with an overpressure contact breaker should always be used in critical ambient conditions (high humidity, aggressive atmospheres, high temperatures), if the workload and power supply conditions are unknown as well as in situations that demand increased attention to safety. VS MPP capacitors feature a self-healing dielectric. In the event of a dielectric breakdown in the coil (short circuit), the metal coating vaporises around the breakdown site owing to the high temperature of the transient arc that is produced. Owing to the excess pressure generated during such a breakdown, the metal vapour is pushed outwards away from the centre of the site within the space of just a few microseconds. This creates a coating-free corona around the breakdown site that completely isolates it and means the capacitor remains fully functional during a dielectric breakdown. The self-healing properties of a capacitor can decrease with time and with constant overloading. This bears the risk of a non-healing breakdown with a permanent short circuit. Therefore self-healing must not be confused with failsafe. Compensation capacitors are divided into two type families (A and B) in accordance with IEC 61048 A2. • Type A capacitors defined: "Self-healing parallel capacitors; without an (overpressure) contact breaker in the event of failure". They are referred to as unsecured capacitors. • Type B capacitors defined: "Self-healing capacitors for series connection in lighting circuits or self-healing parallel capacitors; with an (overpressure) contact breaker in the event of failure". These are referred to as hermetically sealed, secured capacitors. In accordance with the standard, the discharge resistor of both capacitor families must be capable of reducing capacitor voltage to a value of under 50 V in the space of 60 seconds after disconnection from the mains. Capacitors without a contact breaker, unsecured, Type A capacitors in accordance with IEC 61048 A2 IEC 61048 A2-compliant Type A capacitors are self-healing and require no short-circuit protection for normal operation. Type A capacitors are not fitted with a specific failsafe mechanism as prescribed by the standards for Type B capacitors. Nevertheless, the requirements laid down in the standard for Type A capacitors, especially with regard to temperature and service life tests, are designed to ensure a sufficient degree of device safety and availability provided the device was correctly installed and operated under calculable and known ambient operating conditions. Even so, in very rare cases these capacitors can still develop erratic behaviour due to overloading or at the end of the device's service life. For that reason, Type A capacitors should only be integrated into luminaires for operation in ambient conditions that are uncritical with regard to flammable materials. Luminaires should feature protection against secondary damage inside and outside the luminaire in the event of a defect. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 245

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    1 PUMA Headquarters Porsche Museum

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    2 Ballasts for Discharge Lamps For

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    Subsidiaries Subsidiaries Adress Ph