Views
8 months ago

Damming at gunpoint (Burmese Version)

1992-rwdkifrDS

1992-rwdkifrDS zgyGefa'o? u&ifwdk‹.xdef;csKyfr_atmuf&Sd oHvGifjrpf opfyifrsm;ckwfvS Jjcif;ESifh wae&mrSwae&modk@ o,f,lydk@aqmif&mwGif oHvGifjrpfudk om t"du trSDo[JJðycJh&ygonf? opfwHk;}uD;rsm;tm; oHvGifjrpfa&a=umif;twdkif; atmufzufodk@ ar#mcsoGm;=uonf? touf(90)t&G,f&Sd tzGm;tdkwOD;u ,ckuJhodk@ajymygonf? t*Fvdyfacwfu usrwdk@ a'orSm opfckwfvSJjcif;&SdcJhygonf? opfwHk;rsm;udk oHvGifjrpfa=umif;twdkif; ar#mcs =uonf? xdkif;EdkifiHrSmvnf; opfckwfvS Jr_rsm;&Sd+yD; ‚wdk@. EdkifiHbufrS oHvGifjrpfudk toHk;ðy+yD; opfwHk;rsm; ar#mcsjcif;rsm; ðyvkyfygonf? 2003 -ckESpf pufwifbmvu yg[dkufaus;&GmtkyfpkwGif; aexdkifonfh&Gmom; wOD;tm; awG@qHkar;jref;&m ‚uTa'o&Sd opfawmxJwGif tzdk;wef u|ef;opf rsm;tjyif tjcm;opfawmxGufypPnf;rsm;vnf;&Sdonf? ‚wdk@rSm ‘}udrf’uJhodk@aom tyifrsm;ESifh [if;cwf tar$;t}udKiftjzpf toHk;ðyEdkifonfh tyifrsm;vnff; TzgyGefc±dkif oHvGifjrpfwav#muf awmifwef;ay:&Sd opfawmrsm;xJwGif &SmazGawG@&SdEdkifonf[kqdk onf? zgyGefc±dkiftwGif;&Sd opfawmrsm;rSm rkwfokefopfawmrsm;jzpf=uonf? u&iftrsKd;om;rsm;. ckcHr_ppfyG JqifE$ Jonfh yxrq,fpkESpf (3)ck umvtwGif;/ 1949 -ckESpf up+yD;/ Ta'owGif pD;yGm;a&;t& opfckwfvS Jjcif;rsm; r&SdcJ hay? odk@&mwGif 1983- ckESpf oHvGifjrpfurf;ab;Y opfckwfvSJjcif;rsm; jyefvnfpwifvkyfaqmifcJhonf? autJef,lwdk@onf ckwfvSJxm;onfhopfwHk;rsm;udk xdkif;pD;yGm;a&;ukrÜ%Drsm;odk@ a&mif;cs=uonf? autJef,l opfawmXmeonf ywf0ef;usifxdef;odrf;a&;ESifh ywfouf+yD;/ zgyGefa'ocH jynfolrsm;.qENESifhtnD Oya'rsm;a&;qG JðypkjyXmef;cJ honf? TOya'xJwGif awmif,m pyg;pdkufysKd;a&;vkyfieff;ESifh opfawmxdef;odrf;a&; enf;Oya'rsm; yg0ifvsuf&Sdonf? xdk@tjyif opfawmrsm;tm; awmrD;avmifuírf;r_ umuG,fjcif;/ opfawmxJwGif u|ef;opf tygt0if tjcm;opfyifrsm;tm; jyefvnfpdkufysKd;jcif;/ &Sm;yg;onfh awm±dkif; wd&dp>mefrsm;tm; trJvdkuf ypfcwfowfjzwfjcif;rS wm;jrpfjcif; ponfh tcsuftvuf rsm;udk Oya'xJwGif xnfhoGif;a&;qGJxm;ayonf? autJef,l opfawmXmeonf tcsKd@ae&mrsm;wGif ‚wdk@udk,fwdkif u|ef;yifrsm; jyefvnfpdkufysKd;jcif;rsm;udk opfawmxdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufa&;vkyfief; tpdwftydkif;wck tjzpf oabmxm;+yD;vkyfaqmifcJh=uonf? aorif;wrefa&umwm 27

1992-rwdkifrDS zgyGefa'o? u&ifwdk‹.xdef;csKyfr_atmuf&Sd oHvGifjrpf autJef,lonf zgyGefc±dkiftwGif; opfawm}udK;0dkif;rsm;udkvnf; pepfwus xdef;odrf;cJh onf? 10 Topfawm}udK;0dkif;rsm;xJwGif rJ0dkifopfawm}udK;0dkif;/ rif;eef;EG,f opfawm }udK;0dkif;/ xD;uaqmrJ opfawm}udK;0dkif;/ txufrJoavmhESifh atmufrJoavmh opfawm }udK;0dkif;rsm;/ zgaZmif;opfawm}udK;0dkif;rsm; yg0ifv#uf&Sdonf? abmaoxmESifh "g;cGifopfawm}udK;0dkif;vnf; yg0ifonf? (pmrsufESm 29 rS ajryHkudk=unfhyg) zgyGefc±dkifxJwGif awm±dkif;wd&dp>mefrsm; cdkatmif;&mae&m(ab;rJhawm) (3)ckudk owfrSwfxm;+yD; xdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufxm;onf? ‚teuf(2)ckrSm autJef,lrS owfrSwfcJhjcif;jzpfonf? ,if;(2)ckrSm xdkif;EdkifiH oHvGiftrsKd;om;O,smOfESifh eD;pyfv#uf &Sdonfh "g;cGif awm±dkif;wd&dp>mef cdkatmif;&mae&mESifh c±dkif.taemufbufa'o 'G,fvdk; ®r@e,ftwGif;&Sd “av;*a0:” awm±dkif;wd&dp>mefrsm; cdkatmif;&mae&mrsm;jzpf=uonf? usefwckrSm +Adwdo# udkvdkeDacwfrS owfrSwfcJhjcif;jzpfonf? ,if;onf 'G,fvdk;®r@e,f xJwGif&Sd+yD; “u[D;vl” awm±dkif;wd&dp>mefrsm; cdkatmif;&mae&mjzpfonf? tpOftvmt& zgyGef&Gmom;wOD;pDonf ajr,mtcsKd@udk ydkifqdkifxm;Edkifonf? TuJ hodk@ ydkifqdkifxm;&ef ‚wdk@xJrS =oZm&Sdol/ vltrsm;u av;pm;jcif;cH&ol “xD;zdk; aumfupg” 11 [kac:onfh t}uD;tuJvkyfolu cGifhðy&onf? TuJhodk@tpOftvmt& v,f,majrydkifqdkifcGifh ay;urf;jcif;udk,ckxd a'ocH aus;&Gmolaus;&Gmom;rsm;u todtrSwfðyqJjzpfonf? TonfrSm &Gmol&Gmom;rsm; onf ‚wdk@. vdktyfr_ESifhtnD t&if;tjrpfrsm;tm; toHk;ðycGifh&Sdaoma=umifhjzpfonf? tcsKd@aom opfawmtkyfpkrsm;udk trsm;ydkifopfawmrsm;tjzpf opfrSwfxm;avonf? xD;zdk;aumfupgonf aus;&Gmvlxk. pm;0wfaea&;udk *±kpdkufwm0ef,l&onf? "avhxHk;pHjzpfonfh ewfudk;uG,fr_ ylaZmfyor_tcef;tem;udk xD;zdk;aumfupgu OD;aqmif&onf? oHvGifjrpfab;wav#muf 1983 rS 1995 ckESpftxd opfckwfvS Jr_rsm; 10 10 autJef,lonf +Adwdo#udkvdkeDtkyfcsKyfa&;rS ðyvkyfouJhodk@ opfawmae&mtcsKd@udk “opfawm }udK;0dkif;”owfrSwfum opfawmxdef;odrf;a&;pepfudk jyefvnfðyvkyfygonf? 11 11 pmom;t&“a&ajrydkif&Sif/ jynfol@ocif”[lI t"dy`g,f&ygonf? +Adwdo# udkvdkeDtkyfcsKyfa&;rS aus;vufa'owGif“&Gmol}uD;”pepfudk taumiftxnfaz:vdkufaomtcg/ Tyk*~dKvfrsm;. tcef;rSm “±dk;&m"avhESifhbmomudk;uG,fr_” a&;&mrsm;wGif OD;aqmifr_ay;jcif;omusef&Sdavonf? 28 u&ifjrpfacsmif;rsm;apmifh=unfhavhvma&;tzGJŒ

No Holidays for the Burmese
The Progestogen IUD Factsheet - in Burmese
Flow - Burmese - IUCN
A Burmese Enchantment - Khamkoo
Burmese Sketches - Khamkoo
Burmese Language - RITELL
The Contraceptive Implant Factsheet - in Burmese
Burmese in CZ_Novak - Österreichisches Rotes Kreuz
SMALL DAMS
Carbon footprints of Burmese teak versus Kebony Maple
A Burmese wonderland; a tale of travel in Lower and ... - Khamkoo
Lustig, Friedrich V. Burmese classical poems
Burmese - the NSW Multicultural Health Communication Service
fellow Burmese believers - Canadian Mennonite
Burmese - the NSW Multicultural Health Communication Service
Teaching in a refugee camp on the Thai/Burmese border
Burmese Traditional Astrology - Htet Thu Win
To Dam or Purposes and Im So Not to Dam: pacts of Dams on i tcey
Dams and Disasters: A Brief Overview of Dam Building Triumphs