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Nicomachean Ethics make errors themselves nor to allow their friends to do so. But wicked people have no constancy, since they do not even remain similar to what they were; they become friends for a short time, because they enjoy each other's wickedness. People who are useful or pleasant, however, remain friends longer, that is, as long as they provide pleasure or bene®t for each other. The friendship that seems to occur most of all between contraries is that for utility; that, for example, between a poor person and a rich, or an ignorant person and a learned one, since each of us is eager for whatever it is he happens to lack, and so gives something in return. One might include here lover and beloved, noble and ugly. This is why lovers sometimes look ridiculous, expecting to be loved as much as they love; presumably they ought to expect this if they are worthy of love in the same way, but when nothing like this is true it is ridiculous. Presumably, however, contrary seeks contrary not in itself, but incidentally, and desire is for what lies in between: what is good for the dry, for example, is not to become wet but to arrive at the intermediate state, and the same goes for the hot and the others. But let us put these matters to one side, since they are in fact rather irrelevant. 1160a Chapter 9 As we said at the beginning, friendship and justice seem to be concerned with the same things and to be found in the same people. For there seems to be some kind of justice in every community, and some kind of friendship as well. At any rate, people address as friends their shipmates and fellow soldiers, and similarly those who are members of other kinds of community with them. And the extent of their community is the extent of their friendship, since it is also the extent of their justice. The proverb, `What friends have they have in common', is correct, since friendship is based on community. But while brothers and comrades have everything in common, what the others whom we have mentioned have in common is more limited ± more in some cases, less in others, since friendships too differ in degree. What is just differs as well, since it is not the same for parents in relation to children as for one brother to another, and not the same for comrades as for fellow citizens, and similarly with the other kinds of friendship. So what counts as injustice towards each of these friends 154

Book VIII differs as well, and the injustice increases the closer the friends involved. It is more dreadful, for example, to defraud a comrade than a fellow citizen, to fail to aid a brother than a stranger, or to hit one's father than anyone else. The demands of justice also naturally increase with the friendship, since both involve the same people and are of equal extent. All communities seem to be parts of the political community, since people journey together with something useful in mind, to supply something for life. And the political community seems originally to have come together and to continue for the sake of what is useful, since it is this that legislators aim at, and it is said that what is useful, in common, is just. Other communities aim at particular advantages ± sailors, for example, at what is useful in a voyage, with a view to making money or something like that, fellow soldiers at what is useful in war, whether their object is money, victory or a city; and similarly members of tribes and demes. Some communities ± religious guilds and dining societies ± seem to develop for pleasure, since they are for sacri®ces and companionship. All these seem subordinate to the political community, because it aims not at what is immediately useful, but at what is useful for the whole of life. When people arrange sacri®ces and the joint festivities connected with them, they render honours to the gods as well as providing pleasurable relaxation for themselves. For the ancient sacri®ces and joint festivities seem to occur after the gathering of the harvest as a sort of ®rst-fruits, since it was at this time of year that people had most time for leisure. All these communities, then, appear to be parts of the political community; and the particular kinds of friendship will correspond to the particular kinds of community. Chapter 10 There are three species of polity, and an equal number of deviations from them ± corruptions of them, so to speak. The three are kingship, aristocracy, and a third based on ownership of property (timema), which it seems proper to call timocratic, though most people usually call it a polity. The best of these is kingship, the worst timocracy. The deviation from kingship is tyranny. Though both are monarchic, 155 1160b

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