170 Finding Strings with Regular Expressions This finds buz and buzzzz but not bu because the (+) wildcard needs to find at least a z character. Pattern matching with ranges Wildcards can match zero or more characters, but sometimes you may want to know whether a particular character falls within a range or characters. To do this, you can use ranges. For example, if you want to know whether a character is any letter, you could use the pattern [a-z] as follows: bu[a-z] This finds strings, such as but, bug, or bus, but not bu (not a three-character string). Of course, you don’t need to search for letters from a to z. You can just as well search for the following: bu[d-s] This regular expression finds bud and bus but not but (because the t lies outside the range of letters from d to s). You can also use ranges to check whether a character falls within a numeric range, such as 21[0-9] This finds the strings 212 and 210. If you only wanted to find strings with numbers between 4 and 7, you’d use this regular expression: 21[4-7] This finds the strings 215 but not the strings 210 or 218 because both 0 and 8 lie outside the defined range of 4–7. Table 3-6 shows examples of different regular expressions and the strings that they find. This section shows a handful of regular expression symbols you can use to search for string patterns. A lot more regular expressions can perform all sorts of weird and wonderful pattern searching, so you can always find out more about these other options by browsing www.regular-expressions. info. By stringing multiple regular expression wildcards together, you can search for a variety of different string patterns, as shown in Table 3-6.
Finding Strings with Regular Expressions 171 Table 3-6 Pattern t..k f[aeiou]t d[^ou]g zo* zo+ sp[a–f] key[0–9] p[aei].[0–9] Examples of Pattern Matching with Different Regular Expressions Matches These Strings talk tusk fat fit fet dig dmg zo zoo z zo zoo spa spe spf key4 pey8 pit6 pa21 Book II Chapter 3 Manipulating Data You can always combine regular expressions to create complicated search patterns, such as the last regular expression in Table 3-6: p[aei].[0-9] This regular expression might look like a mess, but you can dissect it one part at a time. First, it searches for this four-character pattern: ✦ The first character must start with p. ✦ The second character must only be an a, e, or i: [aei]. ✦ The third character defines the (.) wildcard, so it can be anything from a letter, number, or symbol. ✦ The fourth character must be a number: [0-9]. As you can see, regular expressions give you a powerful and simple way to search for various string patterns. After you find a particular string, you can manipulate it with the built-in string manipulation functions and operators in a specific programming language.
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The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was created primarily to modernize the flow of healthcare information, stipulate how Personally Identifiable Information maintained by the healthcare and healthcare insurance industries should be protected from fraud and theft, and address limitations on healthcare insurance coverage – such as portability and the coverage of individuals with pre-existing conditions.