326 Drawbacks of Arrays To get around the problem of creating large arrays that aren’t needed, you can create resizable or dynamic arrays that can grow or shrink as you need them (see the earlier section, “Working with Resizable Arrays”). Such resizable arrays can be convenient, but you have to make sure that each time you resize an array, you don’t accidentally delete data that you want to keep. Data types Another limitation of arrays is that they can hold only one data type at a time. So if you want to store a list of names and numbers, you have to create two separate arrays: ✦ One array to store the names ✦ Another array to store the numbers Some programming languages allow you to create a data type called a variant. A variant data type can hold any type of data, so if you create an array of variant data types, you can create an array that can hold both strings and numbers. Searching and sorting Another problem with arrays is searching and sorting an array. If you create an array to hold 10,000 names, how can you find the name Bill Gates stored in that array? To search for data stored in an array, you have to search through the entire array from start to finish. For a small array, this can be acceptable, but searching through an array that contains thousands of names or numbers can get tedious and slow, especially if you need to search through an array on a regular basis. So if an array contains 10,000 names and the name you want is the last element in that array, you have to search through 10,000 array elements just to find the name you want. More cumbersome than searching an array is sorting an array. If you store 10,000 names in an array and suddenly decide you want to sort those names in alphabetical order, you have to move and sort the entire list one array element at a time. Doing this once may be acceptable, but doing this on a regular basis can be cumbersome and slow. Adding and deleting Rather than dump all your data in an array and try to sort it out later, you might want to sort data while you store it. Adding data to an empty array is easy; dump the data in any array element. The problem comes when you want to add data in between two array elements.
Drawbacks of Arrays 327 Suppose you have the names Charles Green and Mary Halls in an array, as shown in Figure 1-11. If you wanted to insert the name Johnny Grey in between Charles Green and Mary Halls, you’d have to copy all array elements starting with Mary Hall and move them to the next array element. Johnny Grey Figure 1-11: Inserting data into an array means copying and moving data from one array element to another. To insert data in an array . . . . . . you must first move all data from one array element to another . . . . . . then you can insert your new data in the empty array element. 0 1 2 Charles Green Mary Hall 0 1 2 Charles Green Mary Hall 0 1 2 Charles Green Johnny Grey Mary Hall For a small array, this isn’t a problem, but for a large array of 10,000 names, copying and moving several thousand names consistently is cumbersome and slow. Even worse, what if you want to delete an array element? It’s easy to delete an array element by just setting that array element to a blank value, such as zero or a space. However, the more items you delete from an array, the more empty spaces you have, wasting space. Book III Chapter 1 Structures and Arrays The time to use arrays depends on both the amount of data you need to store and whether you need to manipulate that data later: ✦ Perfect: Store a small, fixed size list of one data type. ✦ Not so good: Store large amounts of data that can change in quantity, needs to be sorted or searched, or data that contains different types of information, such as numbers and text. In this case, arrays can be too restrictive. You may want to look at other data structures, such as collections (see Book III, Chapter 3).
Agreed in 2016, the motive of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is to better protect the personal data of European Union “data subjects” – EU citizens and other nationals physically present in the EU at the time data are collected. Visit: https://www.hipaajournal.com/gdpr-training/
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was created primarily to modernize the flow of healthcare information, stipulate how Personally Identifiable Information maintained by the healthcare and healthcare insurance industries should be protected from fraud and theft, and address limitations on healthcare insurance coverage – such as portability and the coverage of individuals with pre-existing conditions.