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# programming-for-dummies

## 380 Creating Trees A

380 Creating Trees A related problem, dubbed the Traveling Salesman problem, takes this one step further by finding the shortest round-trip route through a graph where the same node is both the starting and ending point. In this case, the shortest route through a graph may not necessarily be the shortest round-trip route to return to the same starting point. Both the Traveling Salesman and the Chinese Postman problem can get more complicated with a weighted or directed graph. A directed graph may restrict movement in one direction, such as traveling through one-way streets in a city, whereas a weighted graph can make one route longer than two shorter routes combined. Adding in directed and weighted graphs can alter the best solution. If you ever looked up directions on a map Web site such as MapQuest, you’ve used a graph to find the most efficient way from one location to another. Connecting nodes in a graph Another use for graphs involves topological graph theory. This problem is highlighted by the Three Cottage problem with three cottages needing to connect to the gas, water, and electricity companies, but their lines can’t cross each other. (It’s impossible, by the way.) Connecting lines in a graph without crossing is a problem that circuit board designers face in the placement of chips. Another example of eliminating intersections involves transportation designs, such as the design of highways or railroad tracks. Creating Trees Graphs typically represent a chaotic arrangement of data with little or no structure. To give graphs some form of organization, computer scientists have created special graphs dubbed trees. Like a graph, a tree consists of nodes and edges, but unlike a graph, a tree organizes data in a hierarchy, as shown in Figure 5-5. A tree arranges a graph in a hierarchy with a single node appearing at the top (or the root node) and additional nodes appearing connected underneath (or internal nodes). If a node has no additional nodes connected underneath, those nodes are leaf nodes, as shown in Figure 5-6.

Creating Trees 381 Figure 5-5: A tree is a hierarchical graph. A graph A tree Root node Figure 5-6: A tree consists of one root node and multiple leaf and internal nodes. A tree Internal node Leaf node Ordered trees A tree can store information at random in its different nodes, which is dubbed an unordered tree. However, the tree is already in the form of a hierarchy, so it only makes sense to take advantage of this built-in structure and create an ordered tree. Book III Chapter 5 Graphs and Trees An ordered tree provides a distinct beginning node (the root node) with additional nodes organized in a hierarchy. Such a hierarchy can store and show relationships of a corporate management team or the spread of a flu epidemic through different cities. As a result, ordered trees are a common data structure used to both model and organize data. One common use for ordered trees involves storing data. Under each root node, you can have 26 internal nodes that each represent a single letter of the alphabet from A to Z. Under each of these letter nodes, you can have multiple nodes that contain the actual data, as shown in Figure 5-7.

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Beginning Programming ALL-IN-ONE DE

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Beginning Programming ALL-IN-ONE DE

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About the Author I started off as a

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Acknowledgments This is the part of

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Contents at a Glance Introduction .

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Table of Contents Introduction.....

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Table of Contents xi Finding an Int

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Table of Contents xiii Playing with

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Table of Contents xv Using Structur

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Table of Contents xvii Searching wi

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Table of Contents xix Book VI: Prog

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Table of Contents xxi Declaring Con

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Introduction If you enjoy using a c

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How to Use This Book 3 means they

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Book I Getting Started

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Chapter 1: Getting Started Programm

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How Computer Programming Works 9 De

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The History of Computer Programming

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The History of Computer Programming

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The History of Computer Programming

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Figuring Out Programming 17 As a ge

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Figuring Out Programming 19 ✦ Lin

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Figuring Out Programming 21 Convert

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Figuring Out Programming 23 certain

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Getting Started with Programming 25

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Knowing Programming versus Knowing

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Chapter 2: Different Methods for Wr

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Spaghetti Programming without a Pla

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Planning Ahead with Structured Prog

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Planning Ahead with Structured Prog

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Planning Ahead with Structured Prog

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Making User Interfaces with Event-D

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Making User Interfaces with Event-D

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Organizing a Program with Object-Or

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Organizing a Program with Object-Or

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Organizing a Program with Object-Or

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Chapter 3: Types of Programming Lan

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Choosing Your First Language 51 ext

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Teaching Languages 53 Principles Be

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Teaching Languages 55 The Interacti

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Teaching Languages 57 near future.

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Teaching Languages 59 The main disa

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Teaching Languages 61 Book I Chapte

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“Curly Bracket” Languages 63

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“Curly Bracket” Languages 65 Th

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“Curly Bracket” Languages 67 C#

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“Curly Bracket” Languages 69 Vi

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Artificial Intelligence Languages 7

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Scripting Languages 73 2. From the

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Scripting Languages 75 In compariso

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Scripting Languages 77 Transferring

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Database Programming Languages 79 @

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Comparing Programming Languages 81

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Chapter 4: Programming Tools In Thi

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Choosing a Compiler 85 3. Choose a

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Choosing a Compiler 87 than other c

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Choosing a Compiler 89 With a cross

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Finding an Interpreter 91 In the ol

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Compiling to a Virtual Machine 93 C

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Writing a Program with an Editor 95

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Fixing a Program with a Debugger 97

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Fixing a Program with a Debugger 99

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Fixing a Program with a Debugger 10

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Creating a Help File 103 Obviously,

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Dissecting Programs with a Disassem

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Chapter 5: Managing Large Projects

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Software Engineering Methods 109 Fi

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Software Engineering Methods 111 de

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Software Engineering Methods 113 Ad

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Automating Software Engineering wit

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Automating Software Engineering wit

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Automating Software Engineering wit

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Automating Software Engineering wit

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The Pros and Cons of Software Engin

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Book II Programming Basics

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Chapter 1: How Programs Work In Thi

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Using Keywords as Building Blocks 1

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Organizing a Program 131 So if your

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Dividing a Program into Subprograms

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Dividing a Program into Objects 135

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Dividing a Program into Objects 137

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Creating a User Interface 139 The u

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Chapter 2: Variables, Data Types, a

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Declaring Variables 143 This BASIC

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Declaring Variables 145 You can alw

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Declaring Variables 147 Every progr

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Using Different Data Types 149 type

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Retrieving Data from a Variable 151

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Using Constant Values 153 Using Con

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Defining the Scope of a Variable 15

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Defining the Scope of a Variable 15

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Defining the Scope of a Variable 15

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Chapter 3: Manipulating Data In Thi

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Using Math to Manipulate Numbers 16

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Using Math to Manipulate Numbers 16

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Manipulating Strings 167 Most progr

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Finding Strings with Regular Expres

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Finding Strings with Regular Expres

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Using Comparison Operators 173 Comp

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Using Boolean Operators 175 Most pr

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Using Boolean Operators 177 So if t

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Converting Data Types 179 Both type

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Chapter 4: Making Decisions by Bran

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Picking One Choice with the IF-THEN

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Picking Three or More Choices with

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Picking Three or More Choices with

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Playing with Multiple Boolean Opera

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Making Multiple Choices with the SE

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Making Multiple Choices with the SE

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Making Multiple Choices with the SE

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Making Multiple Choices with the SE

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Chapter 5: Repeating Commands by Lo

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Looping a Fixed Number of Times wit

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Looping a Fixed Number of Times wit

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Looping a Fixed Number of Times wit

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Looping Zero or More Times with the

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Playing with Nested Loops 209 This

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Checking Your Loops 211 Outer loop

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Chapter 6: Breaking a Large Program

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Creating and Using Subprograms 215

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Creating and Using Subprograms 217

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Passing Parameters 219 The #include

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Passing Parameters 221 Figure 6-5:

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Passing Parameters 223 When you pas

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Passing Parameters 225 DIM Temp AS

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Repeating a Subprogram with Recursi

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Repeating a Subprogram with Recursi

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Chapter 7: Breaking a Large Program

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How Object-Oriented Programming Wor

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Encapsulation Isolates Data and Sub

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Encapsulation Isolates Data and Sub

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Sharing Code with Inheritance 239 S

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Sharing Code with Inheritance 241 F

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Design Patterns 243 However, when y

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Design Patterns 245 The flyweight p

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Object-Oriented Languages 247 Becau

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Real-Life Programming Examples 249

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Real-Life Programming Examples 251

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Real-Life Programming Examples 253

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Real-Life Programming Examples 255

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Real-Life Programming Examples 257

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Chapter 8: Reading and Saving Files

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Storing Data in Text Files 261 A co

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Storing Data in Text Files 263 Read

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Storing Fixed Size Data in Random-A

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Storing Fixed Size Data in Random-A

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Storing Varying Size Data in Untype

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Using Database Files 271 Figure 8-5

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Using Database Files 273 Think of a

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Using Database Files 275 When using

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Chapter 9: Documenting Your Program

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Adding Comments to Source Code 279

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Adding Comments to Source Code 281

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Adding Comments to Source Code 283

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Writing Software Documentation 285

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Writing Software Documentation 287

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Chapter 10: Principles of User Inte

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The Evolution of User Interfaces 29

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Elements of a User Interface 293 GU

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Elements of a User Interface 295 Fi

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Elements of a User Interface 297 If

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Elements of a User Interface 299 Fi

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Elements of a User Interface 301 Fi

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Designing a User Interface 303 diff

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Designing a User Interface 305 A we

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Designing a User Interface 307 Figu

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Book III Data Structures

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Chapter 1: Structures and Arrays In

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Using Structures 313 If you wanted

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Using an Array 315 the array, which

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Using an Array 317 Perkins has empl

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Working with Resizable Arrays 319 D

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Working with Multi-Dimensional Arra

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Using Structures with Arrays 323 Th

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Drawbacks of Arrays 325 To store da

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Drawbacks of Arrays 327 Suppose you

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• Page 381 and 382: Understanding Hash Tables 357 ✦ D
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• Page 401 and 402: Understanding Graphs 377 457 miles
• Page 403: Understanding Graphs 379 Figure 5-4
• Page 407 and 408: Creating Trees 383 For example, an
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• Page 411 and 412: Taking Action on Trees 387 10 8 12
• Page 413 and 414: Taking Action on Trees 389 10 8 12
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• Page 419 and 420: Using Bubble Sort 395 32 9 74 21 Or
• Page 421 and 422: Using Insertion Sort 397 32 9 74 21
• Page 423 and 424: Using Shell Sort 399 32 9 74 21 50
• Page 425 and 426: Using Heap Sort 401 Heap sort dumps
• Page 427 and 428: Using Merge Sort 403 94 46 74 21 32
• Page 429 and 430: Using Quick Sort 405 Using Quick So
• Page 431 and 432: Comparing Sorting Algorithms 407 If
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• Page 435 and 436: Sequential Search 411 Backward or f
• Page 437 and 438: Sequential Search 413 Binary search
• Page 439 and 440: Sequential Search 415 Fibonacci num
• Page 441 and 442: Using Indexes 417 102 John Smith 55
• Page 443 and 444: Adversarial Search 419 The more lev
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• Page 449 and 450: Sequential Text Search 425 In this
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Searching Phonetically 431 Both sym

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Searching Phonetically 433 If you h

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Chapter 4: Data Compression Algorit

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Lossless Data Compression Algorithm

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Lossless Data Compression Algorithm

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Lossless Data Compression Algorithm

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Lossy Data Compression 443 Basicall

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Chapter 5: Encryption Algorithms In

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The Basics of Encryption 447 in a m

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The Basics of Encryption 449 Stream

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The Basics of Encryption 451 Electr

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Symmetric/Asymmetric Encryption Alg

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Cracking Encryption 455 Sender’s

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Cracking Encryption 457 Instead of

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Cracking Encryption 459 Code cracki

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Book V Web Programming

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Chapter 1: HyperText Markup Languag

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The Structure of an HTML Document 4

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The Structure of an HTML Document 4

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Defining the Background 469 Adding

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Making Tables 471 The anchor point

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Making Tables 473 Book V Chapter 1

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Making Tables 475 Column 1 Column

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Chapter 2: CSS In This Chapter Und

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Creating Style Classes 479 color :

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Separating Styles in Files 481 Sepa

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Cascading Stylesheets 483 If you ha

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Chapter 3: JavaScript In This Chapt

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Declaring Variables 487 need to def

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Using Operators 489 The relational

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Branching Statements 491 To make th

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Using Arrays 493 A variation of the

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Designing User Interfaces 495 A con

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Chapter 4: PHP In This Chapter Und

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Declaring Variables 499 Declaring V

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Using Operators 501 Table 4-3 Logic

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Branching Statements 503 Command; }

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Creating Functions 505 If you don

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Creating Objects 507 Creating Objec

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Chapter 5: Ruby In This Chapter Un

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Using Operators 511 # long time to

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Using Operators 513 Table 5-3 Logic

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Looping Statements 515 Command else

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Using Data Structures 517 Using Dat

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Creating Objects 519 To tell an obj

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Book VI Programming Language Syntax

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Chapter 1: C and C++ In This Chapte

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Declaring Variables 525 Despite min

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Declaring Variables 527 All integer

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Using Operators 529 Relational oper

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Branching Statements 531 Table 1-6

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Looping Statements 533 switch (expr

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Data Structures 535 If a function d

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Using Objects 537 Now you can decla

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Using Objects 539 To inherit from m

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Chapter 2: Java and C# In This Chap

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Declaring Variables 543 The double

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Using Operators 545 Declaring float

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Using Operators 547 The increment o

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Branching Statements 549 if (condit

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Looping Statements 551 Because no b

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Data Structures 553 If the function

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Data Structures 555 You can create

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Using Objects 557 So if you created

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Chapter 3: Perl and Python In This

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Using Operators 561 You can write b

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Using Operators 563 The relational

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Branching Statements 565 Table 3-5

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Looping Statements 567 In Python, t

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Perl Data Structures 569 A typical

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Python Data Structures 571 Creating

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Using Objects 573 After you define

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Chapter 4: Pascal and Delphi In Thi

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Declaring Variables 577 Creating Co

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Declaring Constants 579 Declaring d

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Branching Statements 581 Table 4-5

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Looping Statements 583 Looping Stat

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Data Structures 585 FUNCTION Functi

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Creating Objects 587 clear a dynami

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Chapter 5: Visual Basic and REALbas

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The Structure of a BASIC Program 59

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Declaring Variables 593 Declaring i

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Declaring Constants 595 Declaring B

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Branching Statements 597 Table 5-7

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Branching Statements 599 The preced

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Creating Subprograms and Functions

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Data Structures 603 Data Structures

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Creating Objects 605 Creating Objec

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Book VII Applications

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Chapter 1: Database Management In T

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The Basics of Databases 611 To retr

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The Basics of Databases 613 Althoug

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The Basics of Databases 615 Employe

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Manipulating Data 617 Tables divide

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Manipulating Data 619 The Join comm

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Manipulating Data 621 SET PhoneNumb

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Database Programming 623 Figure 1-1

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Chapter 2: Bioinformatics In This C

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The Basics of Bioinformatics 627 Un

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Searching Databases 629 ✦ Swiss-P

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Bioinformatics Programming 631 Alth

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Chapter 3: Computer Security In Thi

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Stopping Malware 635 Worms Similar

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Stopping Hackers 637 Stopping Hacke

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Secure Computing 639 Forensics If y

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Secure Computing 641 start. The ide

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Chapter 4: Artificial Intelligence

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Problem Solving 645 Game-playing Be

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Problem Solving 647 Expert System K

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Problem Solving 649 Humans can unde

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Problem Solving 651 Such speech rec

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Machine Learning 653 With LISP, eve

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Machine Learning 655 Robotics and a

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`Chapter 5: The Future of Computer

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Picking an Operating System 659 opt

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Cross-Platform Programming 661 Unfo

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Cross-Platform Programming 663 The

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Cross-Platform Programming 665 Anot

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The Programming Language of the Fut

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The Programming Language of the Fut

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Index Numerics 0 (zero) initializin

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Index 673 blocks of commands in cur

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Index 675 dictionaries versus, 352

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Index 677 database management conne

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Index 679 enumerated variables (C/C

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Index 681 hybrid OOP languages, 246

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Index 683 knowledge base, 646, 647

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Index 685 modeling, 44-45 Modula-2

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Index 687 advantages and disadvanta

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Index 689 looping statements, 600-6

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Index 691 extreme programming metho

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Index 693 source code as, 264 tab-d

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Index 695 as event-driven programmi

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