658 Picking an Operating System entire programs because that was all they had available. However, as soon as assembly language appeared, few people wrote entirely in machine language. Instead, they switched to assembly language because it allows programmers to write more complicated programs. In the early days of personal computers, nearly every programmer used assembly language. One of the first popular word processors, WordStar, even ran on two different processors — the Zilog Z-80 and the Intel 8088. To run on these two different processors, the company had to write WordStar in two completely different assembly languages. When programs were fairly simple, that could be possible; but as programs grew in complexity, writing programs entirely in assembly language proved too cumbersome. That’s when programmers switched to C. Most operating systems today are written entirely in C for maximum efficiency; but as programs grow in complexity, C is quickly falling out of favor just as assembly language and machine language have done before. To maintain maximum efficiency to deal with growing complexity, most programmers have now switched to C++. In the future, the complexity of programs will always make today’s popular programming language too cumbersome to use tomorrow. So, it’s likely that today’s popular C++ language will one day become too clumsy to use for writing programs in the future. If you learn C++ today, plan on adapting and learning a newer programming language to write more complicated programs in the shortest amount of time. The successor to C++ will have to make writing complicated programs easier than C++ while retaining maximum efficiency. This language of the future will depend heavily on the operating systems of the future. Picking an Operating System In the early days of computers, every computer had its own operating system, which made writing programs difficult. Not only did you have to learn a specific programming language, but you also had to learn how to write programs for a specific operating system. To avoid this problem, computer companies standardized around a single operating system. The first standard operating system is CP/M-80, which later gave way to MS-DOS and finally to Microsoft Windows. Initially, a single operating system made writing programs easier because you had to write programs for only one operating system instead of a handful of operating systems. By focusing on a single operating system, you could
Picking an Operating System 659 optimize your program for that one operating system. Knowing which operating system to support can define the success (or failure) of an entire software company. Back in the early days of personal computers, two companies developed a program that everyone called a killer application (or killer app for short). Both of these programs were greatly improved spreadsheet programs used by businesses, but each company took a different approach. One company wrote its spreadsheet program entirely in assembly language and optimized it to run quickly on a single operating system (MS-DOS). The second company developed its spreadsheet to run on multiple operating systems, but to achieve this feat, the company wrote its program in the UCSD Pascal programming language, which runs slowly on all operating systems. Although both programs offer similar features, there was no comparison from the user’s point of view. The program written in assembly language and optimized for the MS-DOS operating system became Lotus 1-2-3, one of the most popular programs ever. The second program, Context MBA, ran so slowly on every operating system that nobody had the patience to use it. Context MBA went out of business, and Lotus 1-2-3 dominated the spreadsheet market — until the standard operating system changed from underneath it. Lotus 1-2-3 had originally been written in assembly language, but as the program grew in complexity, major portions of the program had been rewritten in C. When personal computers switched from MS-DOS to Microsoft Windows, Lotus 1-2-3 wasn’t ready. That’s when Microsoft Excel, written in C, took over and has dominated the spreadsheet market ever since. As Microsoft Excel grows in complexity, major portions of the program are now being rewritten in C++. Eventually, it’s likely that maintaining Microsoft Excel in C++ will become too difficult, and a new spreadsheet program will emerge, written in an entirely different programming language. Book VII Chapter 5 The Future of Computer Programming That’s because the days of a single operating system standard seem to be fading. Instead of Microsoft Windows being the dominant operating system, rivals — such as Linux and Mac OS X — have grown in popularity to challenge Microsoft Windows’ popularity. Unlike the early days when you could write a program for the dominant operating system and capture 90 percent of the market, today if you write a program for a single operating system, you’ll capture an ever-shrinking chunk of the market. If you use a programming language that runs only on a single operating system, you’re locking your programs into future obsolescence. With multiple operating systems becoming common, programs need to run on these major operating systems. If they don’t, they risk losing market share to rivals that do run on multiple operating systems.
Agreed in 2016, the motive of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is to better protect the personal data of European Union “data subjects” – EU citizens and other nationals physically present in the EU at the time data are collected. Visit: https://www.hipaajournal.com/gdpr-training/
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was created primarily to modernize the flow of healthcare information, stipulate how Personally Identifiable Information maintained by the healthcare and healthcare insurance industries should be protected from fraud and theft, and address limitations on healthcare insurance coverage – such as portability and the coverage of individuals with pre-existing conditions.