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NUTRIENT INTAKE

22 EVA ROOS AND RITVA

22 EVA ROOS AND RITVA PRÄTTÄLÄ sweet and salty snacks, and coffee and tea lower among those who followed the conventional meal pattern. Generally, the diet of the conventional meal pattern eaters seemed to be more traditional than that of the others, but did not differ in nutrient content from the more modern food pattern. The lower coffee and tea consumption among followers of the conventional meal pattern was expected; earlier studies have shown that warm and prepared meals have been replaced by coffee and tea (Mintz, 1985; Prättälä & Helminen, 1990). Today, the traditional assumption of a three meal pattern is true for less than half the population. We need new meal models in dietary guidelines which correspond better to daily meal patterns. The conventional three-meal pattern promoted in dietary recommendations seems not to be sufficiently relevant for encouraging a more nutritious diet. A healthy diet is possible both for those who follow the conventional meal pattern and for those who eat fewer meals per day. Both dietary guidelines and educators should place more emphasis on eating occasions. For example, it is more relevant to focus on meals when trying to decrease fat intake, and on snacks when sugar is the target. This study was not able to examine those with a very irregular meal pattern. The irregular meal pattern group was too small for further analysis in the present study. An irregular meal pattern could probably affect the daily nutrient intake. Other ‘‘bad’’ lifestyle habits such as smoking and low physical activity may also be more common among those who eat irregularly. Unfortunately, this group of people is difficult to reach by mailed questionnaires and more likely to be found among study non-attenders. Other approaches and methods should be used to identify the irregular meal pattern group and to analyse associations between life style, irregular eating and nutrient intakes. REFERENCES Anderson, A. S., Macintyre, S. & West, P. (1993). Adolescent meal patters: grazing habits in the west of Scotland. Health Bulletin, 51, 158–165. Basdevant, A., Craplet, C. & Guy-Grand, B. (1993). Snacking patterns in obese French women. Appetite, 21, 17–23. Belloc, N. B. & Breslow, L. (1972). Relationship of physical health status and health practices. Preventive Medicine, 1, 409–421. Birkbeck, J. A. (1981). Obesity, socioeconomic variables and eating habits in New Zealand. Journal of Biosocial Science, 13, 299–307. Bruce, Å. (1987). Måltidsordning (Meal pattern). Vårföda, 6, 244–246. Bruce, Å. (1991). Inledning (Introduction). In Måltiden och måltidsordningen (Meal and meal pattern). p. 5–7. Forskningsrådsnämnden. Report 91:3. Cross, A. T., Babicz, D. & Cushman, L. F. (1994). Snacking patterns among 1,800 adults and children. Journal of American Dietetic Association, 94, 1398–1403. Dugdale, A. E., Townsend, B. & Rigsby, B. (1988). The eating and snacking patterns of young people in Brisbane, Australia. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 1, 95–104. Fabry, P. & Tepperman, J. (1970). Meal frequency—a possible factor in human pathology. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 23, 1059–1068. Franceschi, S., La Vecchia, C., Bidoli, E., Negri, E. & Talamini R. (1992). Meal frequency and risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Research, 52, 3589–3592. Gillespie, A. (1983). Assessing snacking behavior of children. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 13, 167–172. Haraldsdottir, J., Holm, L., Jensen, J. H. & Møller, A. (1989). Danskernes kostvaner 2. Hvem spiser hvad? (Danish food habits 2, who is eating what?) Denmark: LST, 154.

MEAL PATTERN AND NUTRIENT INTAKE AMONG ADULT FINNS 23 Holm, L. (1993). Cultural and social acceptability of a healthy diet. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 47, 592–599. Johansson, G., Callmer, E. & Gustafsson, J.-Å. (1992). Changing from a mixed diet to a Scandinavian vegetarian diet: effects on nutrient intake, food choice, meal pattern and cooking methods. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 46, 707–716. Kennedy, E. T., Harrell, M. W. & Frazao, B. (1982). Distribution of nutrient intake across meals in the United States Population. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 11, 225–233. Kleemola, P., Virtanen, M. I. & Pietinen, P. (1994). The 1992 Dietary Survey of Finnish Adults. Publications of the National Public Health Institute B2/1994. Helsinki. Kohlmeier, L. (1994). Gaps in dietary assessment methodology: meal- vs. list-based methods. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59 (suppl), 175–9. Lennernäs, M. A.-C., Åkerstedt, T., Hagman, U., Bruce, Å. & Hambraeus, L. (1993). A new approach for evaluation of meal quality and meal patterns. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 6, 261–273. McCoy, H., Moak, S., Kenney, M. A., Kirby, A., Chopin, L., Billon, W., Clark, A., Disney, G., Ercanli, F. G., Glover, E., Korslund, M., Lewi, H., Ritchey, J., Schilling, P., Shoffner, S. & Wakefield, T. Jr. (1986). Snacking patterns and nutrient density of snacks consumed by southern girls. Journal of Nutrition Education, 18, 61–66. Mennel, S., Murcott, A. & van Otterloo, A. H. (1992). The Sociology of Food: Eating, Diet and Culture. SAGE Publications, London. Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. (1992). Dietary guidelines for elderly (in Finnish). Publications of Ministry of Social Affairs and Health 12/92. Helsinki. Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. (1994). Dietary guidelines for hospital catering (in Finnish). Publications of Ministry of Social Affairs and Health 1994:2. Helsinki. Mintz, S. (1985). Sweetness and power. The place of Sugar in Modern History. New York: Viking. Morgan, K. J., Johnson, S. R. & Stampley, G. L. (1988). Relationship between snack and meal consumption. Nutrition Research, 8, 703–716. Mäkelä, J. (1991). Defining a meal. In: Fürst, E. L., Prättälä, R., Ekström, M., Holm, L. & Kjærnes, U. (Eds), Palatable worlds: sociocultural food studies. Pp. 87–108. Oslo: Solum Forlag A/S. National Board of Health. (1989). Child, family and diet (in Finnish). Publications of the National Board of Health, Finland. Series statistics and reviews 7/1989. Helsinki. National Board of Health. (1990). Dietary guidelines for sportsmen (in Finnish). Publications of the National Board of Health, Finland. Series statistics and reviews 5/1990. Helsinki. National Nutrition Council. (1989). Dietary Guidelines and their scientific principles. Résumé of the committee report 1987:3. Helsinki: Government Printing Centre. 55 pp. Ovaskainen, M.-L. (1992). The diet of male smokers, its structure and associations with health status (in Finnish). English summary. Publications of the National Public Health Institute A9/1992. Helsinki. Ovaskainen, M.-L., Lauronen, J. & Haapakoski, J. (1994). Epidemiological food and nutrient database at the National Public Health Institute. Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition, Supplement No 29 (Advances in Nutrition Research 10-Year Anniversary Symposium of the Department of Clinical Nutrition), 38, 10. Pao, E. M. & Mickle, S. J. (1981). Nutrients from meals and snacks consumed by individuals. Family Economics Review, Summer 1981, 9–15. Prättälä, R. & Helminen, P. (1990). Finnish meal patterns. In: Somogyi, J. C. & Koskinen, E. H., (Eds), Nutritional adaptation to new life-styles. Bibl Nutr Dieta, 45, Pp. 80–91. Basel, Karger. Prättälä, R. (1991). Outlining multidisciplinary food research. In: Fürst, E. L., Prättälä, R., Ekström, M., Holm, L. & Kjærnes, U. (Eds), Palatable worlds: sociocultural food studies. Pp. 17–31. Oslo: Solum Forlag A/S. Prättälä, R., Pelto, G., Pelto, P., Ahola, M. & Räsänen, L. (1993). Continuity and chance in meal patterns: the case of urban Finland. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 31, 87–100. Roos, E., Ovaskainen, M.-L. & Pietinen, P. (1995a). Validity and comparison of three saturated fat indices. Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition, 39, 55–59. Roos, E., Kleemola, P. & Pietinen, P. (1995b). Tyydyttyneen rasvan lähteet eri väestöryhmien ravinnossa (Diet and sources of saturated fat in different socioeconomic classes). Suomen Lääkärilehti, 50, 1735–1739.

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