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NUTRIENT INTAKE

16 EVA ROOS AND RITVA

16 EVA ROOS AND RITVA PRÄTTÄLÄ 600 Energy derived from fat kjoule/hour 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Time FIGURE 2. Distribution of energy intake derived from fat during the day. Ε, men; Φ, women. RESULTS The distribution of energy intake during the day corresponded to the conventional 3-meal pattern of one energy peak at breakfast time, one at lunch time and one at dinner time, for both men and women (Fig. 1). For the energy derived from fat, two peaks could be observed, one at lunch and one at dinner time, but a peak at breakfast time could only be observed for women (Fig. 2). The energy intake derived from sugar was evenly distributed from 6 a.m. to 9 p.m. (Fig. 3). About half the daily energy was obtained from meals (Table 2) and over 10% of the total daily energy intake came from eating occasions other than meals or snacks. Fat and protein intakes were associated with meals, whereas sugar and alcohol were mostly consumed in snacks and other eating occasions. Comparing nutrient densities of different eating occasions showed that meals contained more fat, proteins, fibre, carotenoids and cholesterol per energy unit, but less sugar, vitamin C and alcohol than other eating occasions (Table 3). The analysis of food items in different eating occasions showed that meals had a higher density of cereals and vegetables, and a lower density of fruit and berries, juices, coffee and tea, and desserts and cakes. As expected, meals had the highest density of cooked dishes, potatoes, pasta and rice, and snacks the lowest. Other eating occasions were intermediate in these respects and they included the highest proportions of juice, soft drinks, coffee and tea, candies and crisps. The distribution of meal patterns in different age groups and regions is shown in Table 1. The last two groups in Table 1 were combined in a further analysis of meal pattern into a single group ‘‘Other meal pattern’’ (2M), because of the few cases in the one meal group. Ninety two percent of the 2M-group ate breakfast, 51% ate warm lunch and 46% ate warm dinner.

MEAL PATTERN AND NUTRIENT INTAKE AMONG ADULT FINNS 17 600 Energy derived from sugar kjoule/hour 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Time FIGURE 3. Distribution of energy intake derived from sugar during the day. Ε, men; Φ, women. TABLE 2 Energy and nutrient intake from different eating occasions among 991 women and 870 men Nutrients Meal Snack Other eating occasions Total Absolute (% of Absolute (% of Absolute (% of intake intake daily intake daily intake daily intake) intake) intake) Men Energy, kjoule 5 638 (55) 3 409 (32) 1 333 (13) 10 380 Fat, g 56·1 (59) 29·2 (30) 10·1 (11) 95·3 Saturated fat, g 25·0 (58) 13·9 (31) 4·1 (11) 43·7 Carbohydrate, g 150 (51) 107 (36) 37 (13) 293 Sugar, g 19·2 (34) 30·3 (50) 8·7 (16) 58·2 Protein, g 62·7 (64) 24·9 (25) 10·2 (11) 98·2 Alcohol, g 2·4 (20) 5·4 (40) 6·2 (40) 14·0 Women Energy, kjoule 4 314 (55) 2 706 (34) 789 (11) 7 807 Fat, g 41·8 (59) 22·3 (31) 6·6 (10) 71·1 Saturated fat, g 18·5 (57) 11·0 (33) 3·1 (10) 32·6 Carbohydrate, g 118 (50) 92 (39) 24 (11) 234 Sugar, g 17·4 (35) 27·2 (53) 5·9 (12) 50·5 Protein, g 48·0 (65) 18·8 (26) 6·8 (9) 73·9 Alcohol, g 1·0 (24) 2·0 (48) 1·3 (28) 4·3

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