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NUTRIENT INTAKE

18 EVA ROOS AND RITVA

18 EVA ROOS AND RITVA PRÄTTÄLÄ TABLE 3 Nutrient density of different eating occasions in 991 women and 870 men Density Nutrients In meals In snacks In other eating occasions Men Fat, E% 37·4∗ 30·9 22·8∗ Saturated fat, E% 16·6∗ 14·8 10·6∗ Carbohydrate, E% 45·2∗ 55·4 57·7 Sugar, E% 5·6∗ 16·0 16·9 Protein, E% 19·1∗ 12·1 10·6∗ Alcohol, E% 1·3∗ 4·1 16·3∗ Fibre, g/10 MJ 26·2∗ 21·9 18·6∗ Vitamin C, mg/10 MJ 132∗ 172 183 Carotenoids, mg/10 MJ 6·6∗ 2·8 3·6 Cholesterol, mg/10 MJ 462∗ 316 239∗ Women Fat, E% 36·5∗ 29·7 25·2∗ Saturated fat, E% 16·1∗ 14·6 11·9∗ Carbohydrate, E% 46·7∗ 59·3 57·0∗ Sugar, E% 6·6∗ 16·9 18·2∗ Protein, E% 19·2∗ 11·8 12·0 Alcohol, E% 0·6∗ 2·0 6·7∗ Fibre, g/10 MJ 27·8∗ 25·3 24·0 Vitamin C, mg/10 MJ 181∗ 244 246 Carotenoids, mg/10 MJ 9·3∗ 4·0 7·4∗ Cholesterol, mg/10 MJ 449∗ 303 285 ∗ Starred density values are significantly different to snack density values (p

MEAL PATTERN AND NUTRIENT INTAKE AMONG ADULT FINNS 19 TABLE 4 Daily intake of energy and nutrients by meal pattern of 888 women and 801 men Nutrients Conventional Other meal Δ 3M–2M, p-value, meal pattern pattern adjusted for adjusted for (3M), (2M), age and age and unadjusted unadjusted region region Men (N=371) (N=430) Kjoule 10656 10142 316 0·14 Kcal 2548 2425 76 0·14 Fat, E% 34·3 34·8 −0·2 0·60 Saturated fat, E% 15·6 15·8 −0·2 0·48 Carbohydrate, E% 48·9 47·6 0·8 0·15 Sugar, E% 9·1 9·6 −0·6 0·09 Protein, E% 16·5 16·1 0·4 0·10 Alcohol, E% 3·4 4·4 −0·8 0·07 Fibre g/10 MJ 24·8 23·2 0·9 0·08 Vitamin C mg/10 MJ 134 136 0·4 0·94 Carotenoids mg/10 MJ 4·8 4·7 0·2 0·35 Cholesterol mg/10 MJ 399 394 10 0·32 Women (N=377) (N=511) Kjoule 8107 7554 529 0·0003 Kcal 1938 1807 126 0·0003 Fat, E% 33·8 34·4 −0·2 0·60 Saturated fat, E% 15·6 15·8 −0·03 0·90 Carbohydrate, E% 51·7 50·5 0·6 0·27 Sugar, E% 10·4 10·5 −0·2 0·49 Protein, E% 16·5 16·3 0·2 0·40 Alcohol, E% 1·2 1·9 −0·5 0·03 Fibre g/10 MJ 26·8 25·7 0·5 0·36 Vitamin C mg/10 MJ 184 201 −17 0·03 Carotenoids mg/10 MJ 6·6 7·2 −0·3 0·33 Cholesterol mg/10 MJ 399 385 17 0·05 DISCUSSION Fewer than half the subjects followed the conventional meal pattern model used in dietary guidelines. About half those who did not follow this pattern skipped lunch and about half dinner, while breakfast was normally not skipped. The distribution of meal patterns we found corresponds well with data from a study of women in Helsinki, in which 47% ate breakfast, lunch and dinner, 27% skipped lunch and 25% skipped dinner (Prättälä et al., 1993). More than 10% of the energy intake in the present study came from the uncoded ‘‘other eating occasions’’. These seemed to be partly missing entries and partly occasions when subjects were simply unable to code as either meals or snacks. In the earlier meal pattern study in Helsinki, snacks never included prepared or cooked food (Prättälä et al., 1993). The density of cooked food in ‘‘other eating occasions’’ lay between those of meals and snacks; which suggests that some of the responses classified as ‘‘other eating occasions’’ were actually missing entries. The densities of beverages and typical snack foods like candies and crisps were highest for other eating occasions; maybe eating occasions that generally were not regarded as meals

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