“Mettavalokanaya” International Buddhist Magazine has been successfully distributed to 40 countries including all districts across Sri Lanka and now “Mettavalokanaya” is Sri Lankan Most Popular & Leading monthly Buddhist Magazine.

Epoch Making ceremony of

presentation of Sri Lankan

Buddhist Magazine,


to the Tibetan spiritual

leader His Holiness the

Dalai Lama….

Popular & leading Buddhist Magazine in Sri Lanka,

Mettavalokanaya” Monthly Buddhist Magazine was recently

presented to the Tibetan spiritual leader His Holiness the

Dalai Lama by the Founder, President & Chief Editor of

Mettavalokanaya, Mr. Buddhika Sanjeewa, at Rajgir - Nalanda

International Convention Centre, Bihar, India on March 20,

2017. This is the first time that a Sri Lankan Buddhist Magazine

was presented to the Tibetan spiritual leader His Holiness the

Dalai Lama.

His Holiness who was very happy and blessed the

Mettavalokanaya people for their future success. His Holiness

appreciated the contents and the various dhamma articles in

the Mettavalokanaya, Buddhist Magazine of Sri Lanka.

Mettavalokanaya has now been published in English and

includes 52 pages of articles related to Buddhism. Since its

establishment in December 01, 2014, the Buddhist Magazine

has been successfully distributed to over 40 countries up to

date, and also to all districts across Sri Lanka.

Mettavalokanaya Buddhist Magazine will continue to

aim to be the magazine that will take the higher teachings

of the Enlightened One to those in Sri Lanka and across the

world. The magazine comprises of special articles written by

leading Buddhist Monks in Sri Lanka & overseas as well as lay


Mettavalokanaya” Buddhist Magazine’s slogan is “The

Aspiration of Metta (Loving kindness) to Enlighten the Minds”.

Our mission is to write and publish on pure teachings of

Buddha and share them via different print media and online

media platforms with the whole world.

It is also our sincere aspiration to bring the message

of the sublime Dhamma to the youth of today and to lead

them in the correct path to happiness, where they are today

inundated by such digital and social media contents that

influence them to defile their mind.

More information about the magazine and all published

articles can be accessed on the website - www.mettavalokanaya.

com, as well as on socials media- Mettavalokanaya Facebook

page, Youtube, Google +, Twitter, Blogger, Instagram, Linkedin,

Yumpu, Flickr, Pinterest, Tumblr and Wikipedia.

Mettavalokanaya sincerely believes in our Dhamma

effort which would be very useful for those on sublime path

as well as those who aspire to be in that path all around

the world. We also desire to publish more publications as a

Buddhist Centre in the near future. It is our sincere promise

that we shall strive all the time to bring the message of

sublime Dhamma to all in this world which is beset with greed

and hatred and help them to alleviate their minds and lead

happy lives both here and hereafter.

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wdOHd;aóh kdhl

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Y%S ,dxflah fn!oaO i`.rdjla miq.shod mQcd lrk ,È' tu

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fn!oaO i`.rdjhs'

bka§h rcfhka ,o úfYaI wdrdOkdjla u; bkaÈhdj

n,d .sh fu;a;djf,dalkfha ks¾ud;D" iNdm;s yd m%Odk

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rdca.S¾ - kd,kaod cd;Hka;r iïuka;%K Yd,d mßY%fha §

2017 ud¾;= ui 20 fjksod meje;s cd;Hka;r fn!oaO iuq`Mj

w;r;=f¾ § fu;a;djf,dalkfha msgm;a lsysmhla fuys§

w;sW;=ï o,hs ,dud kdysñmdKka jykafia fj; ms

We tend to forget our connection with the world but

we are like a family, and the death of one of us should bring

tears to the rest of us for the remaining part of our life. If we

could see the interdependence of things, it would be easy

for us to see the beauty within everything we contact. The

death of a brother creates an unbalanced family, just as the

killing of a rabbit or cutting down of a mango tree will cause an

unbalanced world. We fail to see things how they are but try

to express them to suit our needs. If we could take ourselves

to be part of the world, how could we end the life of others?

The world we live in, due to our greed and ignorance, is

becoming a place that brings restlessness and fear to many

living beings. Man, due to his greed, is creating things that

will destroy even his own life. Our early grandparents lived in

the moment, but today’s people try to live in the next coming

hundred years before they even know what will happen in the

coming second. Man, due to his greed, can be inconsistent;

destroying his own home while thinking he is creating a good

place for his future child.

The better thinking through

The Dhamma….

Most Venerable Dr. Bhiksuni Ming Yu

The President - Chinese Young Buddhist Association in Taiwan & the Honorary Adviser

of the World Alliance of Buddhists (WAB) and President of the Outstanding Women in

Buddhism Awards

We are kept prisoners in the circle of birth and death

because of our ignorance, attachment and aversion. We are

all alike insofar as we are subject to afflictions, yet there are

many differences among living beings with which we are all

familiar. For instance, some of us are wealthy, while others

of us are poor; some are strong and healthy while others are

weak and diseased, and so forth.

All difference arising which separates beings from

actions, needs and behaviors are what we call karma. Karma

also determines what kind of next life into which one should

be reborn. We might also recall that part of the Buddha’s

experience on the night of his enlightenment consisted of

gaining an understanding of how karma determines the

rebirth of living beings--how living beings migrate from happy

to unhappy and from unhappy to happy conditions as a

consequence of their particular karma. So, the real definition

of karma is action; that is to say, the act of doing this or that.

This action however is not mechanical nor is it unconscious

or involuntary. On contrary, karma is intentional, conscious,

deliberate action motivated by volition or will.

According to the law of karma, if we perform a

wholesome action, sooner or later we will obtain a wholesome

fruit, or result, and if we perform an unwholesome action, we

will inevitably obtain an unwholesome or unwanted result. In

Buddhism, there is a saying, which goes, “particular causes

bring those particular effects that are similar in nature to

those causes.” This law is fixed.

In this section I will consider human karma as the central

figure of discussion because we all belong to the same realm.

Human karma is separated into three ways. This is what

the Buddha said. We have body-generating karma, speechgenerating

karma and mind-generating karma. All intentional

actions of body, speech and mind produce karmic results that

will inevitably occur. This is

unchangeable, and even the

Buddha cannot change this

law. You make it, you face the


Generally speaking,

karma is divided into three

basic kinds; I have tried to

give a brief description of

these kinds in the following

sections. According to your

action, you may have a good,

bad or neutral result. Good

karma is produced by acts that

are intended to help other

living beings; for example,

donations of materials to

those in need. Bad karma is

produced by acts that are

intended to harm other living

beings, like walking on top

of ants, killing mosquitoes,

murdering, cursing and

scolding, etc.

The Buddha said,

“Happy is goodwill towards

all sentient beings; happy

is non-attachment; happy

is he who has heard the

Truth and utilizes it; happy

is the one who controls his

mind; happy is the one who

lives without sensual and

flirting pleasures.” A single

unwholesome thought can

cause immeasurable suffering for oneself as well as for


Dams had dangerous thoughts of

falling in love with Chris, which resulted

in rape and the loss of two lives. Suicide

is not the solution to frustrations and

disappointment, as it creates even

more problems. The Buddha teaches

that there is a best, most convenient

way to end suffering. This way purifies

the mind, and a purified mind cannot

have suffering. The Buddhist Teaching (Dharma) says,

“Suicide is morally and spiritually

wrong and is a cowardly way of ending problems. Suicide

cannot occur if your mind is pure and tranquil.”

The path of insight, the path of investigation, helps us

to examine the nature of experience. What seems to be ‘me

being born, moving around in that world out there, and who

will die one day,’ when it is examined closely it’s recognized

that the world is happening here, in our field of experience.

As the Buddha said: ‘That whereby one is a perceiver of the

world, and a conceiver of the world, that is called “the world”

in this Dhamma and discipline.

And what is that whereby one is a perceiver of the world,

and a conceiver of the world? The eye, the ear, the nose, the

tongue, the body, the mind0…. The world is the world of our

experience. It’s our mind’s construction of the world. That

is what is experienced. And

that is born, takes shape and

dissolves, moment by moment.

The sounds of these words, the

feelings of the body, moods

of irritation, enthusiasm,

alertness, sleepiness, comfort,

discomfort, these are patterns

of consciousness, organic

patterns of change, arising,

taking shape, dissolving.

That is the world. There

is no other world we can

meaningfully speak about. We

can only talk about the world of

our own experience. Even if we

use machines and devices to

measure them, those patterns

will still all appear only within

the sphere of our perceptions.

The world is in the mind,

the world we experience

is woven by our mind; it is

woven into being – arising,

passing away – moment by

moment. But that which knows

the world, that which is the

Lokavidhu - the knower of the

world – what is that? Where

is that? It is the most real

thing there is, this quality of

knowing, yet it has no shape,

no form.

It is not a person, it does

not begin or end, it is not

here or there. It is totally real but completely

intangible. How mysterious. But when

the heart is allowed to embody

that quality of knowing, awakened

awareness, then that is the realization


the Deathless, the Unborn and

Undying itself. That which knows the

born and dying is not the born and

dying. That which knows inspiration

i s

not inspired. That which knows regret

a n d pain is not pained. That which knows

suffering is not suffering. This is why

liberation is possible.

4 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 5

Buddhism and Modern Science….

Most Venerable Dr. Galle Udita Nayaka Thero

Chief Sangha Nayake Thero of Singapore and Chief Abbot of the Buddha Vihar Society

in Singapore, the Director of the Wijayananda Buddhist Training Institute, the Senior

Lecture in Institute of Buddhist Philosophy, Buddhist and Pali University in Singapore.

Teaching of the Buddha - The Lord Buddha founded

Buddhism in six hundred BC. He delivered His first sermon at

Deer Park in Varanasi. The sermon contains on the Middle path

that constitutes eight noble path namely right understanding,

right thoughts, right speech, right action, right livelihood,

right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. It also

consists of four noble truths that one should realize to attain

salvation namely the truth of suffering, the truth of the cause

of suffering, the truth of cessation of suffering and the truth

of the path leading to the cessation of suffering. One should

give up two extremes namely indulging in sense pleasures and

self-mortification in order to follow the middle path.

Doctrine - His teaching comprises Sutra, Vinaya and

Abhidhamma. Sutras are the sermons delivered to various

kinds of people at various occasions to suit their characters

and understanding. Vinaya is the discipline that comprises

of many rules and duties for disciples to practice for their

discipline. Abhidhamma contains analysis of mind and matter

and their role in making existence of life.

In brief, Buddhism is a philosophy of life rather than a

religion that binds the man to God. It contains many aspects

of life, whether holy or secular life. It has revealed the path

to liberation. The liberation mainly is mainly focused by the

wisdom. According to Buddhism, Knowledge and wisdom

are not the same. Knowledge can be gathered through

sense faculties but wisdom can be achieved only through

the development of mental culture. Scientists have special

knowledge that has been achieved by their thoughtful

experiences based on the knowledge gained through sense

faculties. Wisdom is genuine experience rehearsed through

inward development. It has to be developed through three

kinds of realities namely impermanence, suffering and


Buddhism embraces all happenings in the world through

five natural orders namely order of cause and effect, biological

order, seasonal order, order of mind and the order of norm.

The theory of relativity has been founded by the Buddha many

centuries ago in Abhidhamma and it comprises of 24 causal

relations. Buddhism has given a new meaning to all existing

things and all the things in the world are made of causes and

conditions. Without external and internal communication

among beings through senses there is no world according to

Buddhism. Life exists due to the accumulation of Karma.

Modern Science - In this modern world there are many

inventions by the science. Many of the things invented by the

science have been useful to people. But there is no perfect

conclusion of the research and examination of the facts in

science. What have been founded today can be changed

tomorrow by new research and findings. Many new inventions

come to market every day to gratify the senses of man. There

is no end of desire of man with those new inventions. Most

recent new invention of modern science is information

technology. It has made the world very small.

Benefits of science - All activities of man have been

made easy by the discoveries of modern science. Everything

has gone to electronic. But when we carefully study of the

result of the new invention, we see there are also a lot of

disadvantages of new products. It is very obvious that people

have been addicted to hand phones and laptops that they

rarely talk to each other rather than communicating through

face book. Each and everybody have so many friends in face

book and they communication with others electronically only.

The electronic machine handles all records of man and

the man is free of maintaining the memory of things. Thereby

he is no more responsible for the future in case of breaking

down of the machine. Now we have to question ourselves

whether this mechanism could help us to get rid of suffering

and attain the bliss of emancipation.

We have some respect to modern inventions of

science; especially the inventions of human field of health

have prolonged the life of man, prevented man from various

sicknesses. Science that has discovered cloning may help to

replace damage organs. Cloning of human may not ethical.

Industrial inventions also have helped the man to make many

perfect mass products with less labor. At the same time many

have lost their jobs.

Disadvantages of modern science - In spite of peace

and harmony in the world the new discoveries of nuclear

and chemical weapons could have been conducive to many

calamities and destruction of the man. The man lives in

uncertain world. Any time another war can be erupted as

long as the desire of man for power has not been appeased.

The man plans his own destruction using even his modern

scientific discoveries. Desire, anger and illusive thoughts have

been dominated in the mind of man. He simply believes what

has written in books and what has he heard from others and

tries to empower his own concepts and thoughts. He is a slave

to his own tradition and therefore he abuses human dignity

based on his own thoughts.

Although scientists and Buddhist doctrine have

eliminated certain superstitions and meaningless traditional

practices the man is still not able to get rid of his own

attachment to wrong views and practices.

Buddhist revolution - Buddhism has discarded ancient

creation of discrimination of man and treated all equally not

by birth but by actions of man. Buddhism talks not only about

the man but all beings. It has taken brave steps to protect all

beings from selfish killing committed by man. But the man still

justifies what he is doing is correct. He eats innocent dump

animals in order to gratify his sensual feelings. He justifies it is

not wrong to kill or destroy others in the name of religion or

God or as a way of his livelihood.

Free Thinkers - Some do not want to follow any religion

and they say that they are free thinkers. It is more dangerous.

But one cannot be free thinkers simply by refusing religion.

Religions help man to practice good deeds and to avoid evils.

Founders of religion have introduced certain morals for man to

practice for their good behavior and salvation. Man has abused

the religion and he has turned it for his own selfishness. If an

individual want to be a free thinker Buddhist teaching is the

best for one has to adhere because Buddhism has made man

to think. There are no orders or compulsory commandments

in Buddhism. It is said Buddha is only a guide. He does not

promise one to take him to heaven. But Buddhism has taught

people the way to happiness and heaven. The doctrine has to

be seen by oneself, enlightenment is to be realised by oneself,

it has to be realised by individually and the wise. The teaching

is revealed for any one for enquiring.

Challenge of science - Science may never find the causes

of existence and the way to get rid of suffering. Science does

research only on material elements. Buddhism goes beyond

it by investigation on mental factors. Mental energy only has

coordinating factors. We have learnt that Material elements

are conditioned by four causes according to Abhidhamma,

that is Karma, Citta, Utu and Ahara. They are the cause and

effect, mind, season and nutrition. Mental energy runs all the

time in a state of flux. It can even produce material elements.

The nature of mind is arising and perishing giving rise to

constant changes.

Seventeen thought moments constitute one unit of

matter at a time. Thoughts processes that direct senses

towards objects for functioning are explained only in

Abhidhamma in Buddhist teaching. The cognizing of object is

decided depending on the number of thought moments. The

object is very clear and the function is taken place when only

mind runs to seventeen thought moments. Once the function

is done it is also registered twice in the mind. Mind is also the

main source of Karma. The seven impulses constitute Karma.

Contact, feeling, perception and thought are the mental

constitutes that operate Karma. Actions are outcome of the


Scientists believe that mind is in the brain. According to

Buddhism, mind starts in the heart and it moves away when

the heart stops. Five external faculties and mental faculty

coordinate to cognize objects. Mind has it own functions. It

also has its own processes. If the mental object is clear mind

will cognize the object through its thought processes. Recent

discovery of quantum theory that contains the minimum

particles involved in physical entity same as energy that has

proved the duality of mind and matter in Buddhism. The

measurement of the mind depends on the mental properties

inculcated at the time of its functioning according to Buddhism.

Conclusion - Modern science is useful but there are some

disadvantages to unwise man. Now there is no value of time

as the man spends more time to get information of others

that is not so important. He may neglect very important works

than that of surfing internet. On the other way information

technology is very useful also to gain knowledge that is

unknown to oneself. People share their knowledge quickly

through this modern technology. Communication among

people has become very easy by emails and short message

services through hand phones and computer.

Buddhist teaching leads the man to the path of spiritual

development. Ethical learning and practice in Buddhism

are useful tools to make the life balancing of the man.

Accumulation of knowledge without the moral conduct of a

person would be useless. With reference of man’s spiritual and

material wellbeing, one can say that Buddhism goes beyond

science. Many notions and speculations of man referring

especially transcending experiences through meditation have

awakened man’s wisdom in Buddhism rather than gaining

experiences through five senses.

6 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 7

The introduction of “Dhamma Patipada” training

program has thus created as a wonderful and an explicit

Dhamma learning journey for all of us irrespective of your

Buddhist Culture and background. I have personally taken 8

long years on this discovery path to re-discover the blissfulness

that I have missed.

Birth is uncertain and Death is certain. So what is the

objective in life “Liberation” onwards to Nibbana. There are

many of us getting in and out of Temple, Dhamma classes,

Dhamma Sharing sessions and yet have no idea how to

deplete defilements and eradicate to start freeing oneself

from “Dukkha”.

Where is the starting point?.... Often many have

prompted on acquired knowledge but unable to disengage

from “Dukkha”. “Dhamma Patipada” course comprises of

12 sessions and is designed to lead lay person to a better

understanding through his / her tunnel of lights, as personal

vision onwards to emancipation and its final destiny. It provides

a clear understanding of how to get started by clearing and

settling of one’s mind with a road map.

The “Dhamma Patipada” program is to show cross

reference journey from the real world to the Dhamma world

with the intention how Dhamma affect us in carrying us

through our businesses and day to day life harmonizing the

Environment through all our humanly activities. These issues

are highly task process oriented system and is always too

narrow too late for all technical solutions.

The main Humanistic views carrying the theme through

all the SDT (Small Dhamma Talk) is to improvise and improve

life gradually by Modiflex (Modify Flexibly) management

Dhamma Patipada….

Dr. Dhammika Jeremy

The Dhamma Teacher in Singapore, President of Utopia Aire International & Buddhist

Fellowship in Singapore

technique. In this way, they can immediately practice and see

results and be motivated towards their humanly goals in life.

In today complexity of modern living life style, they often

got swayed away by our deep rooted defilements. In its worst

case, we have developed our own greed idealism, hatred

and delusion without knowing the outcome. All forces and

actions sources are from IDC (Ideology, Power and Control)

of individual resulting conflicts and unexplained behavior and

differing context of the situation.

The objective of this program is 01 - To create a Heuristic

effect through Dhamma learning and cultivation to impact on

each individual, to cause realization. 02 - To acquire Dhamma

knowledge as a universal platform for all human worlds to

reduce conflict within and across boundaries, cross culture,

race, religion for a safer, peaceful nations and harmony. Thus

peace can be restoring without uprooting and intruding

cultures, hatred or bloodshed. 03 - To practice Dhamma with

observation seeking truth and realization. 04 - To transform

individual to be a better person and in the light onwards to


In today complexity of modern living life style, we often

got swayed away or carried away by our rooted defilements.

Technology development and rapid enhancement create jobs

and convenience but also created conflicts, problems that

change social behavior and norms. The environment has

greatly affected the health of human beings and the way we

communicate has also greatly changed our life style.

Materialism becomes a technological race for more

wealth thus ignoring all health threats. We now live in

this modern world Ghettos and life is full of doubts, fear

and unpredictable nature in life. In its worst case, we have

individually developed our own greed idealism, hatred and

delusion without knowing the outcome, intentionally or

unintentionally. All actions sources are from IDC (Ideology,

Power and Control) of individual resulting conflicts. The

Buddha also repeatedly affirmed that humans have to rely

only on themselves for their release from suffering. There is

no external authority or savior to rely on.

The “Dhamma Patipada” Program consists of 6 parts

with 12 sessions, and I have the program covering SDT talk

on Part 01 - Basic Buddhism and Dhamma study. Part 02 -

emphasized on “Are we living or leaving Samsara” (Identifying

the range of Dukkha involved and classification for analysis,

time management allotment, and Spider Metaphor will be

used to illustrate the 3 evil roots).

Part 03 - “Is Dhamma your high code in life” (creating a

better understanding life style and Dhamma practices) and Part

04 - “Developing Dhamma Culture” (Understanding liabilities

in life and harmony to develop peaceful and emancipatory).

Revealing how this eventual universal culture will provide

new possible human worldly peace to reduce conflict within

and across boundaries, cross culture, race, religion to rebuild

peaceful nations and harmony.

Thus peace can be restoring without uprooting and

intruding cultures, hatred or bloodshed. Part 05 - is built on

lay person teaching on selected Sutta for lay person, such

as Sigalovada Sutta (this set directions for the individual

and cultivation, and also guidelines in how to avoid pitfall in

life). Part 06 - on the modern management tools and critical

thinking to recover from messy problems and situations. All

mini case studies will be on real time by the participants group

and recording will be provided for future references.

One of the interesting talk features is to demonstrate

what is the difference in the real world and Dhamma

world? Most human related problem are confused by these

two dwindled pair in the mind and causing despair, getting

into multi-layer of problems and into delusion. It became

inseparable and messy resulting disruptions, distrust and

relationship break up.

Beside the brief basic Dhamma talk on five precepts,

Paticca Samuppada, Tilakkhana, Four Noble Truth, Eight

Path, Kamma, I share to the scholarly audience in using

management tools to solve critical and messy problems that

relate to Dhamma studies. These tools are based on Critical

Thinking, SSM (Soft System Methodology) complementing

HSM (Hard System Methodology).

The complementary theory will be introduce for

the purpose in educating lay person participants tools for

seeking solutions to their messy problems onwards to a

more Dhamma based humanistic living in this modern world.

The most important part is in how human being recognized

the “Technical Aspect between Human and Nature, and the

Practical aspect between People to People, and how would

one seek emancipatory towards freedom and liberation” in

realizing the truth.

The study of this “Dhamma Patipada” program is to

demonstrate what are the difference in the real world and

Dhamma world in how the integration can take place while

complimentary management tools will used to be deployed

to enhance the resolution of doubts and messy problems and

ease oneself from stress and sleepless night?

My next presentation SDT talk tittle is “Logical and

Logical is illogical”, “Born Free to be Un free”, “Brain Talk or

Mind Talk?’ I love to deliver small talk and is easier for lay

person to adsorb and digest. I use Pali terms where necessary

and applicable, however most of my talk are crafted based

on the attendees both their level of literacy and level of the

understanding of the Dhamma.

Buddha….. It is the desire of all beings wanting to be an

Arahant or Bodhisattva. Well it is good to have it consistently

in mind always and work towards it. Defilements can only be

clean up when one have the knowledge to experience, time

line for development, consistence recurring wisdom and "letgo"

commitments and relationships that don’t relief you from

samsara and bad influence. Your daily practice to include and

consistently developed all the required 4 Sublimes to gain and

maintain your focus and purity towards liberation.

It is about the mental health that we all are trying to

eradicate from and from knowledge to wisdom journey as it

take many “Dhamma Patipada” cycles repeatedly to resolute

and to gain higher level of wisdom. Yes for this much, I know I

am not teaching scholars in how to suck egg but because I am

willing to share my research contribution to all my Dhamma

Brothers and Sisters.

Well in conclusion, my style of interactive SDT is

always no more than 30 minutes as this will highly draws

the audience attention with discovery interest. It is based

on a highly interactive style of deliberating, and Q & A. Real

case study set up for developing mind synthesis to reflect on

a case by case basis to react on the learnt Dhamma. It has

been a great pleasure on this journey to share “Dhamma

Patipada” Program and is a good platform to develop Buddhist

community and networking. I hope my sharing can help and

set some new directions in achieving out common Buddhist

goals and objectives individually and hopefully someday the

world will return to be a better place for all earthlings.

8 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 9

When we train the mind, it’s not just a question of

using a meditation technique to bludgeon the mind into the

present moment. If that’s our approach, the mind is going to

start rebelling, finding ways of slipping around our defenses,

because there are times when the meditation technique is

right for the situation and times when it isn’t. The times when

it isn’t: That’s when the mind is going to rebel if you singlemindedly

use just that one technique and don’t have other

techniques or approaches up your sleeve as well.

Meditation is not just a question of technique. In training

the mind, you have to remember there’s a whole committee in

there. In the past the committee has had its balance of power,

its likes and dislikes, and the politics among the various voices

in your mind. Each of them has different tricks for pushing its

agenda on the rest. So just as these defilements have lots of

The mind training for

Brighter future….

Most Venerable Bhante Prashil Ratna Gautam Thero

The Secretary General - Sanghakaya Foundation Gujarat, Ahmedabad, India

tricks up their sleeves, you as a meditator need to have lots of

tricks up your sleeve, too.

One really basic trick is for when the mind says, “I’ve got

to do this. I want to do that. I don’t want to meditate.” You’ve

got to ask, “Well why?” And play kind of dumb, so that the

mind really has to explain itself. It’s like lesson number one in

any journalism class: If you really want to get a good interview

out of people, you have to play dumb, ask stupid questions,

so that they think they have to explain things to you very

carefully. And oftentimes they reveal all kinds of things they

wouldn’t have otherwise.

It’s the same with your own mind. When greed, anger,

and delusion come into the mind, they usually barge in with a

lot of force and expect to push you right over. So one thing you

have to do is to ask, “Well, why? Why should we follow that?

Why should we want instant gratification?” And there will be

an “of course‐ness” to their answer the first time around. “Of

course you want it this way. Of course you want it that way.”

“Well why?” If you’re persistent in being block‐headed like

this, all the defilements will start revealing themselves. You’ll

see how shabby they are. You’ll be able to get around them

more easily.

It’s like training a little child. Sometimes you have to be

strict with the child, other times you have to offer rewards,

patiently explain things. Other times you have to make up little

games. In other words, you have to use your full psychology

with the mind. But this time around you’re not using it for the

purpose of deception, which is what the mind ordinarily does

with itself. You’re using it for the purpose of truth and honesty,

for what’s really in your own best interest.

What does the wandering mind do for you? It gives a

little bit of instant gratification and then that gratification

goes, with nothing left to show for itself. If you keep allowing

this to happen, where are you going to pick up the skills you’ll

really need when aging, illness, and death hit with full force?

This is why the Buddha stressed the principle of heedfulness

all the time. We can’t just spend our time sniffing the flowers

and looking at the sky. There’s work to be done. When the

mind is untrained, it causes us a lot of unhappiness. If the

mind is well trained, if it’s more tractable, it can bring a lot of

happiness our way.

In order for that to happen, you have to learn how to

psyche yourself into the mood to meditate. Once it starts

meditating and begins to see the results, it gets more willing

and tractable most of the time. Then there are times it starts

rebelling all over again, totally irrationally. So you’ve got to sit

down with it again, work things through with it again, to see

exactly what issue got covered up the last time around and is

only now getting exposed.

This is one of the ways in which you learn a lot about

your defilements. It’s not that you have to wait for a totally

solid concentration before you can see the defilements

clearly. A lot of learning about the defilements lies in learning

how to struggle with them as you bring the mind to stillness.

You begin to see: “Oh, this is how greed works, this is how

aversion works, this is how I’ve fallen for this stuff before in

the past. Well, this time around I’m not going to fall.”

Sometimes it’s like a battle. Other times it’s more a

question of learning how to work together in a way that’s for

your own best interests: how to be a mediator, a negotiator, or

a patient teacher. You’ve got to have lots of ways of relating to

the different elements in your mind. The times when you can

win the defilements over to your side: That’s when it’s best.

Your desire turns into a desire to practice. Your hatred turns

into a hatred of the defilements. You learn how to use the

energy of these things for your own true benefit.

That’s when you can be said to be a discerning mediator.

You can’t gain insight simply by following the rules. Somebody

says, “For insight you need to do one, two, three, four, five,

six, and seven. So you do one, two, three, four, five, six, seven

without any thinking, without any reflection on what you’re

doing, and yet that doesn’t give you any true insights. It gives

you pre‐programmed insights sometimes, but the actual

startling new understandings that can come through the

meditation don’t happen because you’re too busy following

the directions.

The directions are there for you to apply to the mind and

then to observe, to look at what happens, to reflect on what

happens, to make adjustments. Make the meditation your

own and not just somebody else’s bulldozer running through

your head. After all, the big issue is how you relate to yourself,

how you relate to the body, how you relate to feelings,

perceptions, thought‐fabrications, and consciousness. That’s

the area where you’re causing yourself suffering, so that’s the

area where you’ve got to gain sensitivity and insight. Nobody

else can get into your head and straighten these things out for

you. You use the techniques of meditation to see what they

reveal about the mind. Then you build on those lessons so

that the meditation becomes your own.

When that’s the kind of mind you have, it’s a really good

mind to live in. We live in physical places only for a certain

amount of time but in our own minds all the time. Try to make

the mind a good place to live so that, no matter what else

happens outside, at least the mind is on proper terms with

itself, not fighting itself, not doing stupid things that aren’t in

its own best interest. Get so that it really does know how to

deal with the aggregates as they arise, how to deal with pain

so it doesn’t turn it into suffering, how to deal with pleasure so

it doesn’t turn it into suffering. Get so that the mind develops

a basic intelligence in sorting itself out, managing itself, so

that all your mental powers suddenly become powers you can

truly put to good use.

As we were saying today, there are times when, for your

own good, you don’t want to be focused on the breath. There

are things you have to think about, things you’ve got to plan

for, things you have to ponder, where you take all the powers

of the mind you’ve trained in concentration and put them

to other uses. That way the benefits of the concentration

permeate your whole life, everything you do.

10 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 11

Most Venerable



Nayaka Thero

Appointed as

Newly Chief High

Priest Judiciary

of Italy….

The Chief Incumbent of Brescia Buddhist Temple

in Italy Royal Pandith, Most Venerable Wathogala

Dhammika Nayaka Thero was appointed as newly Chief

High Priest Judiciary of Italy by Karaka Maha Sanga Sabha

of the Malwathu Chapter of the Siam Sector in Sri Lanka.

The great ceremony held at the Malwathu Maha

Vihara premises in Kandy, Sri Lanka on August 19, 2017

evening. The Chief Prelate of the Malwathu Chapter of the

Siam Sector in Sri Lanka, Most Venerable Tibbatuwawe

Sri Siddhartha Sumangala Mahanayake Thero presented

Sannaspathra and Vijinipatha to the Most Venerable

Wathogala Dhammika Nayaka Thero at the auspicious


New appointment already included the honorary

title of “Saddharma Keerthi Sri Sobhitha Sugunatissa”

to Most Venerable Wathogala Dhammika Nayaka Thero.

Most Venerable Wathogala Dhammika Nayaka Thero

has been the most impeccable in playing a vital role of

a religious ambassador and began his Dharmadutha

activities and it was extended to the countries like

Thailand, Myanmar, Singapore, India, Nepal, Japan, USA

and Europe Countries. Both at temple and abroad he

has been a versatile speaker sharing his knowledge

through immaculate preaching.

A book titled “Budunwahanse wadala shadrawa”

containing Dhamma sermons delivered by Most

Venerable Wathogala Dhammika Nayaka Thero was

presented to his Mother on this occasion. The Maha

Sangha including the Maha Nayake Theros of

overseas and devotees were participated in

this historically event.

“Suki Deegauko Bawa..!!” -

Mettavalokanaya” wish to the Most Venerable

Wathogala Dhammika Nayaka Thero all the best of

luck in his future endeavors in his monk life. Wish a long

and a healthy life to continue all the services that he has

been continuing so far. Being an asset to the entire world

our blessings of the Noble Triple Gems be with the Most

Venerable Wathogala Dhammika Nayaka Thero always..!!

12 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 13

Definition of Behavior

Our behaviour is the result of our thoughts and actions;

it is the way we respond to external situations and conditions

as a result of our inherent nature and kammic influences.

Our thoughts and responses may be developed and swayed

by both positive and negative, direct and indirect educational

factors and social interactions.

For the educator good behaviour should be second

nature if adhering to right thought and practice. We judge

others and others judge us by behaviour; as educators we must

learn to judge and monitor our own behaviour to ensure that

kilesa does not create delusions inappropriate to successful

self-assessment. By seeking constantly to invoke boon in our

daily lives, delusions are evaporated by truth.

Bad Behaviour

Without education, it is easy to fall into bad practices,

behaviour and habits. We may fail to notice the

harmful and detrimental effects of our

thoughts, speech and actions. Lack of

education may allow us to fall prey

to addictions such as alcohol,

drugs, gambling, physical

gratification and socially

degrading behaviour, even

to criminal and inhumane

Importance of Human Behavior

and Making Choices….

Most Venerable Phrarajbhavanajahn (Luang Por Dattajeevo Bhikkhu)

Vice Abbot of Wat Phra Dhammakaya, Vice President of the Dhammakaya Foundation,

Most Popular and Respected Dhamma Teacher & Author in Thailand.

activities. Such is the power of kilesa without the counter

power of an educated mind to recognize the devastating

effects that kilesa has upon not only this lifetime, but also

those in the future.

A life without education renders one at a great

disadvantage to resist kilesa and the hidden sufferings that

it brings. We must be educated to recognize and know that

kilesa is the master of disguise, offering only suffering hidden

beneath a false cloak of fleeting pleasure, fulfillment and

satisfaction. Important causes of suffering from living together

include selfishness and bias as follows:

Selfishness - leads to suffering when each person

thinks mainly about his or her own benefit rather than giving

support, encouragement and material things to others. When

problems occur in the family, group or community, if there is

lack of cooperation and people behave selfishly then suffering

and conflict will transpire.

Bias - manifests itself in four categories: love, anger,

wrong view and fear. Families, groups and communities that

suffer from selfishness and bias cannot be peaceful as each

individual acts only in self-interest to the detriment of others,

causing conflict and disharmony. Without education this lack

of consideration for others will be impossible to overcome

as personal selfishness and bias are very powerful causes of

suffering, both to the individual and to the others around


To solve the problems and sufferings that arise due

to selfishness and bias, structured education that develops

virtue and morality will lead each individual to recognize

the sufferings caused by their own selfishness and bias.

With educated guidance individuals will be encouraged to

understand the benefits of making boon in their own lives for

the good of others. There are three ways an individual may

do this, which are by giving, by keeping the precepts and by


With these three practices individuals will develop

empathy with others and the ability to create

harmony and happiness between themselves

and others. Their sufferings from

selfishness and bias will be eliminated

and conflict will turn to consideration,

cooperation and support. To cultivate

the nature of living together in

society and creating

virtue, teachers need to instill a sense of open-mindedness in

their students in order that they are able to live easily side by

side with others that may not share their own views, values

and outlook on life.

The student must understand that nobody in this world

is perfect and that it is not better to be richer or poorer, an

agnostic or a believer and so on, but that what is important

and makes a good human being is measured by the thoughts,

words and actions of that individual. Not all human beings

will be good, nor will they all be bad; the student must be

encouraged to understand and practise reasoned tolerance to

integrate successfully within society.

It is also important that the student recognizes and

overcomes discrimination towards others, be it due to age,

gender, handicap, race, religion, status or appearance. No

one can live alone in this world; each individual is directly

or indirectly linked to others through environmental, social,

economic and political factors from which we cannot escape.

As human beings we all share these influences that affect our

lives. Only by people working together under the common

definition of ‘human beings’ are we able to overcome or

manage the problems that these influences have; this may

only be achieved by overcoming discrimination and bias.

Good Behavior

Correctly and morally taught from an early age to pay

respect to and understand the true nature of what it is to be a

human being, especially with regard to the cause and effects

of thoughts, words and deeds in daily life and the human

suffering encountered, will undoubtedly create the most

favorable conditions for the pupil to achieve full potential in

this lifetime.

The good habits and conduct that the pupil acquires will

alleviate or eliminate the three sufferings of living one’s life,

living together and repelling kilesa. This is the ultimate goal of

education in the realm of Buddhism, to educate the individual

as well as society at large. Immediately, after the birth of a

new human being, the parents must have sufficient education

and knowledge to sustain the refueling of the baby’s four

elements and provide protection, education and guidance.

If the parents do not have sufficient knowledge to do

this, the baby will not thrive but become physically weak, be

of poor health, and fail to grow and develop good habits. As a

child, teenager and adult he or she will not have the acquired

knowledge and understanding to be able to accumulate good

kamma by reasoned thought and actions. Inevitably, kilesa

will generate bad kamma and resultant sufferings will follow.

As previously explained, kilesa is transferred through our

kamma from lifetime to lifetime; even a baby will be subject

to these sufferings. For example, when hungry, and if not

fed at the appropriate times, a baby will suffer the emotion

of anger, clutching and kicking out aggressively towards its

mother because of the defilements already implanted in

the mind. Moreover, a good education system is essential in

assisting the parent to continue to build the knowledge of the

individual along the right path to further strengthen the fabric

of human society in a way that is of benefit and diminishes

human sufferings.

Good community education leads to vibrant mental

and physical health, good personal and social habits plus an

enhanced ability to source and absorb knowledge. With the

right education the pupil will develop the ability to create

boon and resist kilesa from an early age.

14 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 15

"The 2 nd Global



Held in Malaysia….

Buddhist Forum, Award Ceremony, Alms Offering &

Maha Sanga Dana to more than 150 International Monks

& Nuns, Pindapata Programme, Dhammacakkappavattana

Sutta all night chanting, Candle light peace procession to

pay homage to Triple Gems programmes held together

above summit.

The delegates discussed 03 days on July 22 - 24, 2017

the most valuable events & current issues of the Buddhist

World & shared their ideas with others on the occasion.

The summit provided a platform to discuss various

areas of the current context of the Buddhist world. The

delegates identified the challenges faced by the Buddhist

communities from around the world and internal factors

and external factors such as political, economic and other

religious concerns.

Buddhika Sanjeewa

After the visit in Malaysia

Sponsored by

Malaysia Airlines

The 2nd Global Buddhist Congregation, The World

Buddhist Sangha Summit & The World Buddhist Sangha Youth

Summit" held at the Dharma Buddhist University, Pahang,

Malaysia on July 21 - 25, 2017 under the leadership of the

President of World Alliance of Buddhists (WAB) Dr. Pornchai


This Summit hosted by Dharma Buddhist University in

Malaysia under the patronage by Most Venerable Master Hui

Hai Thero, Rector of Dharma Buddhist University, Pahang,

Malaysia. This time theme was “Global Alliance of Buddhist


The Maha Sangha presided by the Chief Prelate of

the Asgiri Chapter of the Siam Sector in Sri Lanka, Most

Venerable Warakagoda Sri Gnanarathana Mahanayake

Thero, the Deputy Sangharaja of Bangladesh, Most Venerable

Sathyapriya Maha Thero & The Chief High Priest Judiciary of

Malaysia and Chief Monk of Sri Lanka Buddhist Temple, Sentul,

Malaysia, Most Venerable Bhutawatte Sri Saranankara Nayaka

Maha Thera and more than 150 other Buddhist Monks are

among those participated for this grand summit at the Dharma

Buddhist University premises. 250 delegates participated from

55 countries.

16 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 17

The Life Targets….

Most Venerable Muwagama Muditha Thero

The Incumbent of Pundarica Buddhist Temple, Daegu, South Korea.

Life goals have three levels: the goal on Earth, the goal

in the celestial realm, and the goal beyond (Nirvana). The goal

on Earth is to live happily, enjoy good health, be blessed with

a good family and be accepted in society. Everyone wishes for

this, whether they believe in any religious faith or not.

Those who have faith in a religion have a second level

of life goal, because they believe in life after death. This is

the goal in the celestial realm. Why do people with religious

faith believe in heaven and hell? Many major religions have

backgrounds that include meditation in their doctrines and

practices so they already know about ‘Inner Light.’

Buddhism strives to provide a means to brighten this

light continuously by looking within, in contrast to other

practices that may seek to brighten the ‘Inner Light’ by calling

on outside acknowledgement or help from their gods or

deities. Buddhism is not mentioned in many other religions or

faiths. The highest level of life goal is the goal beyond heaven,

that which we call Nirvana. Only the Buddha taught about this

as his ‘Inner Light’, manifested through meditation, which was

bright enough to reveal the truth of all things and release him

from human sufferings into Nirvana.

Meditation - The practice of meditation in daily life leads

to understanding the value of the right view. Those who do

not easily have an understanding of the right view. With the

right view comes the ability to know yourself and the obstacles

that need to be overcome to achieve excellence in the field of

teaching and all other aspects of living one’s life.

Meditation creates the right foundation from which

to acquire and disseminate knowledge correctly and

efficiently. There are many different schools of thought and

methods applied regarding practising, learning and teaching

meditation. However, the subject of meditation technique is

a subject on its own and should be studied separately but in

conjunction with the theory presented in this book. Suffice to

say at this point that meditation enables one to see one’s own

mind through connecting with the ‘Inner Light.’

Willpower, Inspiration and Sustainability - Meditation

is the catalyst for developing willpower, deriving inspiration

and sustaining a life based on the truths of this world. Even

with good intentions and commitment, without training the

mind through meditation the focus and progress with regard

to learning and teaching will not be as successful or complete.

Without a method to understand and look into one’s

own mind, it is not possible to become aware of the negative

influences that cause suffering. With regular meditation comes

the power of sustainability of direction and intent, thought

and action, progress and refinement. Meditation alerts us

to our failings and distractions and cultivates consistency of

behavior while increasing our potential in this lifetime and the


Economic, political and social problems arise as a result

of incomplete education. Mismanagement and imbalance

between academic and ethical education leads to a systemic

breakdown within the immediate society and between

different societies in other places. A world inhabited by moral

beings would be a peaceful world. Only with moral education

can human beings eliminate conflicts, selfish and greedy

tendencies and practices so that man may truly coexist with

mindful and peaceful consideration for each other. This state

of peaceful coexistence will only be achieved if all parties work

together to solve the moral failings caused by incomplete or

flawed education.

18 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 19

Here at the outset, we have to identify what are the

social issues. It can be categorized under the few headings

as, 01 - Social issues caused by poverty, 02 - Social issues

caused by extreme competitiveness, 03 - Issues of youths, 04

- Issues pertaining to social division / stratification, 05 - Issues

pertaining to environment, 06 - Issues pertaining to modern

science, technical knowledge.

Poverty and wealth are interrelated. A poor helpless

person leads a miserable life because he is unable to acquire

even the basic needs of life such as food, clothing, shelter and

medicine in time of illness. According to Buddhist teachings,

food is of paramount importance to sustain a life of any living

being. It is the foremost basic need (Sabbe sattā āhātṭṭhikā).

Food sustains life. Food nurtures and protects the body and

help its growth (ayaṃkāyo āhāraṭṭhiko, āhāra paṭicca tiṭṭhati,

anāhārena tiṭṭhati). Buddhism teaches that hunger is the

worst form of ailment (jigacchā paramā rogā1). Body needs

alleviate hunger. There is no fire worse than hunger (Natthi

khudā samā aggi).

It is well known that among many nations in Asia and

among certain African countries such as Somalia and Ethiopia

the common incidence of hunger has arrested the attention

of the whole world. The modern world continues to reach

new heights in development at great speed due to science

and technology. But paradoxically, two third of the world’s

population continue to suffer the consequences of malnutrition

due to insufficient intake of food both quantitatively and

qualitatively. This is solely due to the distribution of wealth

and resources in an unequal manner among the nations and

peoples. Inability to acquire the minimum basic needs of life

results in malnutrition, beriberi, chronic skin diseases, plague

and host of other diseases.

Where there is poverty there is hunger. According

to Buddhism poverty is a sorrow (Dāḷiddiyaṃ pi dukkhaṃ

lokasmi. One has to sweat and toil hard in order to eke out his

daily bread. That is suffering (idāni āhāra gaveṭṭhi dukkhaṃ).

Solution for the Social problems through

The Teaching of Buddhism.…

Venerable Dr. Ittademaliye Indasara Thero,

B.A. (Hons.) / M.A. / Ph.D. Senior Professor in Department of Buddhist Philosophy,

Buddhist and Pali University of Sri Lanka, Chief Incumbent - Sri Sambuddhaloka Maha

Viharaya, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

It does not in any way imply that one should be content with

whatever is available or that one should not work for his wellbeing.

Buddha in a discourse in Anguttara Nikaya has extolled

the virtues of a person who strives hard to improve his lot for

a contented life. He categorized four types of persons thus:

01 - A person in darkness and bound for darkness (Tamo tama

parāyano) 02 - A person in darkness but bound for light (Tamo

joti parāyano) 03 - A person in light but bound for darkness

(Joti tama parāyano) 04 - A person in light and bound for light

(Joti joti parāyano)

The first category is described as those born into

lowly, miserably poor and unfortunate families in squalid

environments who are unable even to earn their daily

sustenance. They are generally far below the average

in intelligence, appearance, build, not pleasing to look,

sometimes deformed and prone to miserable diseases. In fact

they are not aware that there is a brighter side of existence

around them. Such person in his unclean, unsatisfactory body

and mind nurtures his mental defilement and engage in all

unsatisfactory actions which invariably lead him to far more

unsatisfactory state after death.

The second person even though he is born to a lowly

poor family strives to keep his mind wholesome, speak good

words and does wholesome things without being a nuisance

to others. Such a person leads a happy life and end up in a

wholesome state after death.

The third person though born into a traditionally good,

wealthy and renowned family and lives a comfortable life,

does not have a pure mind, engages himself in unwholesome

actions and speak unwholesome words and finally after death

ends up in a sorrowful state.

The fourth person born into a respectable family

engages in all good activities with thoughts pure and clear.

He speaks endearingly to all concerned and lives a life full of

happiness. Such a person is reborn in a very satisfactory state

after death. The second and the fourth are worthy to praise

and emulation.

Cakkavatti sīhanāda Suttaand Kūṭadanta Sutta

clearly explain that poverty leads to ethical and spiritual

degeneration. An open policy with a well thought out plan

should be activated to eliminate social ills. Equal opportunities

should be afforded to every citizen without prejudice to race,

religion, cast or social standings in order to uplift the welfare

of all citizens in a country. (Sabbe janassa anavata).

In Vyagghapajja Sutta the Buddha has shown how

to root out poverty and make worldly progress. According

to the Sutta there are four rules which directly influence to

develop worldly ordinary life as 01 - Achievement in Alertness

(utthānasampadā) 02 - Achievement in Conservation

(ārakkhasampadā) 03 - Good Company (kalyāṇamittatā) 04 -

Even life (samajīvikatā)

These things were lucidly explained to Dīghajānu. In

the first condition, the Buddha says that unswerving effort

and concentration in whatever occupation one indulgence

in, agriculture, industry, trade, public service or any other

vocation. Ensure the protection and safety of wealth, wellearned

in justice and by fair means. One should associate with

men of virtue, honesty and sincerity. In the fourth the Buddha

exhorted the principle of a balance life style according to one’s


Expenditure should not exceed income. One should

abstain from immoral conduct, alcoholism, gambling and

association with questionable characters. Should one adhere

to these four principles intelligently with devotion, attainment

of worldly progress will be the inevitable result. This is how to

alleviate poverty.

The main factor that has a direct impact on the alleviation

of poverty both at individual and social level is, according

to Sigālovāda Sutta the worker. The process of production

depends on his healthy make up of body and mind. Evaluation

of his work quantitatively is done on his performance during

a given period.

Buddhism does not condone irrational exploitation of

labour for the personal benefit of an individual or a group.

According to Karl Marx, capitalism breeds on exploitation

of labour leading to unemployment, poverty, crime

and degeneration of sound values. According to Mahā

Dhammasamādāna Sutta of Majjhima Nikaya, if a person is

engaged in theft and stealing, speaks falsehood, engages in

immoral conduct and other crimes in order to lead a happy life

of sensual pleasure he will inevitably be reborn with various

mental afflictions and subjected to painful physical disabilities

and torture2. Exploitation of labour is synonymous with

robbery. Such attitudes stand condemned in Buddhism.

Buddhism does not advocate maximum production at

the cost of man’s wellbeing. Instead Buddhism advocates an

ethically clean, efficient and planned economy for the benefit

of the work force and the society in general. The only objective

of a private enterprise is to earn maximum profit. During the

period around 600 B.C. no large scale industries or business

enterprises existed.

The Buddhist view on the economy and trade at that

time can be seen in Aggañña Sutta, Cakkavattisīhanāda

Sutta, Kūṭadanta Sutta and Mahā Sudassana Sutta of Digha

Nikāya among others. Whenever there sprang up economic

problems, the state intervened for the benefit of the people in

the following manner:- 01 - provide assistance to agricultural

and livestock farmers with necessary infrastructure, seeds,

water, manure etc The commentary elaborating on the

passage, says that when the grants given by the state are not

sufficient, the state may release more supplies. 02 - provide

necessary capital for trading activities 03 - reasonable wages

to the state employed

Whether the ownership is by the state or private

individuals, everything done should be based on an ethically

acceptable foundation. Poverty, unemployment, extreme

competitiveness, issue of the youth, social unrighteousness

and economic instability could be overcome thereby. The

society of course, the country will become prosperous.

Well-earned wealth brings happiness and contentment

to the laymen. The Buddha once addressed the wealthy

Anāthapiṇdika and said, stability of one’s possessions is a cause

for contentment (Atthisukha); consumption of such wealth

with friends and relatives is a pleasure (Bhogasukha); freedom

from indebtedness is cause for contentment (Ananasukha);

acquisition of wealth through just and fair means is a pleasure


Further it is exhorted that wealth should not be spent

solely on sensual pleasures and that the main objective of

earning wealth is to help one’s friends and to perform social

and religious duties and obligations. Sigalovada Sutta explains

that acquisition of wealth should be done in the manner

the bee collects honey from flowers and in the manner that

white ants build the mighty ant-hill. Out of such earnings, one

fourth should be set apart for personal expenses; two fourth

for investment and the balance kept for meeting contingency


20 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 21

Americans Find Guidance

in Buddhism….

Most Venerable Aggamaha Pandita Dr. Walpola Piyananda Thero

Chief Sangha Nayake Thero of America and President of USA & Canada Sanga Council,

Chief Abbot & President of Dharma Vijaya Buddhist Vihara, Los Angeles, California, USA.

In recent years Americans have begun to read more

about the Buddhist doctrine. Buddhism can be explained as

a religion, a philosophy, a way of life or an explanation to the

cycle of life. Einstein states, “The religion of the future will

be a cosmic religion. It should transcend a personal God and

avoid dogmas and theology.

Covering both the natural and the spiritual, it should be

based on a religious sense arising from the experience of all

things, natural and spiritual, as a meaningful unity. Buddhism

answers this description. ... If ever there is any religion

that would cope with modern scientific needs it would be


In 1994, the ABC Nightly News with Peter Jennings

reported in a major feature on Buddhism that it had grown

to about 6 million followers, making Buddhism in America a

religious movement significantly larger than many Protestant

denominations. Today, almost 10 years later, I may not be

wrong to state that there are over 15 million followers of

Buddhism. This increase proves that the Western world is

turning towards the Eastern religion of Buddhism to guide

them in their daily lives as well as on their spiritual path.

His Holiness the Dalai Lama is a living icon dedicating

his life to promote peace in the world. There are many

others such as Richard Gere, Steven Segal, Goldie Hawn,

Tina Turner and Uma Thurman who are practicing Buddhism.

Coach Phil Jackson used the principles of Buddhism in his

professional career when he led the Chicago Bulls to their

many championship titles. He is continuing to be successful

as evidenced by the Los Angeles Lakers and their third

championship title.

In this stressful world of uncertainty people do need

guidance to carry on their daily life. Buddhism provides the

seeker with mental calm and development. When the mind is

developed, the body functions well. When the mind is weak,

the body is also weak. Physicians agree that a pure mind

cleanses the blood, and as a result the body strengthens its

immune system.

Stress is recognized as a major cause of causing

the body’s natural, internal chemical function to become

imbalanced leaving it open to disease. As human beings we

have to face numerous problems that eventually make our

existence stressful. Nowadays there is no job security fear of

losing a job is stressful.

Everything depends on one’s earnings. There is the fear

of losing one’s home due to the inability to pay the mortgage

that creates a strain. Then follows the family problems. Rich or

poor, there can be problems with addiction to any number of

things: drugs, gambling, compulsive buying, eating disorders,

and other sense stimuli that cause havoc with one’s life. All

these accumulate to create a very stressful condition.

However stress is caused, it has been proven that

meditation helps to reduce it. The Stress Reduction Clinic at

the University of Massachusetts Medical Center states that

meditation is the only way to reduce stress.

A group of distinguished medical researchers including

Thomas H. Winters, M.D. Director, Medsite Occupational

Health Center in Quincy, Massachusetts and James Dalen,

M.D., M.P.H. Dean at the College of Medicine, University of

Arizona Health Sciences Center both positively believe that

meditation is the way to eradicate stress. Furthermore, Dr.

Winters finds that meditation is a self-regulating modality that

helps people improve their coping skills in their life. That it is a

necessary pressure relief valve in this era.

The popular psychologist, Ken Welber in his book

“Transformation of Consciousness” states that Buddhist

meditation is the only way to reduce stress. Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn

in his book, “Full Catastrophe Living” firmly states that the

“Satipatthana Sutta” explains the meditation techniques to

practice in order to protect one’s immune system.

Two other well-known American scholars, Mark Epstein,

M.D. (“Going to Pieces Without Falling Apart” and “Thoughts

Without a Thinker”) and Daniel Goleman (“Body, Mind,

and Medicine” and “Emotional Intelligence”) support this


A famous Australian physician, Ian Gawler M.D.

developed bone cancer. It was declared terminal by his

physicians, however, under the guidance of his psychiatrist

the late Ainslie Meares, M.D. he started to practice meditation

and to the surprise of all doctors, he was found free of cancer.

This led Dr. Gawler to write two books titled, “You Can Conquer

Cancer” and “Peace of Mind.”

Some people will definitely doubt whether a sickness

like cancer can be cured by meditation alone. Dr. Gawler

states that the chemical unbalance causing cancer can be

controlled by a pure, steady mind. The defilements explained

in Buddhism as anger, ill will, hatred, jealousy, and etc. pollute

the mind.

A polluted mind causes stress. This damages the

immune system and sometimes even destroys it. As a result

the chemical balance in the body is lost. This opens the

door to various sicknesses. Through the practice of Buddhist

meditation the mind and body, both relax. A calm mind can

reinstate a normal chemical balance.

In its natural state of balance the body has a tremendous

potential and ability to maintain and repair itself. Although

by meditation alone many illnesses can be cured, it must be

stated that a physician’s advice is also indispensable. When

one practices meditation these defilements can be removed.

Once the defilements are removed there is no stress, and the

immune system functions normally.

As practitioners of meditation, we should learn to control

our senses. We should have a strong discipline to control

our visual desires, along with our emotional upheavals. Our

temptations must be controlled. Our intelligence should guide

our senses.

In the Majhima Nikaya, Dvedhavitakka Sutra, Buddha

explains that there are two types of thoughts that arise in our

mind. There are wholesome and unwholesome thoughts. The

wholesome thoughts are non-ill will, non-hatred, and noncruelty.

The unwholesome thoughts are ill will, hatred and

cruelty. When a thought arises, we must examine it.

If the thought is of benefit to both others, and ourselves

we must develop it. If it is harmful to others, or ourselves we

must eliminate the thought. An example of this can be shown

by the life story of the famous mathematician, John Nash,

Ph. D. who was a victim of schizophrenia. Even though we

can climb to the top of our professional ladder, if we cannot

discipline our mind, we will be faced with many problems, as

was John Nash.

He had hallucinations of unrealistic phenomena. He

spent time in mental institutions, receiving shock treatments

that could not rid him of his delusions. The medication

prescribed for him caused him to lose mental clarity. When

he stopped the medications, the hallucinations reappeared.

Then with the realization that the hallucinations were in fact

his own thoughts, he determined to overcome them.

With the help of his wife, he began to sort out his

thoughts: what was reality and what was imagination. His

determination and will power enabled him to recognize the

real world. He worked as a professor at Princeton University

and won the Nobel Peace Prize in Economics.

But most importantly he proved that the human mind

is capable of overcoming any circumstance. The movie “A

Beautiful Mind” which won the Academy Award for Best

Picture for 2001 was based on his life story.

The human mind has the ability to overcome and face

any eventuality with the use of his or her willpower and


“Mind is the forerunner of all actions. All deeds are led

by mind, created by mind. If one speaks or acts with a corrupt

mind, suffering follows, as the wheel follows the hoof of an

ox pulling a cart. If one speaks or acts with a serene mind,

happiness follows, as surely as one’s shadow. ”Dhammapada

22 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 23

The Noble Truth….

Most Venerable Kakanadure Hemalankara Nayaka Thero

The Chief Sangha Nayaka of Canada, the Founder and Chief Abbot of Ottawa Theravada

Buddhist Vihara and Cultural Centre in Ottawa, Canada.

The Noble Truth of the Path Leading to Cessation of

Suffering and what, monks, is the Nobel Truth of the Path

leading to the Cessation of Suffering? It is simply the Nobel

Eightfold Path; namely. Right View, Right Thought, Right

Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right

Mindfulness, and Right Concentration.

01 - Right View: And what, monks, is Right View?

Understanding of suffering, understanding of the cause

of suffering, understanding of cessation of suffering,

understanding the Path leading to the cessation of suffering.

This, monks, is called Right View.

02 - Right Thought: And what, monks, is Right Thought?

Thought of renunciation, thought of non-hatred, thought of

non-cruelty. This is, monks, called Right Thought

03 - Right Speech: And what, monks. Is Right Speech?

Abstaining from false speech, abstaining from slanderous

speech, abstaining from harsh speech, abstaining from

frivolous speech. This Is, monks, called Right Speech.

04 - Right Action: And what, monks. Is Right Action?

Abstaining from killing, abstaining from stealing, abstaining

from sexual misconduct. This Is, monks, called Right Action.

05 - Right Livelihood: And what, monks. Is Right

Livelihood? Here, monks, a noble disciple having abandoned

wrong livelihood, makes a living by means of Right Livelihood.

This Is, monks, called Right Livelihood.

06 - Right Effort: And what, monks. Is Right Effort? Here,

monks, a monk engenders wishes, makes effort, arouses

energy, exerts the mind, and strives for the non-arising of evil,

unwholesome states that have not arisen; engenders wishes,

makes effort, arouses energy, exerts the mind, and strives for

the abandoning of evil, unwholesome states that have arisen;

engenders wishes, makes effort, arouses energy, exerts the

mind, and strives for the arising of wholesome states that have

not arisen; engenders wishes, makes effort, arouses energy,

exerts the mind, and strives for the stabilizing, for the collation,

for the increase, for the maturity, for the development, for the

perfection through cultivation of wholesome states that have

arisen. This is, monks, is called Right Effort.

07 - Right Mindfulness: And what, monks, is Right

Mindfulness? Here, monks, in regard to the body a monk

abides contemplating the body, diligent, clearly knowing, and

mindful, free from desires and discontent in regard to the

world. In regard to feelings, he abides contemplating feelings,

diligent, clearly knowing, and mindful, free from desires and

discontent in regard to the world. In regard to the mind, he

abides contemplating the mind, diligent, clearly knowing,

and mindful, free from desires and discontent in regard to

the world. In regard to dhammas, he abides contemplating

dhammas, diligent, clearly knowing, and mindfull, free from

desires and discontent in regard to the world. This, monks, is

called Right Mindfulness.

08 - Right Concentration: And what, monks, is light


Here, monks The Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering

and what, monks, is the Noble Truth of the Cause of Suffering?

It is that craving which gives rise to further rebirth and,

associated with pleasure and just, finds ever fresh delight,

now here, now there to wit, the sensual craving, the craving

for existence, and the craving for non-existence. Where,

monks, does this craving, when arising, arise, and, when

settling, settle? Whatever in the world is a delightful thing,

a pleasurable thing, therein this craving, when arising, arises

and, when settling, settles.

Culmination - "In this way, he abides contemplating

dhammas in dhammas internally, or he abides contemplating

dhammas externally, or he abides contemplating dhammas

both internally and externally. He abides contemplating the

arising nature in dhammas, or he abides contemplating the

disappearing nature in dhammas, or he abides contemplating

the nature of both arising and disappearing nature in dhammas.

Mindfulness that "there are dhammas" is established in him

to the extent necessary for bare knowledge and continuous

mindfulness. And he abides independent, not dinging to

anything in the world. That is how he abides contemplating

dhammas in dhammas in terms of the Four Noble Truths."

24 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 25

"Buddhism in the 21 st

Century" International

Buddhist Conference

Bihar, India….

Dr Mahesh Sharma, Minister of Culture and Tourism,

Governor Ram Nath Kovind, Chief Minister Nitish Kumar,

Mr. M.L. Srivastava, Vice Chancellor of Nava Nalanda

Mahavira University also participated in this International

Buddhist Conference.

Buddhika Sanjeewa

After visit in Bihar, India….

The three-day Special International Buddhist

conference held at Rajgir - Nalanda International

Convention Centre, Bihar, India from March 17 - 20,

2017. The conference organized grand level by the

Ministry of culture, Government of India and Nava

Nalanda Mahavihara (Deemed University).

The President of India, His Excellency Pranab

Mukherjee and Tibetan Spiritual Leader His Holiness

the Dalai Lama was the Chief Guests of the Buddhist


Over 400 spiritual leaders, erudite scholars and

students from 35 different countries including Sri Lanka,

Burma, Taiwan, Thailand, Bangladesh, and Uganda

representing both the Sanskrit and Pali traditions are

participating in the conference.

The three-day conference, aimed at renewing

contacts and discussing Buddhism’s perspectives and

responses to global issues. Delegates discussed panel

discussion on resolving conflict and peace building on

the Conference. In his keynote address, His Holiness

the Dalai Lama spoke about the oneness of the entire

7 billion human beings and their universal desire for

happiness. “All seven billion human beings desire

happiness. Happiness cannot come from fear and anger.

Therefore, we need compassion, love and friendship

to foster feelings of mutual trust and belonging,” His

Holiness said.

Speaking on the occasion, the President of India,

His Excellency Pranab Mukherjee said that no part of

the world today is free from the scourge of violence.

This crisis is all pervasive. The basic question being

raised today is how to stop this wanton destruction

and come back to sanity. He said that the philosophy

of Buddhism is as relevant today as ever - especially as

the world grapples with complex problems that seem

intractable. Buddhism has had a deep influence on

human civilization. The President said as they return

to their respective areas of activity and influence, he

requested them all to redouble their efforts to promote

the simple Truths and the Path of the Buddha that show

we can be better citizens and contribute to making our

land a better place to live in.

26 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 27

28 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 29

Air India


newly special

flight to

Varanasi for

Sri Lankan


Varanasi is a major Religious Hub City and the holiest

of seven sacred cities (Saptha Puri) in Hinduism and Jainism.

Saranath where Enlightened One Buddha gave his first

discourse, The Wheel of Dhamma to five ascetics is close

by. The city is on the banks of River Ganges where there are

87+ Ghats. The city was also known as Benares. It is said that

there are about 23,000 temples in Varanasi. Some of the

famed temples are, Kashi Vishwanath Temple, Sankat Mochan

Hanuman Temple, and the Durga Temple.

Saranath is 10 KM from Varanasi and it is where the

Enlightened One Buddha gave the first Dhamma discourse

to Five Ascetics Kondanja, Baddiya, Vappa, Mahanama and

Assaji. In this discourse (Wheel of Dhamma Sutta – Dahmma

Chakka Pavaththana Sutta) Buddha focused on why one must

not go to the two extremes and instead take the middle path.

Enlightened One probably used this principle as the five ascetics

were already in one extreme end of Aththakilamathanu Yoga

or subjecting self to extreme hardship.

At the end of the expounding of Dhamma by the

Enlightened One, the ascetic Kondanja having realized the

great principle of arising and ceasing of things (Dharma)

became the first Stream-Enterer of Buddha Sasana. The

pilgrims can visit Issipathana, Migadaya, Sammuka Stupa,

Dhamekha Stupa, Mulagandha Kuti Vihar are all located in


Air India occupies a special place in the global and Indian

aviation scenario. The airline pioneered the civil aviation in

India. The airline’s network covers 34 international and 52

domestic destinations, including far-flung areas of the North-

East, Ladakh, Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Air India, today, flies one of the youngest, state-of-theart,

fleet of aircraft comprising a mix of the wide-body Boeing

B777s, B747s, its latest acquisition- the B787 Dreamliner and

the narrow body Airbus A321s, A320s and A319 aircraft.

“Air India”, the national career of India, launched their

latest flight operation Varanasi/Colombo/Varanasi effective

from August 04, 2017, with twice weekly flights on every

Friday and Sunday.

The inaugural flight landed at Bandaranaike International

Airport, Colombo, Sri Lanka on August 04, 2017 and was

welcomed with a ceremonial water salute. The occasion was

attended by many dignitaries from Indian High Commission,

Air India, Airport Authority Sri Lanka, Civil Aviation Sri Lanka,

General Sales Agent of Air India in Sri Lanka and Sri Lankan


On the occasion of 14th UN Vesak day festival held in Sri

Lanka, the Indian Prime Minister Honorable Narendra Modi

informed those gathered that soon Air India will operate a

direct flight Varanasi/Colombo/Varanasi for the Buddhist and

Hindu Pilgrims to travel to Varanasi for worshiping holy places

for Buddhists and Hindus in India. The occasion was ample

testimony to the strong diplomatic relations and the cordial

relations between the people of the two countries.

Buddhika Sanjeewa

After visit in India

Sponsored by Air India

30 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 31

The path to freedom….

Most Venerable Yalagamuwe Dhammissara Anunayake Thero

The Anunayake of Udarata Amarapura Maha Nikaya, Chief Incumbent of Sakamuni International

Buddhist Centre in Tokyo, Chief Incumbent of Viharagoda Dimbulana Pirivena Temple, Director of

Dhammananda Viddiyatana Pirivena, Honorable President of Japan Sri Lanka International cultural

& social development foundation (JSICSF) & Chief Sanganayake Thero in Japan.

The Buddha suggested using our experience of suffering

and happiness as our guide. The assumption is that people

don’t require scripture, teachers, or reason to know whether

they are happy or not. The path to freedom from suffering

begins and ends with our basic ability to recognize when we

are suffering and when we are not. However, this does not

mean we should discard scripture, teachers, or reason; they

can have an important role in pointing us to areas of suffering

and happiness that we may be blind to.

With the human experience of suffering and happiness

as the basis, practitioners then consider both by themselves

and with the help of wise people (so as not to fool or underchallenge

themselves), which mental qualities, states, and

teachings lead to suffering or happiness, to harm or benefit.

Those that lead to harm should be abandoned and those that

are beneficial should be engaged in.

This doesn’t require exhaustive analysis; it necessitates

paying attention to the consequences of our mental, verbal,

and physical activities so we can know for ourselves what

brings suffering and what brings happiness. It also involves

using our reasoning and imagination to understand what is

likely to bring us harm or benefit. Then based on this, if it

brings suffering, avoid it; if it brings happiness, engage in it.

The Buddha focused on what is pragmatically true

instead of what is abstractly true. He emphasized what can be

known for oneself instead of what can be known only as belief.

But what can be known for oneself depends on what one does

pragmatic truths are discovered through experience, not by

wishful thinking.

Since the Kalamas had said they were perplexed, the

Buddha concluded by describing practices that would provide

some degree of assurance. He did this by talking about some

of the results that can come from the practices of lovingkindness,

compassion, appreciative joy, and equanimity.

Perhaps it was because the people of Kalama were not his

students that he discussed these four “divine abodes”—they

were practices widely known at the time. If the Kalamas had

asked about liberation, the Buddha would have responded

differently—most likely by describing the practices that lead

to liberation.

One assurance is that with proficiency in loving-kindness

and the other three abodes one will experience happiness in

this lifetime; one can know for oneself that these practices are

beneficial. A second assurance is that, if there is rebirth, one

can be assured of having a good rebirth. Still another is that if

malicious intentions bring suffering, one can be assured that

one is not causing oneself further suffering.

While the first assurance is experientially testable, the

second and third are a form of Pascal’s Wager: without having

to decide on the truth of rebirth and the negative karma of

malice, one can be at ease knowing that proficiency in lovingkindness

is in one’s best interest if these are true. For people

who aren’t going to try out the path of liberation, perhaps this

is as good an assurance as one can get.

It might seem a little strange to end a teaching about

relying on what one can know for oneself with a discussion

of what is reassuring. Maybe this is because the English word

‘assurance’ doesn’t quite capture the meaning of assasa.

The Indian word literally means ‘breathing’ and figuratively

means to breathe easily or freely, as well as to be ‘assured’

or ‘comforted.’ One way or another loving- kindness practice

helps people to breathe easily.

32 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 33

Virtue (SILA) is foremost to all

human beings as it is the precursor

to the all or the ultimate liberation.

In the Eightfold Noble Path, virtue is

given the prime position followed

by Concentration (Samadhi) and

wisdom (panna). But there is

something very important that must

be noted. The virtue, concentration

and wisdom does not follow a linear

movement from one to the other,

but more so cyclic. One will not

think even one moment of being

virtuous unless the person has at

least an iota of wisdom. Wisdom

also has its diffused impact on right

concentration and the building up

of the faculty of concentration.

However, the optical visibility is one

of linear progression.

Indeed, there is a strong

interdependence of sila and panna.

In the Sonadanda Sutta Enlightened

One asked Sonadanda as to what are

the key criteria required to be a good

Brahmin. Sonadanda said five criteria

are important, of good lineage from

maternal & paternal sides, Full

understanding of Tri-Veda, of good

looks, sila and panna. When asked

if he could take out one of these on

three occasions Sonadanda initially

took out good looks, then good

lineage and then full understanding

of Tri-Veda. When pressed further

as to any of the other two sila and

panna can be taken out, Sonadanda

replied, that in no way is it possible.

If there is no sila then no panna and

if no panna then no sila.

The traditional understanding

today of virtue by laypeople

are the five precepts, the eightlivelihood

precepts, the eight

precepts observed on poya days etc.

These precepts are mainly about

restraining one from doing any

of those ill actions such as killing

living beings, stealing that which

Virtue – Sila….

Sugath Rajapakse

Formerly Senior Commercial Manager at Sri Lankan Airlines and presently Consultant to

Air India GSA in Sri Lanka.

is not given, indulgence in illicit and immoral

actions, telling lies and taking intoxicants etc.

In the Anuggahitha

Sutra there are five important

principles that the Yogi must

observe in walking on the path to

purification. The five are, 01 - Virtue

o r Sila Anuggahitha. 02 - Listening to

Dhamma or Sutha Anuggahitha. 03 -

Dhamma Discussion or Saakachcha

Anuggahitha. 04 - Mindfulness

Meditation or Samatha Anuggahitha.

05 - Vipassana Meditation or

Vipassana Anuggahitha.

The first of the five here

is the assistance of virtue. Here

the virtue is not just the restraint

from ill actions of body and verbal

but of a deeper meaning. In the

Foundations of Mindfulness Sutta,

the Enlightened One says that the

bhikkhu abiding in contemplation

of the body as a body goes to a

forest or to a base of a tree or to

an empty hut and then proceed

onwards with the meditation.

Viewed from outside one sees

a Bhikkhu gone to a forest, to the

base of a tree or to an empty hut

and then seated will commence

concentrating on the breath

(one can read further on this in

Foundation of Mindfulness Sutta).

But the Enlightened One in regard

to Dhamma stated that the wise

will ever so get closer to the truth

gradually and realize the truth from

this very five-aggregates. So a wise

person should introspect into these

three stages not from outside but

within self.

01 - Gone to a Forrest – Forrest

is an eco-system that is having

millions of trees, annuals, biennials

and perennials’. Integration of these

plants and the many animals inside

is the forest. Our consciousness

too is like a forest, illustrated with

Trillions of nama-rupa assimilated

here and now as well as those dormant which would have

been assimilated in previous lives. Thus the worldly are said

to have an illustrated-consciousness akin to a forest. In our

daily life, we are in this huge forest of nama-rupa illustrations.

02 - To the base of a Tree – On introspection one will

understand that this is akin to the meditator focusing on a

single object and in this case the breath. On the outside the

Yogi is at the base of a tree, but from inside is focused on one

single object only, of breath.

03 - To an empty hut – Externally the Yogi is dwelling

in meditation in a hut all by self. Yet as clearly explained in

Dhamma (Dwayathanupassana Sutta), with craving, this

companion one wonders for a long, long time as this and as

that and will never end this samsara. Thus even in an empty

hut one is not alone. Aagara or the abode is not the hut but

this somatic self. Consciousness the maker made this with

nama-rupa and the second person, craving is always there.

As stated by enlightened One after enlightenment at the

base of the Ficus religiosa tree, once the craving is no more,

no volitional formations. However, the Bodily formations of

breath in & out, verbal formations of intent & investigation

and mental formations of feeling & perception are there.

Thus at the very beginning Buddha gives those who are wise

enough to take the path an understanding of what can be

reached at the end of the whole journey of purification.

One must understand many have attained nirvana

without in any of these somatic situations. Examples are

Bahiya Daruchiriya the ascetic, Minister Santhathi of the King

Kosala Cabinet. Both were well engrossed in the first stage but

reached the second and third stages in a jiffy.

In The Seven Stages of Purification Sutta (Saptha

Vissudi Sutta or Ratha Vinitha Sutta) The foremost nature

of virtue is clearly explained. Purification of Virtue consists

of in understanding and maintaining four types of restraints

namely, Observing the precepts one has taken and observing

same like protecting one’s own life, Guarding the six sensedoors

without allowing any defilements to arise, maintaining

a Righteous Livelihood all through one’s life and with wise

reflection making use of one’s requisites of life and in a most

abstinent way and never transgressing the limits. The word

Bhikkhu has two parts, Bhi or fear and Kkhu or eradication.

Thus any person whether one who is ordained or a lay

person having seen this danger of samsara takes this path to

purification is a Bhikkhu.

A person totally ingrained in virtue has the ability

to see how one’s mind behaves (Sachiththa Pariyaya) and

empowered will see how other’s mind behaves (Parachiththa

Pariyaya, Dhukka Sutta – Samyuththa Nikaya). Thus a lay

person who is married, with children and parents and close

relative and friends can understand how the other’s mind

behaves as well. Husband can see how the wife’s mind works

and vice versa. In such an atmosphere there is no room for any

family disputes and quarrels. Sadly, though today not only in

this country Sri Lanka but in the other countries too, absence

of virtue is leading to all the friction within families, among

relatives and friends and the society at large. An article titled

“Before death do us part” in Daily News newspaper of 01

March 2016 (Rohana Aryaratne) it is stated that according to

Director Social Services, Western Provincial Council most of

the divorces occur within one year of marriage and very high

percentage of divorce.

Devoid of virtue which often today is limited to merely

reciting the precepts but not versed in the substance in the

precepts, and not being steeped in Dhamma the youth are

not able to see how the partners mind works even a miniscule

of it and the resultant tragedy of getting divorced from the

partner. Yet in the old days, even though the people were

not possessed of higher and university education and various

Degrees, they had enough wisdom to understand that the

married life is not just a bed of roses but with many pitfalls

and the need for understanding and equanimity.

In the present day the guarding of the six sense-doors

of one who is striving on the path to purification has many

obstacles. Technological advances which has given the humans

many gadgets such as smart phones, intelligent TV, powerful

computers while enabling a person to get things done faster

or hear or read as to what goes on in this world is also a great

hindrance to leading a pious life. The digital media, social

media and the electronic media are causing much agony to

people at large, in particular those who are not having the

control of the sense-doors.

As a result, we have given premium position to

adorning this somatic body of 31 impurities (Contemplation

of Impurities in Meditation) and does everything to adorn it,

cleanses it and decorate it. But while indulging in this futile

exercise of adorning this body which is all the time decaying

and may exist not for more than 60 to 70 years does not

give even an iota of importance to cleansing our defiled

consciousness. Thus devoid of virtue and not having restraint

in the six sense-faculties or the touch-agencies to know what

one’s limits are, like a domino many people move from one

depressing experience to another. This is not unique to only

Sri Lanka but to the whole world.

Also the absence of the sense-faculties restraint can

vividly be seen from the number of deaths in a year while

trying to take Selfie photographs. The Selfie syndrome is

mainly due to the very high self-conceit (Asmi Mana) that is

prevalent in human beings. Mindfulness Meditation is the

greatest friend for such people. Mindfulness Meditation

enables humans to develop restraint of the six sense-faculties

and empower them to live in the paternal territory or under

the power of Enlightened One. Those who do not have the

sense-faculties restraint are under the influence of Mara.

Mindfulness powers humans to enhance the level of virtue

and to ultimately become stream-enterers (Sothapaththi).

Virtue thus empowers a person to overcome all the

negative external stimuli, which are extremely prevalent

today due to the emerging technology. What would the next

level of ascendency of technology is to be seen, yet steeped

in virtue human beings can overcome any negative influence

that can be created by any such technology. However, if we

continue to falter in our virtue, then one may not be able to

think of the dangers that such people will have to face as we

move on with our lives.

Therefore, step by step the wise should endeavor

to empower them with virtue, the sure footed route to

purification. “Anupubbena medhavi thokathokam khane

khane, kammaro rajatasseva niddhame malam attano” -

Gradually, little by little, moment by moment, wise should

remove their impurities just as a goldsmith removes the dross

of silver. (Dhammapada; 18-239)

May all beings be peaceful and happy.

34 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 35

Q & A in Buddhism….

Andrew. J. Williams

Senior Dharma Teacher in Melbourne, Australia.

Question No - 01 -.... What is one hope or aspiration you

have for the young people of the world?.... What is one piece

of knowledge or wisdom you would like to impart to the world

before you depart from this life?....

Answer - Answer: Firstly, I rejoice in your very important

question. Although I should mention that I have many wishes

and aspirations for the younger people of the world. As well

as many aspects of knowledge and wisdom that I would like

to share.

But for the sake of easy reading, I will do as you request

and share one aspect for each of the two parts of your

question. I hope and wish that the young people of the world

realise that we are all inter-related, all part of one big family.

No matter where or how we live, no matter the language we

speak or our age. Therefore, we should be kind to each other

and encourage others to do likewise.

Furthermore, I hope and wish that the young people

of the world realise that we all have the potential and

opportunity to be wise and compassionate, and realise our

true enlightened nature. In addition, you should know that

there is no such thing as a so-called 'generation gap'. This is

just one of the many man-made concepts that are not helpful

and serve only to divide people.

The similarities far outweigh the differences between

different generations. Primarily, we all need air to breath,

water to drink, food to eat, and clothes and shelter to protect

us from the elements. Everything else is secondary. Also it is

important to note that we wouldn't have the conveniences

and luxuries that we have today if it wasn't for the foresight

and efforts of the previous generations. So let us all help,

appreciate and respect one another.

Question No - 02 - What is the Buddhist attitude towards

astrology i.e. horoscopes and star signs? Is it something that

we should take with a grain of salt, or can we take it somewhat


Answer - I would lean towards, as you say, taking it with

a grain of salt, rather than too seriously. I think if you pay too

much attention to things like horoscopes, you would never be

sure if it's true or not, which may result in you developing a

mind of more and more uncertainty, more and more doubt.

But I'm no expert in this area.

I think it's more helpful to pay attention to our lives in

the present, rather than dwelling on the past and the future.

The past has gone and the future has not yet arrived. So let us

maintain a realistic and positive outlook and attitude, as well

as, only engaging in helpful and beneficial actions.

Maybe it will be helpful to reflect on the Buddha's words

recorded in the Kalama Sutra, after he was asked what his

doctrine was by the people of the Kalama kingdom. "Do not

believe in anything (simply) because you have heard it. Do not

believe in traditions because they have been handed down for

many generations.

Do not believe in anything because it is spoken and

rumored by many. Do not believe in anything (simply) because

it is found written in your religious books. Do not believe

in anything merely on the authority of your teachers and

elders. But after observation and analysis, when you find that

anything agrees with reason and is conducive to the good and

benefit of one and all then accept it and live up to it."

36 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 37

Amazing Lord

Gautama Buddha’s

Sacred Places in

India (Dambadiva)….

Buddha, meaning 'one who is awake' in the sense of

having 'woken up to reality' was the title first given to Lord

Buddha. It was about 2500 years ago when Prince Siddhartha

Gautam left all the worldly pleasures to attain the reality of

life, and became the Buddha - the enlightened one. It was a

state in which the Buddha gained an insight into the deepest

workings of life and therefore into the cause of human

suffering, the problem that had set Him on his spiritual quest

in the first place.

Buddhism offers four major sites of pilgrimage: the

Buddha's birthplace at Lumbini, the site where he attained

Enlightenment Bodh Gaya, where he first preached at Benaras,

and where he achieved Parinirvana at Kusinagara. Some

Buddhist pilgrimage sites in India are listed below:

Lumbini - The Buddha's Birthplace

Lumbini is a Buddhist pilgrimage site in

the Rupandehi District of Nepal. It is the place where,

according to Buddhist tradition, Queen Mayadevi gave

birth to Siddhartha Gautama in 563 BCE. Gautama, who

achieved Enlightenment sometime around 528 BCE, became

the Gautama Buddha and founded Buddhism. Lumbini is

one of many magnets for pilgrimage that sprang up in places

pivotal to the life of Gautama Buddha.

Lumbini has a number of temples, including the Mayadevi

Temple and several others which are still under repairing.

Many monuments, monasteries and a museum, the Lumbini

International Research Institute, are also within the holy site.

Also there is the Puskarini, or Holy Pond, where the Buddha's

mother took the ritual dip prior to his birth and where he had

his first bath. At other sites near Lumbini, earlier Buddhas

were, according to tradition, born, then achieved ultimate

Enlightenment and finally relinquished their earthly forms.

In the Buddha's time, Lumbini was situated in east

of Kapilavastu and southwest Devadaha of Shakya kingdom

of Nepal. It was there, that the Buddha was born. A pillar

discovered in 1896 (and erected thereafter at Rummindei) is

believed to mark the spot of Ashoka's visit to Lumbini. The site

was not known as Lumbini before the pillar was discovered.

According to an inscription on the pillar, it was placed there

by the people then in charge of the park to commemorate

Ashoka's visit and gifts. The park was previously known as

Rummindei, 2 mi (2 mi (3.2 km)) north of Bhagavanpura.

Bodh Gaya - The site of the Enlightenment of Gautama


It is here in Gaya, that Lord Buddha attained

enlightenment under a Bodhi tree. Gaya is situated about

100kms from Patna, the capital of Bihar. It is the second largest

city and is the most popular tourist destination in Bihar. The

city is established on the bank of River Phalgu and is named

after the demon called Gayasur.

Today, Bodhgaya is an important place of Buddhist

pilgrimage in India and has a number of monasteries, which

were constructed by devout Buddhists of Japan, Thailand,

Myanmar and Sri Lanka. The major attraction in Gaya is the

Maha Bodhi Temple or the Vishal Buddha Mandir that has a

mammoth statue of Buddha in a deep meditation.

Then there is the Bodhi tree that is situated on a huge

platform; it is believed that this tree is the offspring of the

actual tree under which Lord Buddha attained enlightenment.

The Chaukramama or the Jewel Walk is yet another place of

interest in Bodhgaya; it is said that this was the spot where

Buddha used to come for a stroll.

Sarnath - The site of the first sermon

Sarnath is situated about 11kms from the holy town

of Varanasi. It is a place where Budhha after attaining

enlightenment proceeded to deliver his first sermon on

wisdom. Today, Sarnath is one of the most important Buddhist

places of worship in India. The main attraction here is the

stupa that was erected by Emperor Ashoka in 3rd century BC.

Other major attractions in Sarnath are Chaukhandi

Stupa, which is believed to have been constructed during

Emperor Ashoka’s reign; it is in fact the first monument

encountered after entering Sarnath. Another important place

to see in Sarnath is the Dhamek Stupa, which is a conical

structure that signifies the place where Buddha delivered

his first teachings of the Four Noble Truths. Mulagandha Kuti

Vihar and Sarnath Museum are yet other major attractions for

the tourists in Sarnath.

Kushinagar - The site of the Buddha's paranibbana

Kushinagar is located about 53 km from Gorakhpur

and is believed to be the place where Lord Buddha attained

‘Maharparinivana’- the highest stage of salvation. After the

excavation in 1861 many stupas related to Buddha resurfaced

in Kushinagar and today they are amongst the major tourist

attractions here. The Ramabhar Stupa is one of the major

attractions; this stupa is about 50 feet tall and situated where

Lord Buddha was cremated.

Mahanirvana Temple, where a six meters long Buddha

statue in reclining position is kept; Mathakuar Temple, where

a black stone image of the Buddha and inscriptions dating back

to 10th-11th century are kept; Watt Thai Temple; Japanese

Temple, where ‘Eight Metals’ statue of Lord Buddha is kept

and the Chinese Temple, which is predominantly constructed

in a Chinese architectural style are the other places to see in


Other Buddhist holy sites are Patna, Bihar - Formerly

known as Pataliputra, it was the seat of the Mauryan

Empire and a significant Buddhist centre. Rajgir, Bihar -

Formerly known as Rajagaha, it was the capital of Magadha,

ruled by King Bimbisara, one of the most prominent monarchs

and supporters during the lifetime of the Buddha.

Nalanda, Bihar - Site of an ancient Buddhist university,

destroyed by Bakhtiyar Khalji during Islamic attacks.

Sravasti, Uttar Pradesh - Formerly known as Savatthi, it was

the capital of Kosala, ruled by King Pasenadi, one of the most

prominent monarchs and supporters during the lifetime of

the Buddha. Vaishali, Bihar - Seat of a republican state of

the Lichchavis, prominent supporters of the Buddha. Site of

the Second Buddhist Council.

The name of Bihar is derived from vihara, meaning

monastery, such was the association of the area with

Buddhism. In addition to these sites which were visited by the

Buddha, other sites in India have become notable:

Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh - Site of a large stupa

built by Ashoka, it also stored the relics of Sariputra and

Mahamoggallana, the two chief disciples of the Buddha;

reputedly the place from which Mahinda set out to

proselytise Sri Lanka.

Ajanta and Ellora, Maharashtra - the site of intricate cave

paintings depicting Buddhism. Nagarjunakonda, Bavikonda,

Thotlakonda, Salihundam, Amaravati, Andhra Pradesh,

Ratnagiri, Odisha, Lalitgiri, Odishaand Udayagiri, Odisha -

former sites of Buddhist education.

Wijaya Wagaarachchi

After visit in India

Sponsored by Air India

38 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 39

Fulfilled the loving kindness Sri Lankan

Golden Buddhist Bhikkhu,

Most Venerable Banagala Upatissa Thero

Today we are presented you about the Chief Sangha

Nayake of Japan, President of Maha Bodhi Society of Sri

Lanka, Founder & Chairman of “Yoshida” Foundation, Chief

Incumbent of Aggrasrawaka Maha Viharaya, Chief Incumbent

of Sanchi Center in India, Most Venerable Banagala Upatissa


He was born on the January 05th 1950 in a remote

village called Banagala in the southern Province of Sri Lanka.

At the age of 17 he was ordained as a Pupil Buddhist Monk

[Samanera] under the Most Venerable Hedigalle Pannatissa

Maha Nayaka Thera,The then Chief Sangha Nayaka for India.

He had his primary education in Sri Lanka and entered

the Buddhist Missionary Service and training under The

Mahabodhi Society from 1961. Had his secondary education

at Mahabodhi Inter College, Varanasi, India. He was also

awarded Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees for his

higher studies from Indian Universities.

Energetic young monk received his higher Ordination

in 1970. He mastered the Japanese Language in Japan

during 1976, obtained a Diploma having followed a course

in child education and specialized in the same subject. His

dedication for child education opened the way to establish

14 Kindergartens in Sri Lanka with the assistance of imminent

personalities and Venerable Priests in Japan.

He established Lanka-Ji and The Government of Japan,

legally recognized it by vesting the status of Shukyo Hojin.

Being the head of the Lanka-Ji he established the Japan

Sri Lanka Buddhist and Cultural Centre. His noble services

elevated him to be the Chief Head Priest for Sri Lanka in Japan.

Further he was honored to be the Head Priest of Mahabodhi

Aggra Srawaka Maha Vihara,where the holly relics of Sariputta

and Moggallana Maha Thera's (The Chief disciples of Buddha)


Mettavalokanaya” offer best wishes to the Most

Venerable Banagala Upatissa Thero for the every success in

his noble task. “Suki Deegauko Bava..!!”

Buddhika Sanjeewa

f,dal mQð; wdOHd;añl yd ck

kdhlhskaf.a f.!rjdorh ksn`oju Èkd.;a

w;sf.!rjd¾y ndk., Wm;siai

kdysñmdKka jykafia

fujr —fu;a;djf,dalkh˜ Tiafia È.yefrkafka"

cmdkfha m%Odk ix>kdhl" Y%S ,xld uydfndaê ix.ufha

iNdm;s" bkaÈhdfõ idxÑ fÉ;sh.sß úydrdêm;s" fld

This year on September complete India’s Mahabodhi

temple organization founder’s Srimath Anagarika

Dharmapala’s 150th birth anniversary.

The Maha Bodhi Society of India was founded by

Srimath Anagarika Dharmapala in 1891, for the resuscitation

of Buddhism in India.

Srimath Anagarika Dharmapala was one of the

founding contributors of non-violent Sinhalese Buddhist

nationalism and Buddhism. He was also a pioneer in the revival

of Buddhism in India after it had been virtually extinct there

for several centuries, and he was the first Buddhist in modern

times to preach the Dharma in three continents: Asia, North

America, and Europe.

Along with Henry Steel Olcott and Helena Blavatsky, the

creators of the Theosophical Society, he was a major reformer

and revivalist of Ceylonese Buddhism and an important figure

in its western transmission.

He also inspired a mass movement of South Indian

Dalits including Tamils to embrace Buddhism, half a century

before B. R. Ambedkar. At the latter stages of his life, he

entered the order of Buddhist monks as Venerable Sri

Devamitta Dharmapala.

Dharmapala is an excellent example of an Asian

Buddhist modernist, and perhaps the paradigmatic example

of Protestant Buddhism. He was particularly concerned with

presenting Buddhism as consistent with science, especially

the theory of evolution.

The 150th birth anniversary of

Srimath Anagarika Dharmapala….

Most Venerable Parawahera Chandarathana Nayaka Thero

Chief Sangha Nayake Thero of France - Europe, Chief Abbot of the La Bourget International

Buddhist Centre in Paris, France and Head of SECSA Foundation.

f,da iiqka fl; iq/ls

uyd hq. mq/IhdfKda''''

f,dalfha ljru rgl jqjo m%Odk NdIdjla ;sìh hq;=h'

m%Odk ixialD;shla ;sìh hq;=h' tu rgg we;=¿ jk tys mÈxÑ

jk ljfrl=g jqjo ;ukaf.a wkkH;djh mj;ajd .; yelsh'

tfy;a" m%Odk ixialD;shg ydkshla fkd jk mßÈh' Tyq fyda

weh tu m%Odk ixialD;shg .re l< hq;=u h' tfia fkd

jqkfyd;a isÿjkafka úYd, .egquls' ;udf.a foh /l.ksñka

wfkldf.a bvug mekSu wo f,dalfha l,djla ù ;sfí'

f,dalfha úúO rgj, m%Odk nyq;rhg wu;rj ta yd

iudku jQ ck;djla Ôj;a jk wjia:d we;' tfy;a nqoaêu;a

jQ lsisu rgla rdcH NdId folla fyda cd;sl .S folla fyda

cd;sl fldä folla jYfhka wkqu; lrkafka ke;' m%Odk

ixialD;sh fyda wd.u oyu hgf;a wka cd;s wd.ï j,g

lghq;= l< yelsh' tfy;a Tjqka tfia isÿ lrk .uka ,xldfõ

meje;aug w; fmdj;s' Tjqkaf.a úi÷ï kï cd;sl .S folla

m%Odk wd.fï fyda ixialD;sfha m%Odk;ajh wfydais lsÍu jeks

l%shd ud¾.j,g ,xldfõ rch fmd,Uj;s' fuh j¾;udkfha

muKla fkdj w;S;fha o meje;s fmdÿ wñysß i;Hhls' Tjqka

hï;dla ÿrg fyda ch.%yKh l

The central problem of a Buddhists is to combine a

successful lay life with Buddhist moral and spiritual principles.

This problem can be solved by organizing one's life as a lay

Buddhist within the framework of the Noble Eightfold Path

which can be compared to a road map.

The lifespan of every individual is of tenfold. They are

as 01 - Childhood (manda, 01 - 10) Adolescence (kidda, 10 -

20) 02 - Adulthood (vaṉṉa, 20 - 30) 03 - The period of the

establishment of mundane life (bala, 30 - 40) 04 - The period

of wisdom (pañña, 40 - 50) 05 - The period of physical decay

(hayana, 50 - 60) 06 - The period of distortion of physical body

(pabbara, 60 - 70) 07 - The period of having crooked body

(vaṇka, 70 - 80) 08 - The period of mental distortion (momuha,

80 - 90) 09 - The period of occurring death (sayana, 90 - 100)

The Right View or Motivation:

To be happy, successful, and secure, we must first learn

to see ourselves and the world as they truly are (Ijjatta and

Bahiddha Loka) and should then shape our everyday activities

in keeping with this. We must also look for solutions to our

problems in terms of the relationship of cause and effect, for

the universal law of causality operates in the field of human

behavior as much as it does in the physical world.

Teaching Kamma Theory:

The foundation for a fruitful life is an understanding

of the moral law of kamma. Kamma is a volitional action;

an action that expresses morally determinate intentions or


As a person sows, so shall he reap? Good begets good,

and evil begets evil. Kamma is also cumulative. Not only

do our deeds generate pleasant and painful result, but in

their cumulative force they also determine our character.

(Samyattanikaya, Samuddaka sutta, p.229)

Solution of Life Problems: Satusacca Formula:

The Buddha's teachings can thus be abbreviated into

these four verifiable truths, called the Four Noble Truths:

suffering (problem), its cause (Cause of Problem), its cessation

Buddhist Perspective for the

Life Planning….

Dr. Hnin Si Oo

The Vice President of the World Alliance of Buddhists (WAB) & The Lecturer of Dhamma

in Yangon, Myanmar

(Solution of Problem), and the way leading to cessation of

suffering (Eightfold Path to solution).

These are eternal truths, truths that do not change and

cannot change with time and place. When the one faces the

Life’s Problem, Always start to use “Satusacca Formula” such

as 01 - What is problem, 02 - the cause of Problem, 03 - What

is the solution, 04 - How to go to solution. (Dhammacakka

pavattana sutta and in many places of pali nikaya)

Benefits of Right Understanding

Right understanding is the foundation for developing

a proper sense of values, which is sorely lacking in our age.

Without right vision and the way is lost; all our efforts will

be misguided and misdirected, all our plans for individual

and social development would be failed. (Sammaditthi sutta,

mulapannasa pali of mijjimanikaya,p. 57. Chattasagayana


Abhayadana (Peace Maker or Donation the Peace): (in

the commentary of anguttaranika)

Teaching the Keeping the Five Precepts conscientiously.

The feeling of guilt increases stress. By observing the precepts,

a person leads a blameless life and thereby enjoys freedom

from the nagging sense of guilt that harasses one who violates

the basic rules of morality.

Sila is nothing but peace builder. By undertaking moral

precepts one pledges to regulate one's conduct in accordance

with these three virtuous qualities.

Compassion and Loving-kindness (brahmavihara) is

the real religion for all. The first teaching for teen is the

compassion once the teenager group of boys plays the snake;

the Buddha admonished them like their own lives (attanam

upamam kattva).

This is the teaching of compassion of the Buddha. The

Buddha planted the seed of compassion in the beginning of

teen life. The Buddha condemned the violence not only on

human but also on the animal. Cultivating the four sublime


The four sublime attitudes (brahmavihara) are lovingkindness,

compassion, altruistic joy, and equanimity. These

are enlightened emotions that reduce the stress and strain of

daily life, improve interpersonal relationships at home and in

the workplace, promote racial accord and amity, help in the

development of an even mind, and increase calm and inner

peace (ajjatta santi).

Mangala sutta: Looking after Parents, sons and daughters

is the auspicious blessing (Matapitu Upatthanam Puttadarassa


In Buddhism, Romantic love for the adult it is natural

to love one person of the opposite sex. The lay Buddhist will

recognize that there is nothing "sinful" or shameful in sex. At

the same time he or she should be aware that extreme sexual


Kamasukallika (self-indulgence), one of extremism should

be avoided by the Buddhist adults. Above and beyond sexual

compatibility, a happy marriage calls for mutual understanding

and adjustments, for sacrifices and selflessness, for tolerance

and patience. Married life becomes truly a blessing rather

than a curse. The harmonious parent-ship leads to the happy

family life.(Sutttanipata pali of Kuddakanikaya)

The most important thing to solve some problem in

life is Mindfulness Technique. Mindfulness of breathing

(anapanasati) is an excellent subject of meditation particularly

useful to the busy layperson, as it can be practiced safely by

anyone, anywhere, at any time.

Without regardless social status, country, age, it is a

universal formula to remove the stress and strain, Modern life

is full of stress and strain. Generally, modern person is driven

by craving, by intense desire.(Mahasatti patthana sutta pali of


Buddhism: The art of living and dying:

Death is the only absolutely certain thing in life, however

how many of us prepare us adequately in advance to face it

calmly? All human beings must die. The body disintegrates,

breaks apart, and turns to ashes and dust. The only thing we

own that remains with us beyond death is our kamma, our

intentional deeds.

Our deeds continue, bringing into being a new form of

life until all craving is extinguished. We are born and evolve

according to the quality of our kamma. Good deeds will

produce a good rebirth, bad deeds a bad rebirth.

To sum up the Buddhist moral and spiritual teaching for

life planning is not based on dogma or blind faith. It therefore

offers a reasonable way of life which should be attractive to

any thinking person.

Moreover, the Dhamma is completely compatible with

the advances of modern science. There are a great number

of Buddhist concepts to cope with modern people for life


44 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 45

The Significance of the

Kathina Robe Offering Ceremony in Thailand….

Kaṭhina means “hard”, “stiff”, “difficult”, etc. The word

Kaṭhina denotes a cloth offered to the monks annually after

the end of the rains-retreat (vassāvāsa). It also refers to a

wooden frame used by the monks in sewing their robes.

However, the word mostly denotes the robe, cīvara in pali,

known as Kaṭhina cīvara. The character of the material used

symbolizes the cīvara, which is one of the four requisites of

a monk. The Kaṭhina robe is offered to the monastic Saṅgha

by lay followers. Apart from the lay followers, monks,

nuns and novices also can offer to the Buddhist Saṅgha.

The historical background of the Kaṭhina robe offering is

mentioned in the Vinaya Pitaka. While the Buddha was

dwelling at Jetavana Vihar in Shravasti, a group of thirty

monks visited the Buddha after the three-month rains-retreat.

The Buddha asked them about their retreat and noticed their

worn out robes. It is said that at the time, monks used to wear

sewn pieces of cloth collected from different places such as

cemeteries, streets, rubbish-heaps, etc.

The “Shanthi Buddha Bhumi Wandana” from Sri Lanka

arrange vast programmes for celebrate the Kathina Robe

Offering Ceremony in Bangkok, Thailand on October 28 &

29, 2017. Mr. Sumith Palihawadana, the Chairman of Shanthi

Travels hope to worship of Sri Lankans on the occasion of

Kathina Robe Offering Ceremony in Bangkok, Thailand.

ta W;=ï Nd.Hh ,lajdiSkag Wod

lr fokakg fujr;a iqñ;a m

Buddhism came to Africa in 19th Century through

Tanzania situated in East Africa. It was year 1920. It happened

by after came a visiting monk named Venerable Loka Natha

Thero from Sri Lanka. He came with a lay person names Mr. H.

G. Gunapala. He is the first person got work in Tanzania and

bought a piece of Land from Government, Brought a Bodhi

Saplin and established Buddhist Association Tanzania.

It grew up gradually and then built Association hall year

1927, Shrine room and Pagoda 1956, Multipurpose hall 1999

and monk’s resident 2016. Now from this place do many

services to different Buddhist groups including Tanzanian local


Most of the people come to temple to learn meditation.

After that they start to apply Buddhist philosophy for their life.

Also here we can find many people having attacked by

ghosts and other bad spiritual powers. They have no enough

knowledge to recognize that and do not have enough solutions

to eliminate them from victims.

Therefore, most of them suffering with these attacks

always. Then if anybody get a chance to meet us (Buddhist

Monks) that is the end of their suffering. We have cured many

people who came to meet us. We are just using only Buddhist

Chanting (Pirith). After that they cured wonderfully. That is

one of grate improvement of Buddhism in Africa.

Also here they need practical Buddhism. They are not

ready to hear long deep Dhamma Talk. They are ready to get

from us practically. Not from word. If we do not help they are

very far from us.

We must give them without any hope of receive from

them. That is their basic access to any religious faith. Therefore

we also need to do so. Therefore I have applied a practical

project which respect by all people in Tanzania without any

religious labour.

It is “Kind Heart Africa Orphanage Project” it started in

2004. We are collecting children from the road and teaching

them till they stand their own. That is one of grate achievement

to our goal.

Apart from that we already have initiate to build

an Elderly Home & Occasional Training Centre & Charity

Dispensary for public. After these all done many respect

will come to Buddhists and slowly can see many people

continuously practice Buddhist philosophy.

That is the way can establish Buddhist teaching on Africa.

Not any other way to do so. Also we need to understand their

current situation properly before we do anything for them.

Otherwise it will not work. We can do without fix any religious

label on it. That way it will go.

Also they are really appreciating Buddha’s guide lines to

make peace and sustainable development. Therefore we have

100 years Buddhism in Africa….

Most Venerable Dr Ilukpitiye Pannasekara Thero

Chief Sangha Nayake Thero of African Continent and Chief Abbot of Buddhist Temple &

Meditation Centre in Tanzania - South Africa.

established Inter Religious Council for Peace in Tanzania from

year 1998. It is very successful and therefore currently I am

the Buddhist Leader among nine Leaders in the country of this

important organization.

Apart from that in Africa we have an organization named

interfaith action for peace in Africa. That IFAPA combined

with 25 Religious leaders from 54 African countries. I am the

Buddhist Commissioner among them.

Always need to attend different kind of Buddhist,

religious and social activities in different countries. Always we

so busy with them.

Reason is that we do not have enough sources for their

demand. Specially, man power. All 54 countries about 10 – 15

monks are working who came from different countries and

different traditions.

I am the only one Resident Sri Lankan monk who is

remaining in Africa. Therefore it is extremely difficult to fulfil

their demand. That is why Buddhism has not developed in

Africa yet. Our communities are doing not think on this matter

deeply. If everyone thinks to help this continent we can see

shining it soon with right understanding.

Currently we have temples in Tanzania, Botswana, South

Africa, Kenya, Malawi, Uganda and Congo only among 54

countries. African monks can see only Congo, South Africa,

Uganda and Tanzania only.

Then you can see how far still we need to go. If whole

Buddhist world come together we can establish a Buddhist

Centre in each country and make a monk to carry on this grate

philosophy. This is good continent to apply Practical Buddhism

to active. I cannot see any other place more than this. Many

people need this teaching and they are waiting to accept it.

Learning and knowledge provide the path to good

relationships in the modern world. From ancient times, some

countries had a well-developed system of education centered

on the temple. The beneficial expansion of this system was

seen with the establishment academics desirous of learning


I believe that proper knowledge of the Dhamma and the

Pali language are essential for members of the Maha Sangha

in countrywide to protect the teachings of the Buddha.

Although, Pali is not a spoken language today, the knowledge

of this language is essential for the continuance of Buddhism.

Paying homage to the Buddha, observing Pansil, venerating

the Noble Triple Gem and the chanting of Pirith are all done in

Pali. Our culture that has spread from ancient days is based on

the valuable influence of Buddhist teaching.

The learning of the Dhamma with devotion and wisdom

is necessary for a proper understanding of the reality of life.

Further this occasion offers on opportunity to the peoples

to deepen understanding and foster harmony. I strongly feel

that the building of a spiritual environment is a prerequisite to

build a partnership based on lasting peace and quality.

The Buddha said:

“Pamojjabahulo Bhikku - Pasanno Buddhasasane -

Adhigacche Padam Santam - Sankharupasamam Sukham”

(Bhikku Vaggo - Dhammapadaya) - The Bhikkhu who is full

of delight and is pleased in the Dhamma will realize that

blissful State - the happiness that is born of the cessation of

conditioned things.

As a Buddhist Monk, proud of its purest form of

Theravada Buddhism, which was sustained for more than 100

years mainly due to the commitment and tireless efforts of

the Sangha, I am very happy that this.

On this commemorative moment, let us all make our

efforts to spread and practice the principles of kindness,

compassion, altruistic joy and equanimity in order to create

a better world free from greed and violence that consistently

leads us to enormous crisis.

May the Noble Triple Gem bless you..!!!

48 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 49


m%sh j.a.h

“Seeladassana Sampannam - dhammattham saccavedinam

Attano kammakubbanam - tam jano kurute piyam”

He, who is virtuous and intelligent, just and truthful, strives after

perfection, him the world will hold dear.

—iS,oiaik iïmkakx - OïuÜGx iÉpfjÈkx

w;a;fkd lïu l=índkx - ;x cfkd l=ref; mshx˜

YS,fhka yd iuH.a oDIaáfhka hqla;j O¾ufha msysgd we;a; u lshñka ;%súO

YsCId mqrk ;eke;a;dg yefudau m%sh;djhla olaj;s'



“Tanhaya Jayati soko - tanhaya jayati bhayam

Tanhaya vippamuttassa - natti soko kuto bhayam”

From greed is born sorrow; from greed is born fear. He who is

free from greed is free from sorrow. Whence fear?....

—;Kaydh cdh;S fidfld - ;Kaydh cdh;S Nhx

;Kaydh úmamuq;a;iai - k;aÓ fidfld l=f;d Nhx˜

wdYdj ksid fYdalh yg .kS' wdYdj ksid ìh o yg .kS' wdYdfjka fjka jQ

wfhl=g ljrlf,lj;a fYdalhla ke;af;ah' tksidfjka u ìhla o we;s fkdfõ'

“Pemato jayati soko - pemato jayati bhayam

Pemato vippamuttassa - natthi soko kuto bhayam”

Affection leads to sorrow, affection leads to fright. One who is

free from affection is free from sorrow. Whence fear?....

—fmuf;d cdh;S fidfld - fmuf;d cdh;S Nhx

fmuf;d úmamuq;a;iai - k;aÓ fidfld l=f;d Nhx˜

fm%auh ksid fYdalh yg .kS' fm%auh ksid ìh o yg .kS' fm%aufhka fjka jQ whg

lsisodl ÿlla ke;' ìhla o we;s fkdfõ'


50 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017

Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 I 51

Buddhika Sanjeewa, as the Founder, President & Chief Editor of Mettavalokana Buddhist Publications Centre, I printed and published this “Mettavalokanaya” Buddhist Magazine as a

publication of Mettavalokana Buddhist Publications Centre on August 29, 2017 at M. D. Gunasena & Co (Pvt) Ltd, No.20, San Sebastian Hill, Colombo 12.

52 I Mettavalokanaya I August I 2017 Registered at Department of Post in Sri Lanka - QD/181/News/2016

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