Saunton Historic Report 2017-07

pitchandrun18

Historical Study Of The East Course At Saunton Golf Club


Young caddy watches on as one of the Pitts Tucker

founders plays his shot

References:

Richard Bass - 1996, Guide to the US Assault Training Centre North Devon (Un-published).

http://www.assaulttrainingcenter.com/

The History of Saunton Golf Club 1897 -1987

Saunton Golf Club 1897-1997


Timeline

1929 Clubhouse Opening Exhibition Match,

James Braid putting on the pre-war 2nd green

Saunton Golf Club first formed

Thomas Dunn 9 holes

Clubhouse opened

9 Holes extended to 12 holes

12 Holes extended to 18 holes

4 Holes rearranged

WWI Outbreak - Course reduced to 12 holes due to lack of labour

Exhibition match between Harry Vardon & J.H. Taylor

Resumption of club - W.H. Fowler engaged to re-design the course

Moving into the natural dune land - The same layout as today apart

from the 1st, 2nd, 17th & 18th holes

New club house built in location recommended by W.H. Fowler

celebrated with exhibition match between J.H.Taylor , James Braid,

Henry Cotton & Bradbeer (Saunton Pro)

Second 18 holes commissioned W.H. Fowler to design & build

WWII Outbreak - Clubhouse requisitioned

Ken Cotton invited to restore the Old Course - 13 holes almost put

back as they were with a few minor changes but altered the 1st,2nd,

6th, 17th & 18th holes

Course reopened

Frank Pennink engaged to design the West Course

9 Holes open on the West course

Full 18 holes open on the West Course

POW from Normandy tasked with clearing the war debris

US Assault Training Centre created by US Engineers and used by the

US 146th Engineer Combat Battalion in preparation for D-Day

The Committee decide to move the 1st Green on the East Course left

as original position deemed too close to the 17th West fairway and

could be dangerous

Practice ground created

1st Green East Course moved back towards original location - 2nd

green East moved back and right

Donald Steel engaged to redesign the 2nd fairway on the West Course

Donald Steel engaged to rebuild all 18 greens on the West Course -

Irrigation added to all tees and greens and 7th, 11th, 12th , 16th &

18th fairways on the East Course

1897

1906

1907

1908

1912

1914

1919

1923

1929

1935

1939

1943

1944

1950

1952

1972

1974

1975

1975

1979

1980

1987

1992


Thomas Dunn

Born Blackheath, England, 29th December 1849. Died Blagdon 1902 , aged 52.

Tom Dunn became a professional at Wimbeldon Common (London Scottish) in 1870. The

course had originally been laid out by his father , Old Willie Dunn, with 18 holes, but over

the years it had been reduced to 7. In his first year at the club, Tom extended it to 18. He went

on to hold professional positions at North Berwick, Tooting Beck, Meyrick Park amongst

others.

Dunn had four top-10 finishes in The Open Championship his best effort coming 6th in

1869.

He was the most prolific golf course architect of his day. He produced layouts that were

inexpensive and serviceable, making it possible for increasing numbers of all social classes

to take up the sport.

He was a great salesman and is quoted as telling his clients; “God meant this site to be a golf

course.” The first designer to work on inland courses rather than links he was a firm believer

in a cross bunker requiring a forced carry from the tee, another for the approach and even a

third on a three shot hole.

Dunn himself considered Broadstone to be one of his greatest achievements where he was

“not stinted for men, money or materials”. He felt Meryick Park the greatest challenge because

of the densley covered heather, gorse and pine forest terrain.

Tom was married to Isabel Gourlay, “the greatest women golfer of her day”. Tom travelled

to America on several occasions visiting his brother Willie Dunn Jnr. (who also went on to

become an architect). Despite his visits to the US, it is doubtful that he ever laid out a course

there. While many American courses claim

to have a Tom Dunn course, it is more

likely they were laid out by one of the other

Dunns.

Tom’s work in Great Britain and on the

Continent was extensive with more than

137 courses.

This timeline has been constructed

using information from various

sources, such as club histories, club

websites, “The Architects of Golf ” by

Cornish and Whitten.

Born 1849

Ashley Wood, Dorset - 9 holes 1893

London Scottish Golf Club - Added 9 holes 1870

Bath 1880

Bramshaw - Manor Course 1880

Felixstowe Ferry - 9 holes 1880

Kinsdown 1880

Cork - Ireland 1880

Northe Berwick- Remodel 1883

Brighton & Hove - 9 holes 1887

Seaford 1887

Dinard, France 1887

Coubert - France 1888

Blairgowrie 1889

Bromley: Bude & North Cornwall GC 1890

Eltham Warren 1890

Tooting Bec 1890

Ganton 1891

Huddersfield 1891

Lindrick 1891

Northwood 1891

Richmond 1891

Royal Cinque Ports - 9 holes 1892

Royal Mid Surrey 1892

Royal Worlingon & Newmarket - 9 holes 1892

Seacroft 1892

Ventnor - 9 holes 1892

Weston-Super-Mare 1892

Enfield 1893

Hastings & St. Leonards 1893

Hastings 1893

Royston 1893

Woking 1893

Haagsche - Netherlands 1893

Buscott Park & Chiselhurst GC 1894

Hampstead - 9 holes 1894

Lansdown 1894

Meyrick Park 1894

Surbiton 1895

Frinton 1896

Saunton 1897

Broadstone 1898

Maidenhead 1898

London Scottish Golf Club - Remodel 1901

Bulwell Forest 1902

Sheringham; Sherwood Forest - 9 holes 1904

Erewash Valley 1905

Beckenham Place Park 1907

Burhill - 9 holes 1907

North Oxford 1908

Nottingham City 1908

Whickham 1911

Ralara - Canary Islands

Unknown

Littlestone - Remodel

Unknown

Died 1902


William Herbert Fowler

Born Edmonton, England, 28th May 1856. Died London 13th April

1941, aged 85

Arthur Croome, one of Fowler’s design partners once write that:

“Mr W. Herbert Fowler is a true aristocrat if ever there was one...Had

he lived in Paris at the time of the revolution the mob would certainly

have searched the city for a lantern high and strong enough to finish him

off. The marks of your true aristocrat are a firm belief that the best dog

must come out on top eventually, an instinct for discovering the best of

everything and an unshakeable conviction that what he selects as the best

is the best... You will very soon find that his real contempt is reserved for

what is second-rate, ignorant or ignoble. That is why he has so seldom

been proved wrong about golf, though he has given utterance in the most

unequivocal terms to more categorical statements than most people.’

This short quotation says a great deal about the man. He was born into a

wealthy family and matured into a fine sportsman. He concentrated on

cricket and played county cricket and for the MCC before discovering

golf at the relatively old age of 23. Within a decade, he had achieved a

handicap of scratch and was competing in The Amateur where he made

the quarter finals before being soundly thrashed by Harold Hilton and

in The Open where he tied for 26th in 1900. This rapid rise demonstrates

just what an able sportsman he was. He was a large man, measuring a

strong 6’3”.

Around the turn of the century, his brother-in-law, Sir Cosmo Bonsor,

approached him about a possible project south of London which was

later to become Walton Heath, the course that launched his career

as a golf course architect in 1907. By 1913, he had teamed up with

Tom Simpson forming one of the great partnerships in golf course

architecture that lasted until the late 1920s when Fowler was in his 70s.

They worked across Europe and Fowler made several trips to the USA,

designing Eastward Ho! (named after his beloved Westward Ho!) and

Los Angeles Country Club as well as re-designing courses including

creating the 18th hole at Pebble Beach.

Both he and Simpson (pictured in the cartoon to the left) were highly

intelligent and controversial figures. Fowler did not write all that much

about architecture but Simpson certainly did, contributing regularly

to Country Life, Golf Monthly and being featured in numerous other

periodicals. He also co-authored with Joyce and Roger Wethered’s

father one of the great books on golf course architecture called

“The Architectural Side of Golf ”. His clear views were most probably

formulated in discussions with Fowler.

Despite Fowler’s background, his life was dogged by financial difficulties

and it would appear that he was not great at managing money. In 1902,

he was on the brink of bankruptcy when he was forced to sell his estate

in Devon, moving close to London to find gainful employment in the

form of designing Walton Heath. By 1912, things had turned for the

good and he moved into a purpose built house near Walton Heath

designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens. But late in his life, however, his troubles

returned and in 1928 he was declared bankrupt, living out the rest of

his life in accommodation and full board provided by Walton Heath

Golf Club.

“He will plant a difficulty just the least bit nearer

to the hole than any other architect, for the shot is

nearly good, he has little mercy.”

Horace Hutchison

The magnificent 1935 portrait of Fowler by Sir James Gunn RA


William Herbert Fowler Timeline

Born 1856

Cricket (Essex, Somerset and MCC)

Started golf 1879

Joined The R&A 1894

Down to Scratch 1889

Tied for 26th in The Open 1900

To last 16 of The Amateur Championship, losing to Harold Hilton in his prime 1901

Heavily indebted, sells up his house in Devon and moved close to Walton Heath. 1902

Joined The R&A Green Committee 1902

Walton Heath Old Course designed 1902

Walton Heath Old Course opened 1904

Walton Heath New Course designed 1907

Westward Ho! re-opened after major work by Fowler 1908

Fountainbleu, France 1910

Delamere Forest - original layout 1910

West Surrey, Surrey 1910

Simpson joined Fowler 1910

LA Country Club (initial consultation) 1911

Moved into “Chussex” a house designed in classical style by Edwin Lutyens and with a garden by Gertrude Jekyll close to WHGC 1912

Beau Desert, Staffs 1912

North Foreland, Kent Main 18 1912

Woodcote Park, Surrey (CW) 1912

Walton Heath New Course opened 1913

Bull Bay, Wales (Club website) 1913

Bickley Park Estate, Chislehurst, Kent 1914

Shirley Park, Croydon Surrey 1914

Dieppe, France 1914

Spent much of WWI in the USA 1914- 1918

West Kent, Kent 1916

Yelverton, Devon (Club website) 1919

Saunton East Course, Devon (Club Website) 1919

Delamere Forest - revised layout 1920

Fowler working on Eastward Ho! & Los Angeles Country Club 1920

Fowler and Simpson set up an office in California 1920

North Foreland, Kent Short Course 1920

Fowler, Simpson, Abercromby and Croome formed 1921

Eastward Ho! USA 1921

Pebble Beach, California - extended 18th hole to its current design 1922

Abbeydale, Yorkshire 1922

Bradford, Yorkshire 1923

Blackwell, Worcestershire 1923

Crystal Springs, California 1924

Knole Park, Kent 1924

Cruden Bay, Scotland 1926

Fowler, Simpson, Abercromby and Croome disbanded 1927

Declared bankrupt 1928

The Berkshire Red Blue opened 1928

Manor House Hotel, Devon (now Bovey Castle) Mostly Abercromby? 1930

Saunton, Devon 1935

Died 1941

“An erratic genius...

perhaps the most daring

and original of all golf

course architects”

Bernard Darwin

This timeline has been constructed

using information from various

sources, such as club histories, club

websites, “The Architects of Golf ”

by Cornish and Whitten.


The Words of William Herbert Fowler

“Bunkers should only act as hazards for wide shots.”

“I think that a bunker should mean on average the loss of one

stroke, .......the ball should always be in the bottom of the bunker,

and not hard up against the face”

“I have often thought that the importance of the hazards of

a course is very much under-estimated by makers of courses,

Green Committees, and players generally, and yet I think that

good hazards are really almost the most important feature of a

course. To my mind it is a near thing between the hazards and the

greens as to which is more important to the making of a first class

course.” (from Golf Greens and Greenkeeping, edited by Horace

Hutchinson, 1911)

“In my opinion, a course of from 6,300 to 6,500 yards is amply

long enough, and the latter should not be exceeded. For all

championships I think there should be specially laid-out courses,

one in England and one in Scotland, and then one could have a

course which would be long enough to test even the longest hitters.

Some day, no doubt, this will be made, but until it arrives I do

hope courses will be kept to a reasonable length.” (c1920 Lecture

to Golf Greenkeepers’ Association)

On Selecting a suitable Club Secretary, he advised Abbeydale

Golf Club in Sheffield:

“What you want is a man of character, who is capable, has good

manners, and is patient with idiots.”

“A great deal has been written of late years in favour of making

holes of one, two and three full shots in length, as if this would

make such holes interesting. Such theories are upset by the first

strong wind that blows; but a hole which is properly guarded can

be made interesting, and as difficult as desired, by the proper

placing of hazards, no matter what its length may be.” (from Golf

Greens and Greenkeeping, edited by Horace Hutchinson, 1911)

“We want more cross bunkers in addition to the flanking ones

to curtail the long drivers from getting nearer the green than a

certain distance to play their approaches.” Golfing 1915

“There is one test of a good slope from a bank. One should never be

able to point to any spot where the slope ends. There is a lot more

in this than one would at first imagine.” (c1920 Lecture to Golf

Greenkeepers’ Association)

“In laying out a course, great care should be taken to see that the

one-shot holes are of the best possible quality. Personally, I think

a course is never a good one unless this class of hole is really firstclass.

Now that inventors have so spoilt the game by making it

possible to hit the ball to impossible distances, the only thing a

golf architect can do to get decent two shot holes is to increase the

number of holes of the one-shot variety.”

(c1920 Lecture to Golf Greenkeepers’ Association)


The Words of William Herbert Fowler

This text is taken from a chapter that Fowler wrote in a book

called “Golf Greens and Greenkeeping”, edited by Horace

Hutchinson and published in 1911 a few years after Walton Heath

Old Course opened and shortly after he and Simpson teamed

up. They were both inspired by the work of John Low and Stuart

Paton at Woking Golf Club, Simpson so much so that it prompted

him to change career from law to golf course design.

This early article by Fowler shows that at this stage his thinking

was relatively under-developed and his thinking evolved over the

years. Simpson was a great thinker and prolific writer about golf

design and the two men must have spent hours debating topics as

they were both outspoken characters.

These quotations give a good impression of Fowler’s approach to

design which is helpful. He did not write too much about the strategic

approach that Horace Hutchison mentioned in his quote:

“He will plant a difficulty just the least bit nearer to the hole

than any other architect, for the shot is nearly good, he has

little mercy.”

It is interesting, though, that by 1922, the Fowler, Abercromby,

Simpson and Croome brochure dedicated an entire page to the

following clear statement:

“It is true to say that at least 90% of those who play golf

are firmly convinced that courses are planned

for the benefit of the scratch player.

One moment’s reflection should dispel the idea

that courses are laid out for 1% of those who play golf.

We are business men, and do not lay out courses

for the benefit of our health,

and if in fact we only consulted the interests of 1%

we should soon cease to have a business,

for no one would employ us or recommend us.”


Historic Club Photographs

Note the open sand areas in this post war shot of the 18th designed by Ken Cotton around 1950


Drive from the then 1st Tee Before WWII

Historic Club Photographs


11th Green

Archive photograph - 8th August 1946


Historic Newspaper Articles

“Golf.” Times [London, England] 12 June

1925: Bernard Darwin

“..one of the courses

of the world”

“..there is scarcely an

artificially cut bunker”

“Parliament.” Times [London, England] 10 Apr. 1913:

Bernard Darwin


Historic Newspaper Articles

“Golf.” Times [London, England] 9

Nov 1935: Bernard Darwin

“Golf.” Times [London, England] 8 Aug. 1929:

Bernard Darwin

“..What more

can a golfer

want?”


The Course Evolution


1st Course Layout 9 Holes - 1984 (As Remembered By Philip Harris)

Saunton’s original 9 hole Course is credited to Thomas Dunn


2nd Course Layout 18 Hole (As Remembered By Philip Harris)


Course Layout - 1921 W. H. Fowler


Course Layout - 1935

Hole Yards Par

1 210 3

2 380 4

3 384 4

4 460 5

5 120 3

6 400 5

7 440 5

8 375 4

9 386 5

Out 3155 38

10 316 4

11 360 4

12 460 5

13 140 3

14 475 5

15 480 5

16 421 5

17 170 3

18 418 5

In 3240 39

Out 3155 38

Total 6395 77


Course Layout - 1951 (C. K. Cotton)


Current Course Layout - 2016

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World War II the Occupied Years


The US Assault Training Centre Occupied 1939 - 1951

In 1943 work started on The Assault Training Centre based at Saunton. It was created due to an oversight at the

highest levels of the American War Planning Office which had assumed that American troops sent to lead the

spearhead assault into Europe would be trained for assault. This was not the case as most infantry divisions were

‘green’ or inexperienced in combat and this had to be addressed urgently with the invasion planned only a few

months ahead.

At this time, the only published advice in the US Army Field Manual was “Fortified areas are to be avoided in

the initial assault and then taken from the rear.” The plan to attack the Normandy coastal defences would require

a head on beach assault using multi skilled teams or ‘Assault Sections’ including demolitions, rocket launchers,

flame throwers and machine gunners.

The ATC (Assault Training Centre) brief was to train these assaults sections under realistic conditions including

overcoming on and off-shore obstacles, reduction of fortifications, repulsing of counter attacks and establishing of

the beach head.

The British and Canadians were well ahead with their training and had already claimed all suitable beaches except

Woolacombe. Woolacombe had been deemed too stormy for amphibious landing craft by the British. Many

natural features including the sand type, dune-scape and tides made Woolacombe an almost exact match for their

destination ‘Omaha beach’ in Normandy. The ATC was divided into lettered areas along the coastline from A-M,

Saunton being allocated ‘D’ containing the greatest concentration and variety of assault and training facilities.

The 398th Engineer General Service arrived on 1st September 1943 and were given orders to build replicas of

structures included a full-scale German-type ‘Hedgehog’ that the American troops were likely to encounter

in Normandy. Once the initial construction had been carried out, the 146th Engineer Combat Battalion took

charge in September 1943 of maintenance and rebuilding. American Troops were to visit the ATC for 3 weeks of

training.

After D-Day, the ATC was occupied by the 18th Field Force Replacement Depot to house and feed replacement

troops on their way to Europe. It is certain that the training and research that took place at Saunton and all along

the 16 mile stretch of coastline that was used by the ATC was vital to the success of D-Day. Colonel Paul W.

Thompson, the then commandant said “If the battle of Waterloo was won on the playing fields of Eton, then the

Assault Training Centre contributed in no small measure to the success of D-Day”.


The US Assault Training Centre Occupied 1939 - 1951

Obstacle Course

Concrete wall

Target Pits

Ships Sides

Tank Trap

Wire Cutting

Anti-Aircraft

Battery

Clubhouse

Troops billeted in

Nissan huts

Pillboxes

LCVP-LCM Mock Up Area

LCVP Landing Craft Vehicle Personnel

LCM Landing Craft, Mechanized

Flame Thrower Range

‘Hedgehog’ Mock Up Area

The hedgehog defence is a military tactic for defending against a

mobile armoured attack, or blitzkrieg. The defenders deploy in

depth in heavily fortified positions suitable for all-around defence.

The attackers can penetrate between these “hedgehogs”, but each

position continues to fight on when surrounded. This keeps large

numbers of attacking troops tied up, attacking the well-defended

strong-points, while allowing the defenders to successfully

counter-attack against the units that bypass these strong-points

with their own armoured reserves by cutting them off from their

supporting elements.

Dragon’s Teeth

Mine & Booby

Trap Area


Historic & Current Day Aerial Photography


Historic Aerial Photography

Points of Interest

1. The aerial photographs where taken by RAF 58 (1916 to 1976) & 540 (1942 to

1956 ) photo-reconnaissance Squadrons of the Royal Air Force mainly operating

Mosquitoes and Anson’s. Based at RAF Benson in South Oxfordshire, England.

2. The aerial photography shows the essential part that Saunton played in the

American preparations for World War II D-Day assault on the Normandy

beaches. The first aerial from 1946, shows the extent of the destruction that took

place during occupation by tanks, landing craft, demolition practice etc.

3. The aerial photographs provide information regarding the evolution of green

shapes and sizes, the number of bunkers, the bunker locations, bunker sizes,

bunker shapes, open sand areas, fairway widths and the extent and nature of the

vegetation.

4. In terms of the greens, its seems as though a number of the greens may have

survived the war. The actual green boundaries are hard to make out on the 1946

aerial.

5. Tees locations have been adjusted over the years as would be expected with the

advances in ball and club technology. The centre lines shown on the hole by hole

comparison plans are those of today to illustrate just how far tees have gone

backwards and directions of play have been adjusted for some of the holes.

6. The aerial photographs are interesting in what they reveal with respect to the

bunkers. The 1946 aerial shows no man-made bunkers but there are vast blown

out sand dunes/ craters, however, as well as a number of smaller size sand scrapes

that look like they could have been bunkers from the pre-war course left by the

Americans and maybe some of these were original features of Fowler’s Course.

Certainly, the plan from 1935 shows the locations of ‘sand pits’ and bunkers.

There is a significant change in sizes and shape of the bunkers between the 1957

and the 1989 aerial, with the 1989 larger and distinctly more rounded shapes.

The average size of the bunkers between 1989 and the current 2016 aerial have

reduced but the number of bunker has increased from 38 to 56.

7. The fairway widths look as though they were generous by comparison with those

of today. This is a common finding in historical studies of courses.


Bunker Analysis

Histotrical Bunker Count

1935 Bunker count = 25 /12 open sand

1957 Bunker count = 45/18 os

1989 Bunker count = 38

2016 Bunker count = 56


The Evolution Of The Course

The 4th Hole

Fairway widths

Fairway widths have tended to reduce as it has become easier to hit the ball straighter and as new fairway

mowers have been introduced.

The 7th Hole

Bunker Style

There is little evidence of the early bunker style. The

earliest plan showing bunkers is from 1935 and this

shows a combination of man-made bunkers and ‘sand

pits’. In 1925 Bernard Darwin wrote “..And though

there is such a profligate wealth of trouble there is

scarcely an artificially cut bunker on the course”. Over

time, bunkers have become simpler in shape as has

occurred on many links courses.

5th July 1957

5th July 1957 4th May 1989 Current Day


May 1946 RAF Aerial Photography

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November 1952 RAF Aerial Photography

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July 1957 RAF Aerial Photography

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May 1989 RAF Aerial Photography

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Current Day Aerial Photography

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Hole By Hole Comparisons Of The

1946, 1949, 1952, 1957, 1989 & Current Day Layouts


East Course - Hole 1 - 1946, 1952 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th May 1946

Major destruction to

original Course

24th November 1952

Ken Cotton green location

Current Day


East Course - Hole 1 - 1957, 1989 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

Large blow out sand area

5th July 1957

Original green location

All that remains of natural bunkers

4th May 1989

More rugged bunker shapes

Left bunker has gone

New bunkers

Current Day


East Course - Hole 2 - 1946, 1952 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th May 1946

Original direction of play

Mock up ships sides

24th November 1952

Current Day

New green


Hole 2 - 1957, 1989 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th July 1957

Ken Cotton green location

New green location

4th May 1989

Current Day


East Course - Hole 3 - 1946, 1952 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th May 1946

Large sand craters

Blown out dune

24th November 1952

Current Day


East Course - Hole 3 - 1957, 1989 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th July 1957

4th May 1989

Current Day


East Course - Hole 3 - 1957 Oblique View

Green

Tees

2nd Hole


East Course - Hole 3 - Current Day Oblique View

West 10th Hole

West 9th Hole

West 6th Hole

West 5th Hole

15th Hole

2nd Hole


East Course - Hole 4 - 1946, 1952 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th May 1946

Blown out dunes

Crater bunker

24th November 1952

Current Day


East Course - Hole 4 - 1957, 1989 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

Remnant bunkers?

Blown out dunes

5th July 1957

One left bunker

4th May 1989

One right bunker remains

New right bunker

4 bunkers

Left bunker has returned

Current Day


East Course - Hole 5 - 1946, 1952 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

Original bunkers?

5th May 1946

24th November 1952

Crater bunkers

Current Day


East Course - Hole 5 - 1957, 1989 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

Large sandy areas in carry

Green extended

5th July 1957

Bunker off to the right

4th May 1989

Bunker filled

Current Day


East Course - Hole 5 - 1957 Oblique View

Tees

Green


East Course - Hole 5 - Current Oblique View


East Course - Hole 6 - 1946, 1952 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th May 1946

No evidence of green

24th November 1952

Greens back

Current Day


East Course - Hole 6 - 1957, 1989 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

Open sand scrape

5th July 1957

4th May 1989

Current Day


East Course - Hole 7 - 1946, 1952 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th May 1946

Three humps

Bunkers made sense

in bogey 5 hole

24th November 1952

Current Day


East Course - Hole 7 - 1957, 1989 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th July 1957

2 Bunkers

The fairway was much wider and

extended further back towards the tees

Remains of old bunkers

Green-side bunker enlarged

4th May 1989

Two bunkers merged into one

Current Day

This bunker is out of range

from the tee and irrelevant of

par 4

Bunker moved


East Course - Hole 8 - 1946, 1952 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

Concrete wall

Blown out dune

5th May 1946

The characteristic amphitheatre

8th green

24th November 1952

Blown out dune left after the

demolition of the wall

Current Day


East Course - Hole 8 - 1957, 1989 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th July 1957

4th May 1989

Current Day


East Course - Hole 9 - 1946, 1952 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th May 1946

The flame thrower range

24th November 1952

Current Day


East Course - Hole 9 - 1957, 1989 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th July 1957

No drive bunkers

Approach bunker added

4th May 1989

A ‘threesome’ on the green

Green extended further right

Approach bunker moved to

green edge

Current Day

Drive bunkers added


East Course - Hole 10 - 1946, 1952 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th May 1946

24th November 1952

Current foregreen is green

Current Day


East Course - Hole 10 - 1957, 1989 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th July 1957

Green has reduced in size

Large expanse of fairway for the

landing area

Two approach bunkers added

4th May 1989

These two approach bunkers

have been enlarged

The green surface was

mown out to the bases of the

surrounding mounds

Current Day


East Course - Hole 11 - 1946, 1952 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th May 1946

Trenches?

24th November 1952

Current Day


East Course - Hole 11 - 1957, 1989 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

The fairway was mown out to the left

Greenside bunker in the hollow

5th July 1957

The 11th green was historically

played from the opposite direction.

The 5th hole on the 9 hole 1st course

and the 4th hole on the 18 hole 2nd

course. This accounts for the fall on

the green.

Two small bunkers

Original direction of play

4th May 1989

Two small bunkers

merged into one

Current Day


East Course - Hole 12 - 1946, 1952 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

Trenches

5th May 1946

24th November 1952

Current Day


East Course - Hole 12 - 1957, 1989 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th July 1957

Single greenside bunker

Left-hand greenside bunker added

4th May 1989

Current Day


East Course - Hole 13 - 1946, 1952 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th May 1946

Bunkers?

Bunker at the rear of the green

24th November 1952

Bunkers

Large sand crater

Current Day


East Course - Hole 13 - 1957, 1989 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th July 1957

4th May 1989

Current Day


East Course - Hole 14 - 1946, 1952 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th May 1946

The obstacle course

Blown out sand dune

Blown out sand dune

24th November 1952

Blown out sand dunes

Current Day


East Course - Hole 14 - 1957, 1989 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

Left hand bunker has appeared

5th July 1957

Single bunker

Left hand bunker has gone again

4th May 1989

Old bunker

2 bunkers

Current Day

Old bunker

4 bunkers


East Course - Hole 15 - 1946, 1952 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th May 1946

Blown out sand dune

Blown out sand dune

24th November 1952

No bunkers

Current Day


East Course - Hole 15 - 1957, 1989 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th July 1957

Two bunkers set into the humps

and hollows

4th May 1989

Current Day


East Course - Hole 16 - 1946, 1952 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

Open sand crater

Ships sides

5th May 1946

Pillboxes

24th November 1952

Blown out sand dunes

Original 8th green

location (9 hole layout)

Current Day


East Course - Hole 16 - 1957, 1989 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th July 1957

Large rough edged bunker

4th May 1989

Approach bunker added

Drive bunker reduced in size

Current Day

These bunker have

since been moved


East Course - Hole 16 - 1957 Oblique View

Green


East Course - Hole 16 - Current Oblique View


East Course - Hole 17 - 1946, 1952 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th May 1946

24th November 1952

Ken Cotton green location

Current Day


East Course - Hole 17 - 1957, 1989 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

5th July 1957

4th May 1989

Back tee positioned to the left

Green moved to current location

Current Day

Bunker configuration has changed

since 1989


East Course - Hole 18 - 1946, 1952 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

Barracks

5th May 1946

No bunkers surrounding the

green just humps and hollows

24th November 1952

Ken Cotton 18th hole

Current Day


East Course - Hole 18 - 1957, 1989 & Current Day Aerial Photograph Comparison

Current day centre line

shown on all plans

Approach bunker

5th July 1957

4th May 1989

Drive bunker added

Approach bunker enlarged

3 Drive bunkers

Current Day

5 Greenside bunkers

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