Slovenia: Heading for the EU Presidency
PR in Germany
Smashing Sex Inequality in Grand Slam Tennis
International sailing regatta ACI Match Race Cup
16. James Davies
Editor in chief: Danijel Koletić
Editorial staff: Dino Švedek, Mirjana Mureta,
How a measurement culture had
transformemd the marketing landscape
6.-7. How to win a national election
8.-9. Heading for the EU Presidency
- Sabina Povšić Štimec (Slovenija)
- Amela Odobašić (Bosna i Hercegovina)
- Nikolina Dežmarić Krofak (Hrvatska)
- Dragana Jovanović (Srbija)
- Zvezdana Oluić (Crna Gora)
- Konstantin Ikonomov (Makedonija)
10.-11. About HINA - Croatian Press Agency
12-13. Challenges in Serbia’s publishing
18-20. Public Relations in Germany
22. Croatian journalism - now and then
23.-24. Media picture in Croatia
25. The role of media monitoring in PR
30.-31. Macedonians made the biggest
In this issue writting: Angelika Wagner, Anže Logar, Nada
Serajnik Sraka, Darko Odorčić, Milica Milić, James Davies,
Thorsten Luetzler, Ante Gavranović, Nella Mandić, Sanela
Tunović, Annette Uhlmann, Nadica Dimitrovska, Sara
Pennant, Marijeta Lazor, Gabriele Weishaupl, Tina Eterović
Čubrilo, Altijana Marić, Dragana Jovanović, Ramona
Gasteiger, Nikolina Dežmarić Krofak, Jorg Kramer, Zlatan
Jaganjac, Gracia Krainer, Dino Švedek,
Cover page: Milica Milić, Head of Public Relations,
Colour Press Group
Hellmann’s Russian salad
32.-35. Smashing Sex Inequality in
Grand Slam Tennis
36.-38. Fairs - PRofessionals’ Challenge
Deutschland - world for
Translations: Luke Davis, Mirjana Mureta
Prepress: Igor Jeremić
40.-42. A story of open and successful
Publisher: Apriori komunikacije (www.apriori.hr)
Address: Florijana Andrašeca, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
Info phone: +385 (0)1 3099 526
“PRO PR” is a four season magazine for public relations
and individuals that use communication as their basic
Press: KRATIS, Zagreb, Croatia
This issue is not for sale
communication - Pfizer’s PR campaign
“Openly about sex”
44.-47. Munich’s Oktoberfest
54.-55. PR in Serbia
56.-57. Frankfurt - A Cosmopolitan City
in the Heart of Europe
58.-59. Internal communication in
practice - VARTEKS
62.-63. Internation sailing regata
ACI Match Race Cup
64.-65. Ruzicka’s House
HAPPY NEW YEAR!
PROPR winter 2007.
PROPR winter 2007.
EDITOR IN CHIEF
Welcome to Sarajevo
Germany is the main subject in the third issue of our magazine. You will
find theoretical articles as well as practical samples from Germany. All those
who did not attend our congress in Ohrid can read about the campaign
of the German Chancellor Angela Merkel.
There is, also, a selection of regional topics. I believe that they will be very
useful to all of you. I thank our colleagues from the UK who supplied us
with two interesting topics.
Corporate communications is the topic of our upcoming congress. This is
taking place in Sarajevo, from April 16-20, 2008, in the Hollywood hotel.
Therefore, I have figuratively named it the „star congress“.
those who are to
You can find the official programme and all details related to it on our website
www.pro-pr.com, which has been redesigned and replenished with
I put the emphasis here on the Information centre, where a display of all the
agencies that meet the standards of the PR profession can be found. Another
new icon of our website is the PRO PR club, initiated by our colleagues and
congress participants from Serbia. The idea of the PRO PR club is to bring all
PR professionals together and annually organise their several casual meetings.
I thank all of them for taking a step forward from our congress and magazine,
as well as for applying our slogan „networking in motion“ in practice.
We look forward to seeing you in Sarajevo at our 6th International Public
Relations Congress PRO PR. Until then, on the behalf of the editorial, I
send my regards to all of you.
How to win
a national election
The election campaign 2005 of the Christian Democratic Union (Germany)
CDU headquarters Berlin
The campaign of the centre-right party, the Christian
Democratic Union (CDU), for the elections
of the German Bundestag (parliament) in the year
2005 was special for various reasons. Firstly, the general
election took place one year before time. This
caused a challenging situation for our party regarding
the short period of time to prepare a national
election campaign. Secondly, the CDU was glad
to present for the first time a woman to run a candidacy
in the history of Germany - Angela Merkel.
Thirdly, despite the short period of time we introduced
some new campaign elements.
After several federal state elections throughout Germany
in the years 1998 to 2005 the CDU took over
or participated in 13 out of 16 state-governments.
With May 22nd 2005, the counterpart to the CDU,
the Social Democratic Party (SPD), lost the election
in one of the largest federal states, North Rhine-Westphalia,
after almost 40 years of leadership. This
was to become the turning point regarding the national
elections. In the evening of May 22nd the German
chancellor, back then Gerhard Schröder (SPD),
decided to call for early elections.
Regional states in Germany
After this regional election, opinion polls showed
that the German government, at that time a coalition
of the Social Democratic Party and The Green
Party (“Red and Green”), did not have the support
of the majority of voters anymore. Referring to those
developments a constitutional process was initiated
that resulted in the decision of the President of
the Federal Republic of Germany, Horst Köhler, to
suspend the German Bundestag and to hold early
elections in September 2005.
The CDU divided the short time span of 119 days
between May 22nd and September 18th 2005 - a total
of only 17 weeks - into three periods. The campaign
started with a two-month period called “Pre-
Campaign”, where we selected the main topics for
the CDU-party platform and nominated the candidate
for the Chancellor’s office: Angela Merkel.
During the second phase of the election campaign
the main goal was to mobilise as many voters and
supporters for the CDU as possible. The last three
weeks of campaigning are called the “Crucial Phase”,
since a lot of voters make up their minds in the
very last days before Election Day.
Die Bilanz von Rot-Grün:
Alle 15 Min.
braucht den Wechsel
Herausgeber: CDU-Bundesgeschäftsstelle · Marketing und Interne Kommunikation · Klingelhöferstraße 8 · 10785 Berlin · Bestell-Nr.: H251
posters and bilboards:
„Every 15 minutes a company goes bankrupt.”
„Take advantage of Germany’s chances. CDU”
„More economic growth. More jobs. CDU”
Even though the Social Democrats seemed to have
lost majorities, Chancellor Gerhard Schröder as a
person was still very popular. Therefore, it was necessary
for the CDU to point out the failures of the
Red and Green government to support the public
request for political change and to prevent Gerhard
Schröder from benefiting from his status of the incumbent
As it is known, it is more likely that the government
will be voted out rather than the opposition party
being voted in. Consequently the communication
strategy of the CDU was based on three pillars: First
pillar: attacking the government with facts without
attacking Gerhard Schröder personally, second
pillar: pointing out what CDU would do better and
third pillar: linking the promises to the candidate
Angela Merkel. The main argument was the failing
of the coalition of Red and Green, shown by the grave
economic situation in Germany. The inefficiency
of the government was substantiated by numerous
facts regarding the economy, unemployment rates
and public debts.
The tonality of the key messages concerning the
promises was kept authentic, optimistic and honest.
The main topics were how to initialise the growth
of the economy, establish more jobs, provide a more
secure environment and consolidate the state budget.
The key statements or promises of Angela Merkel
implicated that she stood for a change of politics
and that she would present more reliability and provide
new confidence to the German citizens.
There were a couple of different elements to transport
our slogans. In addition to traditional campaign
elements, such as billboards, posters, brochures,
Giant poster next to the motorway
Volunteers of “teAM future” at the General Party Conference in Dortmund,
28th August 2005.
Advertisement of VIP campaign “Angela Merkel has our support”
Angela Merkel at the inauguration ceremony in the German Bundestag
22nd November 2005.
PROPR winter 2007.
TV and radio spots CDU included new elements such
as, for example, special poster placements like giant
banners, truck rears and giant posters next to
the motorway. The aim was to reach as many people
The internet is a very important platform for communication
- especially in a short-time campaign.
With our CDU campaign website we were able to
inform interested users of all our news and activities.
The campaign website www.cdu.de gave access
to special websites for our target groups such as
senior citizens, women up to the age of 45, German
expatriates and young people in their twenties and
for information on the political opponent. To promote
our campaign website for the first time we placed
internet banners on websites of companies like
AOL or media websites like the big German magazine
“Der Spiegel”. Also the CDU headquarters produced
a podcast of the Secretary General and campaign
manager, Volker Kauder, which was called
“iKauder”. In this diary-type podcast he informed
listeners of the latest news and developments concerning
the election campaign. These audio files were
especially made to attract and inform young people.
In addition to this, young people were invited
to send us text messages with their ideas for future
politics. This interactive campaign tool was called
“your vote counts” and was promoted with free postcards
in bars and with a special website.
We wanted to mobilise as many people as possible,
not only traditional CDU-voters, but also supporters
of Angela Merkel and people who wanted political
change in Germany. Therefore, a special grass-roots
organisation was founded: the so called “teAM future”.
The two capital letters A and M stood for An-
PROPR winter 2007.
Herausgeber: CDU-Bundesgeschäftsstelle · Marketing und Interne Kommunikation · Klingelhöferstraße 8 · 10785 Berlin
gela Merkel. Other than that, it was intended to not
include the CDU-signet or anything linked to the
CDU, only the CDU corporate identity colour, orange,
was used in addition to the German flag.
Of course party members were allowed to join, but
the main purpose was to encourage volunteers outside
the CDU to commit to change and to Angela
Merkel. A great deal of promotional material was
produced, for example orange T-Shirts, pins and buttons.
In the CDU headquarters in Berlin worked a
small group of volunteers, who were responsible for
organising the whole teAM future campaign. Via internet
and e-mail they established a network for volunteers
in the different federal states, regions and
cities throughout Germany. In total they coordinated
254 team leaders and 32,000 supporters with
their grass-roots campaigning. Their main tasks
were to support the candidates in the constituencies,
for example, to help put up posters or spread flyers
and information sheets. The teAM future went
along to rallies and supported Angela Merkel with
banners and big placards showing: “Angie” and “Vote
for change”. During the TV debate between Gerhard
Schröder and Angela Merkel volunteers all
over the country organised “watch parties” for family
members, friends and colleagues.
VIP campaign “Angela Merkel has our support”
We were delighted that more than 100 celebrities
from sport, art, science, economy, media and entertainment
took part in our VIP campaign and mobilised
voters with their commitment to Angela Merkel.
In the internet gallery of the VIP campaign website
many celebrities published a statement of why
they supported Angela Merkel. They also supported
the CDU election campaign through advertisements
and media statements.
hat unsere Unterstützung.“
Bei der Bundestagswahl am 18. September steht viel auf dem Spiel: Es geht um die Zukunft unseres Landes, es geht um Arbeit, Wachstum und
Sicherheit. Wir wollen ein Land der Chancen und der Zuversicht für die Menschen. Deshalb unterstützen wir Angela Merkel.
Autorin und Regisseurin
Generalmusikdirektor Münchner Philharmoniker
© Bayreuther Festspiele
Karl-Erivan W. Haub,
Gesellschafter Unternehmensgruppe Tengelmann
© A. Zedler
Schauspieler und Schriftsteller
© Public Address © Jürgen Schulzki
Dirigent und Pianist
© Rainer Unkel
Gründer des Softwareunternehmens SAP
© Sven Simon
Christiane zu Salm,
Herausgeber: CDU-Bundesgeschäftsstelle · Marketing und Interne Kommunikation · Klingelhöferstraße 8 · 10785 Berlin
Bild am Sonntag, 11. September
© Reitsport Waldhausen
© Mayk Azzato
The last days of the campaign
The tool of direct communication is essential to reach
voters. As we have approximately 61 million people
in Germany who are entitled to vote, it is important
to meet different interests and to have the right
media mix. Therefore CDU sent 1.5 million mailings,
4 million e-mails and 500,000 text messages
in the last week before Election Day alone. Moreover,
the employees of the CDU headquarters, as well
as our candidates in the constituencies and volunteers
in 74 German cities, worked for 24 hours straight,
answering phone calls, writing e-mails and
letters or text messages and doing canvassing in restaurants
and bars, providing cab drivers and shift
workers at night with coffee or tea. The message
was clear: the campaigners of CDU work hard for
success and maintain their activities until polling
Outcome of the election
The CDU won 35 percent and the SPD reached 34
percent of the votes. In comparison to the last national
election this meant a loss of votes. But we reached
the aim of the campaign: the CDU became the
strongest party in parliament and built a coalition
under the lead of the first female Chancellor of the
Federal Republic of Germany, Angela Merkel.
In retrospect it became clear that the decision to
focus on the mobilisation of voters and volunteers
was the right strategy. In particular, the popularity
and success of the volunteer campaign “teAM future”
exceeded all expectations. Furthermore, it was
the well-balanced mix of traditional campaign elements
(billboards, TV and radio spots) combined
with new elements (podcast “iKauder”, internet banner,
direct communication, VIP campaign) that
brought the CDU back to power.
Step away from the EU Presidency
Anže Logar, M.A.
Director, Government Communication Office
Slovenia is just a step away from the EU Presidency. For six months our every
move will be scrutinised by the international media, politicians and general
public. For six months we will be measured against European standards.
The Government of the Republic of Slovenia became
aware of this very early on. In 2005 it launched
intensive Presidency preparations and, two
and a half years later, the Core Working Group for
the EU Presidency, the country’s highest strategic
body dealing with the preparations, has established
that all the intermediate stages of preparations
have been successfully concluded. What
awaits us next is to define Slovenia’s Presidency
The final stage of preparation is under way. At
the beginning of November, the Core Working
Group will have finalised a list of priority issues
and will have submitted it to the cabinet to be
approved, whereupon it will be referred to the
National Assembly at the beginning of December,
and presented to European foreign ministers
at the General Affairs and External Relations Council.
The list of Slovenia’s priorities will be presented
to the broader public in January 2008 at
the European Parliament session in Strasbourg
by the Prime Minister of the Republic of Slovenia,
Slovenia has been an EU member for (only) three
years. A mere sixteen years ago, we were part of
a federation of socialist republics - or to be more
precise, we were withdrawing from it. Could
anyone have been so bold back then as to predict
that less than two decades later we would take
the wheel of the European Union - a community
of nearly half a billion people from 27 member
states, committed to common values and the rule
of law? Probably not. The EU Presidency will also
have an indirect impact on the way our country is
perceived in a political sense. Now, three years after
the accession, we can hardly still be labelled a
new member state, yet we are not part of the ‘Old
Europe’. The first half of 2008 will be our chance
to become an established member. We now face a
test of maturity, a new pilot project of placing Slovenia
on the maps of both Europe and the World.
Are we capable of this? The perennial questions,
such as, Can we handle it, Do we have enough staff
to do it, and How much is it all going to cost, are like
a reflex that is triggered in us every time we
have to face major international challenges. Our
short modern history shows that in key moments
we always stand shoulder to shoulder, which is also
the reason for the numerous successes we have
achieved on our short independent journey.
The success of Slovenia’s Presidency will depend
on everyone and everything. On the global political
situation. On European institutions. On the
Government, the coalition and the opposition,
the economy, the media and the citizens. Therefore,
it is vital that we are all aware of the significance
of its significance. The Presidency is a joint
project which entails national unity. The proximity
of parliamentary elections in the autumn of
2008 is an additional challenge, which should not
tempt political forces into jeopardising our position
at the top of the EU for short-term political gains.
An unsuccessful Presidency would benefit noone
- neither our citizens, nor internal politics,
and even less so our reputation or that of the Community.
There is no denying, in the EU of 27 or
even more members, the chance to leave a second
impression is not exactly around the corner.
Although it may seem that the presidency of the Council
of the EU is about a matter of running and managing
European policies, which usually interest a
smaller circle of the public, one has to disagree with
this assumption. In addition to all the stakeholders
(politicians and employees of EU institutions,
delegates, diplomats, government officials from EU
member states), the Presidency is closely followed
by the expert and professional public (journalists,
non-governmental organisations, interested professionals),
who expect and demand a quality, timely
and constant insight into decisions, documents
and events. Not least because the ritual nature of rotating
presidency entails tasks and numerous meetings
held in the presiding country, the Presidency
is followed by its citizens. Due to complexity and
scope, preparation and realisation of a presidency is
a tremendous task, both in terms of content and logistics.
Communication activities have taken their
due place in the project, as one cannot imagine
a Presidency without proper communication support,
which includes several stages of activities,
unites domestic and foreign stakeholders and, particularly,
faces different interests and challenges.
Slovenia has successfully carried out several communication
projects at the highest level. To mention
only the largest: two visits by the Pope, the first
Bush-Putin summit, an OSCE ministerial, an informal
meeting of NATO defence ministers. We can
therefore say that we have extensive experience in
international communication and communicating
However, the requirements are different now, and,
above all, all activities last six months. One cannot
find information on communication support during
a Presidency in a manual. So, how to prepare? Experience,
guidelines and recommendations communicated
personally among representatives of communication
offices of the Presidency countries and
an exchange of materials, visits of experts, occasional
in-house seminars, visits to key events and press
centres, and talking to journalists in Brussels,
correspondents from our country, and journalistic
veterans of key European and international media.
Three basic pillars of communication support
The Presidency communication programme is not
completely open to create. Many things have been
predetermined and coordinated, which every presiding
country must consider. The Presidency lasts
only six months, and after several rotations many
countries have agreed that it does not make sense
to waste money, time and energy figuring out new
ways of presentation. Therefore, the last few years
have seen functional presidencies, curtailed in sco-
PROPR winter 2007.
Heading for the EU Presidency
Communicating during the Presidency - Between
Responsibility and Opportunity
pe: there are fewer events, the structure of the main
website is very minimalist and purely functional,
the scope and range of gifts is decreasing, etc.
Despite all these changes, there are three basic areas
that every communication support programme
must contain: media relations, the promotion of the
Presidency and web communication. Some countries
add a fourth dimension: relations with the domestic
The media are key followers, but also severe critics
of Presidency programmes and activities. This
especially holds true for media representatives in
Brussels, who are extremely well-informed experts
in their field as they have been following the work
of European institutions for years and are very well
organised. The Presidency is also closely monitored
by the media at home, although their interests
and emphasis are different. The Brussels correspondents
comment on the provisions and decisions
of EU policies, while the media at home are critical
of seemingly less relevant issues, mostly referring to
organisation and costs, and the seemingly negligent
attitude to the government agenda at home.
Our media strategy will have the following key elements:
a systematic approach to the media (statements
on arrival at meetings, informal briefings before
European Councils via a video conferencing system,
informing the press via text messaging, regular
press conferences, meetings with correspondents,
etc.), clear messages, efficient coordination
between the capital and Brussels (audio-conferences
between key speakers) and up-to-date information
on the Presidency website. In addition to politicians,
official spokespersons will also have a key
role - the ones in the Permanent Representation of
the Republic of Slovenia to the EU in Brussels will
closely collaborate with the Presidency Spokesperson
in Slovenia, and spokespersons of the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs and other ministries and bodies
contributing to the Presidency. Together they will
form a communication network based on the daily
exchange of views, opinions and proposals.
Many events will be held in Slovenia; most of them
in the new conference centre in Brdo, just a few elsewhere.
The guiding principles in dealing with the
media will be openness, quick responsiveness, and
the best possible service.
www.eu2008.si - official website of the Slovenian
Presidency of the Council of the EU
The main Presidency website is the hub. It is the
key communication channel, the ‘public face’ of the
presidency, and doubtlessly the main reference po-
PROPR winter 2007.
int for all the rather demanding and specific users.
Presidency websites are not intended for the general
(foreign or domestic) public, but for all who have
a professional interest: journalists, diplomats, civil
servants of EU member states, non-governmental
organisations, academics, etc.
The practice of the last few Presidencies established
the current typical architecture and content
structure of the Presidency website. The Slovenian
website layout will follow accordingly and have key
chapters, including Calendar, News, Media Service,
Policy Areas, The Council Presidency, the Council
of the EU, About the EU and the presiding country.
The layout must also consider the latest technology
and offer services via modern communication tools,
such as e-news, on-line accreditation, e-events calendar,
text messaging, RSS, podcasts, e-bulletins,
and live streaming of selected events.
According to established practice, the website www.
eu2008.si will come online in a somewhat abridged
version, aimed primarily at journalists, on 1 December
2007. The website will be fully accessible from 1
January 2008. It will also be available after the Presidency,
but in an ‘archived’ version.
Promotion of the Presidency
The concept of Presidency promotion includes a
recognisable visual identity, gifts and promotional
events in European institutions and the presiding
country. Designers do not have an easy job, as they
have to unite many different interests and satisfy
every possible taste. As a rule, the visual identity is
a well-guarded secret and is only unveiled a month
before the start of the Presidency.
Promotion also includes gifts for event participants
and other people. The Presiding country carefully
selects the gifts, which also feature the Presidency
logo. The range of gifts varies greatly: there are protocol
and promotional gifts (for delegates) and gifts
for the press. Some countries choose heritage-themed
gifts, while others promote the achievements
of cutting-edge technology and design.
The third group are cultural and informative events
in Brussels, other member states and at home. Slovenia
will stage a series of events, the more prominent
being an exhibition of the architect Jože Plečnik,
a concert by the Slovenian Philharmonic in Brussels,
events to mark the occasion of the Year of Intercultural
Dialogue, and the 500th anniversary of
the birth of Primož Trubar, presentations of Slovenia
in other EU member states, etc.
Presiding for the public at home
Most countries know that the public at home has to
be prepared for the Presidency in time. It has to be
Nada Serajnik Sraka, M.A.
Government Communication Office
explained what the Presidency means for the country,
what it brings, and realistic expectations have
to be built. The Presidency is also a good opportunity
to raise interest in European issues and values,
and to show the domestic public what a country
can achieve with EU membership. In this respect,
politicians, public servants, business representatives
and media from the EU have a particularly important
Slovenes will not neglect the Slovenian public. In
addition to regularly presenting all aspects of the
Presidency through different activities and channels,
we will use this time to present the significance
and duties of the Presidency, while providing
in-depth explanation of EU issues high on the Slovenian
political agenda: the external Schengen border,
the Treaty on the constitution, inter-cultural dialogue,
On the road to success
In its six-month term every country seeks to fulfil
its tasks as successfully as possible. Success is measured
with different criteria, the most important
being political. It is not easy to achieve good and
significant political decisions, particularly in more
complex areas. Among the public, the number of
fulfilled goals as against those announced and success
in tackling unforeseen challenges play an important
role. In this respect, reporting in the most
influential media is of the utmost significance for
the broader public.
Experience shows that small countries are more
successful in their Presidencies, mainly because
they take it more seriously and prepare themselves
better. In Slovenia, we have prepared ourselves well
and left nothing to chance. In a year, we will be able
to realistically assess how successful we were in individual
10 PROPR winter 2007.
PROPR winter 2007.
Croatian Press Agency
1. The Croatian News Agency Hina was established
on 26 July 1990 in Zagreb by the Hina Law. The
very first news was sent out on 17 August 1990.
In November 2001, the Croatian Parliament passed
the new Hina Incorporation Law transforming
the agency from being state-owned into an
independent public institution and independent
public media. In November, Hina was entered as
a legal entity into the register of the institutions
of the Zagreb Commercial Court. Hina’s mission
to provide accurate and complete information
is carried out by about 20 general and specialised
news departments that produce about 400
texts with over 150,000 words around the clock
in both Croatian and English. Hina provides
multimedia services and has its own photo service
(Fah) and audio service, as well as an electronic
database with about 1.5 million entries. Hina
employs 170 people, 120 of them being editors
2. The Hina Incorporation Act guarantees the editorial,
managing and economic and financial independence
of Hina, which is defined in more
detail by the Statute of Hina. I remind you that:
“Hina acts in accordance with the principles of
independent, unbiased and professional news
agency reporting” ... Hina may not be “exposed
to any influence that can jeopardise the accuracy,
objectivity or credibility of its information”
and must not “de facto or de jure come under
the grip of or become the property of any ideological,
political or economic group”. Hina’s independence
is reflected in its financial independence
and the right to arrange its internal organisation
and models of work by its bodies.
by Darko Odorčić
HINA, Editor in Chief
3. Hina covers the country and the world through
journalistic and correspondents’ reports, using
the services of a dozen global agencies and other
sources (WEB, information on the Internet, etc.)
4. Hina is organised as a non-profit public institution
(owned by the Republic of Croatia). Hina’s
bodies are the Steering Council of Hina and Director-General.
Members are appointed to the
Steering Council by the Croatian Parliament on
the basis of a public contest. Council members
may not be political party members and may not
be office-holders. Hina’s Director-General is appointed
by the Steering Council for a four-year
term in office according to the results of the public
contest for this post.
5. Credibility, seriousness and speed of information
are the advantages of the agency, but the availability
of information as an important element
of media pluralism stimulation cannot replace
a large number of different media. In that sense
the basic principles of the agency are gaining in
6. Hina regards the development of many public
relations experts and agencies because the ease
and quality of the availability of information
are important to objective and authentic informing.
7. The education of journalists and editors, along
with modern technology and business adaptation
to the market, as well as respecting the public
tasks of HINA remain permanent tasks of the
Head of Public Relations
Colour Press Group
Contemporary man cannot imagine mornings without
buying newspapers from the newsstand, and
senior citizens and housewives relish the newspapers
stories on current events in politics and showbusiness.
We are aware that absolutely every piece
of news, every law, every promotion and event
appears first on the Internet, especially so because
there are specialised services such as “BIZ
me”, business information zone (http://www.bizme.co.yu)
or PR newswire for journalists (http://
media.prnewswire.com), but we wonder why it
is exactly that people wait to read the news about
the Kosovo status issue, the name of the new British
Prime Minister or the weather forecast from
The web site of TANJUG (Telegraphic Agency of
the new Yugoslavia, started on November, 5th 1943),
today the National News Agency of the Republic of
Serbia, is visited at least once every day by any serious
journalist. It is available to everyone, as are the
web sites of all daily and periodical publications,
and hence one has to wonder: What’s the catch?
Why are printed publications sold in so many copies
even today, and furthermore, why do new ones
appear quite so often? Of course, there are people
who don’t have the benefits of the Internet or cannot
use a computer; financial, and accordingly, technological
possibilities in East European countries
are far from impressive; and there are still many
other reasons that account for printed publications
being constantly on demand.
Nevertheless, I believe that one of the main reasons
lies in a need to keep the tiny rituals that beautify
our lives alive. If we could exchange morning
Challenges in Serbia’s
Although the impact of the printed media had been predicted to decrease
radically by many, and the drastic rise of electronic ones had been expected,
this hasn’t happened; even following the occurrence of various transformations
connected with society and culture.
home-made coffee for “Coffee to go” and the Internet
news, we would simply lose the reputation of
true Balkan hosts. Let alone if your neighbour were
to drop in for coffee, and you offered him a plastic
cup instead of a ceramic one, and if he showed interest
in the new Government members and you offered
him a laptop in place of a newspaper; this man
would never grace your doorstep again. However,
demand varies if target readership and its potential
aren’t defined and measured, and consequently publishing
mishaps and loses are likely to happen.
If we looked even further in an attempt to enumerate
all the publications that have been extinguished
in the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1945,
we would need an ample study to cover it. Some of
the above mentioned were publications with decades’
long traditions (“Politika Ekspres“, “Duga“,
“TV Revija“, “Praktična žena“), while others were
terminated after only several issues (“Pečat“, “Arena“,
“Fleš“...). Additionally, some are licensed publications
of big brands in the publishing world (“Gioia“,
“T3“, “PC Magazin“, “Lisa Moje dete“...) that
were successful in several dozen other countries,
but in Serbia - no! Starting a private publication during
the Socialist Era was legally and technically impossible,
even in the liberated version of Socialism
that we in Yugoslavia had. Printed media were started
only within big, nationally-owned publishing
houses such as “Politika”, BIGZ and “Borba” in Belgrade,
“Vijesnik” in Zagreb, and similar media mastodons
with socialist orientations in the capital cities
of all Yugoslav republics.
The second level was comprised of regional and
local newspapers with local self-administration,
whilst the third one consisted of numerous editions
published by different citizens’ unions ( writers, pigeon-breeders,
numismatists…) and other members
of the SSRNJ (Soc-union). Perhaps the only exceptions
were the media owned by the church (“Pravoslavlje”,
“Glas koncila” and the like), but these were
cases of powerful organisations with big, flexible
budgets, ready to deal with negative financial balances
Throughout the years, even decades, hundreds,
maybe thousands, of publications were on the market
in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia;
some of them with circulations of 300-400,000 (for
instance, “Arena” from Zagreb, and “Nada” from
Belgrade during the eighties), some of them with
continuous negative balances and so used the means
of some of the larger budgets.
The advantage of this era was a large market of 24
million inhabitants of the Socialist Federal Republic
of Yugoslavia, who spoke similar, mutually understandable
languages. Additionally, one might include
about a million of our citizens living in diaspora -
namely the geographically “available” (Western Europe)
diaspora - and, all in all, it really was a respectable
market entity. Also an advantage was the considerably
higher purchasing power of an average
consumer than nowadays.’
The “Color Press Group” publishing house was founded
15 years ago, and today owns publications
with notably wide circulations and attractive international
licences. It is irrefutable that we are one of
the biggest and most successful publishing houses
in the territory of South Eastern Europe, but we have
made certain errors in judgment as well.
BROJ 3 l 10-23. AVGUST 2007. l 80 DIN l CG 1 ¤ l 30 DEN
IZLAZI SVAKOG DRUGOG PETKA
ROBERTO CAVALLI UDAO KĆER
RACHELLE NA PORODIČNOM IMANJU
NAJBOLJI SRPSKI TENISER
I TREĆI REKET SVETA
12 PROPR winter 2007.
Total number of published advertisements
Particularly, the President of the “Color Press Group“
Robert Čoban mentioned among the ceased publications
in the former Yugoslavia a few licences
that had actually been taken over by the “Color Press
Group“. The publications in question are: “Lea”,
“PC magazin”, “Metal Hammer”...
“Lea” came to the market a bit too late, as it had
already been conquered by the weekly “Lisa” (Adria
yria”), which was thefirst one to appear, then “Blic
žena”(“Blic press”) came on a weekly basis and with
a low price; “PC magazin” was published for over
two years, with a circulation of about 15,000, which,
compared to other publications of the “Color Press
Group” circulation, is neither satisfactory nor profitable.
In December 2006 “PC magazin” had its
first edition in electronic format (www.pcmagazin.
co.yu) and has since become one of the most-visited
IT web pages on the Internet, having 10,000 visits
and 30,000 pages viewed every day, due to it containing
constantly updated IT news from Serbia and
the region. “Metal Hammer” fell short of a longer
life due to its narrow target audience, which in many
cases can be a big break in the market, but it
didn’t account for production, printing and distribution
This being said, it can be concluded that for the success
of a magazine in the territory of Serbia a precondition
is to conduct expert research of the market
and standards of living. Consumers are, nowadays,
pretty much informed about every magazine
being published, so the news, stories and events
must be fresh and programmed.
The concept of a magazine (presentation of themes,
self-supporting contents and graphically functional
elements, as derived from the postulates of the
market and the agreement clauses of ownership)
should be recognisable, but also flexible and able to
adapt when the market, in this case the readership,
demands it. Strategy in a publishing world is a very
complex and continuous process.
After analysing the environment, each individual
publication should be directed, and its strategy formulated,
implemented and controlled by relentlessly
listening to the readership and putting out feelers
Big competition, caused by globalisation and the
openness of the Serbian market, is at the same time
a driving force and a threat to all the publishing houses
in the country. The market potential is limited,
PROPR winter 2007.
Total number of published advertisements,
12 biggest magazine publishers in Serbia
Color Press Politika N&MEuropapress
Burda JA Co. Plus Blic Press Novosti* ITP Pharaos Sanoma Attica Media
Group (WAZ) *
* Advertisements in magazines only - without daily newspapers
2005. 2006. 1-st six months 2007.
* Source: Strategic Marketing Research, SMMRI Group
not every edition can be realised in every market,
and the aim of the publishers is to have their market
share grow as big as it can.
That’s why, beside their own publications, the publishing
houses inevitably need to take over international
titles to be able to compete with foreign publishers
who have brought our readers new habits
and necessities and have raised the bar in the quality
of printing and subject matter.
Competitive (external) benchmarking must be
applied in order for publishers to familiarise themselves
with the best practice and improve their position,
trade and performances.
The challenges to publishers in the Serbian market
are constant and are linked to increased experience
(company growth) that excites the need for cost reduction,
so that prices can be lowered and thus, of
course, sales increased, as well as increasing circulation
and the quantity of advertisements.
One should keep in mind that in the Serbian publishing
market there are very strong indirect competitors
(meeting the same needs of the readers) and direct
ones offering the same product.
Women’s magazines with the same target audience
are ”Lepota i zdravlje” (“Color Press Group”)
and “Elle” (“Adria media”), then “JOY” (“Color Press
Group”) and “Cosmopolitan” (“Adria media”);
celebrity magazines “Hello!” (“Color Press Group”)
and “Gloria” (“Europapress”, co-owner WAC),
men’s magazines FHM (“Color Press Group”) and
“Maxim” (“Attica media”). These are threatened by
The success of every company, including publishing
houses, depends on the satisfaction and motivation
of its human resources. A company is represented by
its employees beyond the working hours, in private
places and on holiday, and that’s why special attention
should be paid to their perception of the company.
“Word of mouth” is among the strongest weapons
in the marketing world.
The company’s blog is an ideal solution for communication,
closer acquainting and presentation of the
staff in a more casual surrounding, posting comments,
clashes of opinions and attitudes. If very interesting,
a blog can draw other blog visitors to it,
and hence the public becomes interested in the staff
members of the company and their on-line diaries.
In conclusion, the key to the success of any publishing
house in Serbia lies in the ability of the magazines,
anent their editors, journalists, associates, ma-
Total number of magazines at newsstands
Color Press Politika N&M
Group (WAZ) *
Total number of magazines at newsstands,
12 biggest magazine publishers in Serbia
* Magazines only - without daily newspapers
2005. 2006. 1-st six months 2007.
Burda Novosti* JA Co. Plus Europapress Blic Press
nagement team to exceed the expectations of readers
and creditors, consignees, suppliers, society,
stakeholders in general, and to nurture a long-term
relationship with them, meaning they are never forced
to guess what they desire, and devote themselves
to creating needs and improving their magazines.
Alongside quality management and concern for readers’
and consignees’ satisfaction, it is necessary to
further develop information systems and use IT as
a basis in decision making. Information in the publishing
world is a material object and has usability,
and the only successful team is the team that with
its aid enriches its knowledge, but also knows
how to use it.
ITP Pharaos Sanoma Attica Media Alt press
Magazines Srb. doo
* Source: Strategic Marketing Research, SMMRI Group
Robert Čoban, President of the publishing house
“Color Press Group”, in a text titled “How
to found newspapers in Serbia” for “e magazine”
named magazines and daily newspapers
that are no longer published: ‘ “Politika ekspres“,
“Tempo“, “Duga“, “Galaksija“, “Sabor“, “Fleš“,
“TV Revija“, “DEM“, “Pečat“, “Dosije X“, “Nacional“,
“Centar“, “M magazin“, “Antena“, “Argument“,
“Arena“, “Revija Tiker“, “Beogradske
novine“, “Naša krmača“, “Evropljanin“, “Građanin“,
“Dnevni telegraf“, “NT Plus“, “Naša
borba“, “Super tin“, “Zabava X“, “On“, “Ona“,
“Džentlmen“, “Cool“, “Demokratija“, “Srpsko
jedinstvo“, “Praktična žena“, “Sprint“, “Start“,
“Lisa Moje dete“, “Srpski nacional“, “T3“, “Muški
magazin“, “Gioia“, “Lea“, “PC Magazin“, “Metal
Hammer“... What all these newspapers and
magazines have in common is that they ceased
to be published in the last decade. This is only a
portion of the entire number of defunct publications,
and refers only to Belgrade media and those
whose publication has been ceased since 1997.
Zagrebačka avenija 100A,
phone: +385 (0) 20 41 121
fax: +385 (0) 20 41 762
When “Total Quality Management” was in fashion
15 years ago, every manager was taught about how
objectives should be S.M.A.R.T: Specific; Measurable;
Achievable; Realistic; Time limited. This particular
management acronym remains with us, and
you will still hear it today.
What has really changed since then is how the
power of the computer has altered every aspect of
our lives, including the way we work. In marketing
services (advertising, PR, and direct marketing) it
has powered the fragmentation of media, the rise
of navigation tools such as Google, insight and targeting
through data, real interaction with audiences
and consumers including direct or one-to-one
Direct marketing, a relatively new discipline, started
to erode budgets traditionally used for advertising
because it was measurable - you could directly
see the return on investment. Big international advertising
groups were surprisingly slow to embrace
direct marketing and then digital or web marketing,
but made up for a late start with a frenzy of
Advertising itself has seen media planners go from
being the poor relation within agencies to the new
glamour discipline with stand-alone media buying
shops becoming the norm. On the research side there
is much greater use of tracking, with research
panels looking to identify the smallest of shifts in
brand perceptions after advertising activity.
Implications for PR
So what about PR? Have its special qualities made
it immune from this focus of measurement and
tracking return on investment? The traditional way
PR professionals have demonstrated their worth to
their clients and paymasters has traditionally fo-
Why return on investment
in PR is so important
How a measurement culture has transformed the
The management guru Alfred McKinsey’s mantra “you can only manage
what you can measure” has been strongly embraced by business culture and
llowed a format - firstly, PR professionals provide
photo copies of the articles published or audio or video
tapes of broadcast coverage. These are provided
to the clients and managers, usually monthly, the
thought being that they should be impressed by the
weight of the coverage that has been achieved through
good contacts and hard work! If the PR professional
is particularly diligent they may supply a few
Excel charts to show simple volumetric measures
such as number of items, and name checks by broad
media category. They might add some commentary
along the lines “we didn’t get much coverage in paper
X because the journalist wasn’t very receptive”,
or “thanks to my hard work with journalist X we’ve
got some very good coverage in magazine Y”.
However PR clients and paymasters within the context
of the business culture outlined are increasingly
demanding to know what return they are really
getting on their expenditure or investment.
A long established response to this question is the
production of advertising value equivalents (AVEs).
These are arrived at by adding up the column centimetres
of the editorial coverage and then using the
advertising rate card to work out what this coverage
would cost if it was paid for as advertising. Sometimes
a slightly spurious formula is used where the figure
you get is then doubled or even trebled on the
basis that editorial has a value of two or three times
advertising. The result is that - for your modest fee
or salary - you can show that you achieved coverage
which would have cost a huge amount of money
to buy as advertising. This has the virtue of talking a
language (money) that even financial directors understand.
On the downside, these figures are increasingly
being greeted with disbelief.
There are a number of problems with the AVE
approach. Firstly, advertising hardly ever sells for
rate card - that is just the starting point for negotiation.
Secondly, how do you value coverage on public
service broadcasting that does not carry advertising?
Thirdly, what do you do about unfavourable
1 PROPR winter 2007.
coverage - does this translate into a negative amount
Since IMPACT Evaluation pioneered media coverage
evaluation in the 1980s, a new breed of third party/independent
media evaluation companies has
Media evaluation companies take the raw materials
of coverage (cuttings, and broadcast tapes) and,
using a combination of software and highly trained
analysts, provide a much more detailed and scientific
evaluation of the coverage. An important extra
element is favourability scoring and message identification
by analysts who are truly independent
and who have no interest in exaggerating any positives.
On the media data side, AVEs are still offered
but increasingly advertising media planning tools
such as opportunities to see (OTS) and reach (%
of audience) are used for post campaign evaluation.
Ongoing evaluation provides trends that show which
messages are working for you and which are not,
what approach is doing well in which media, and
how media agendas are changing in relation to your
Suddenly PR people are able to take on advertising
people in backing up their campaign evaluation with
some proper figures.
Of course media coverage evaluation is only one element
in PR return on investment. The other two
elements are audience impact and business outcomes.
Media coverage evaluation gives an accurate analysis
of what the media said about you but it does
not necessarily tell you what the audience took out
of the coverage - the impact it had on them. We have
all learned to make our own judgements on what
we read or see in the media. The only way to assess
this is to conduct audience research. This may take
a number of forms according to the task: street questionnaires,
telephone interviews, focus groups or
The final element is business outcomes - these could
be visits to a website, brochure requests, and
calls to a telephone hotline or even sales. By tracking
media coverage and appropriate outcomes you
can look for correlations.
Therefore, add together media coverage plus audience
impact plus business outcomes and you have
a model for PR return on investment. One we will
all need more and more as marketing executives -
used to having this kind of model for return on investment
for direct marketing, traditional and digital
advertising - will demand of PR.
James Davies is Managing Director of Impact Evaluation
who provide media coverage evaluation, audience
research, and return on investment consulting
PROPR winter 2007.
German PR Association DPRG
Public Relations Industry
Public Relations Practitioners
The total number of full-time public relations practitioners
in Germany is estimated to be at least
20,000. Around 40 per cent work with a company,
20 per cent in organisations such as associations,
unions, churches, etc., and another 20-30 per cent
in different social and political institutions (such as
political and municipal administration and courts).
Approximately 20 per cent of the public relations
practitioners work in public relations agencies. The
number of public relations practitioners is increasing
more quickly than the number of journalists.
It is difficult to give a detailed overview of the entire
public relations counselling market in Germany.
This applies both to the produced turnover and
to the actual number of consultancy firms and employed
PR consultants. Many agencies and individual
consultants offer public relations services, yet
they act under the name of other professions (such
as advertising agencies, management consultants,
freelance journalists.) In addition, the open access
to the profession and the high fluctuation rate make
an exact count of PR consultants and agencies even
As to the level of organisation, only an estimated 10
per cent of all public relations professionals (around
1,800) are members of the DPRG (German Public
Relations Association), which was founded in
Bonn in 1958 (www.dprg.de ). The number of organised
public relations practitioners in the German
Journalists Association - most of whom work in
press departments - is estimated to be 4,000 (www.
djv.de). In 1973, the leading public relations agencies
founded their own association (Gesellschaft PR-
Agenturen, GPRA; ‘Association of Public Relations
Agencies’). At present it counts as members about
thirty public relations agencies, representing nearly
1,500 employees (www.pr-guide.de).
Degree of Professionalisation
The degree of professionalisation of this branch,
which is strongly interconnected with the training
facilities, has been increasing since the beginning of
the 1990s. In general, the profession is academically
institutionalised: 70-80 per cent of the practitioners
Public relations is still very much an ‘open’ field, a profession for practitioners
with backgrounds in such diverse professions as journalism, law, and
engineering. This is shown by a 1989 survey of DPRG members as well as by a
more recent study.
have a degree (from a university or a polytechnic) or
even a PH.D. Though these data show an increasing
general education level of PR practitioners, they do
not say anything about the actual degree of professionalisation
- that is, the
existence of a PR-related academic education. Only
15 per cent of public relations practitioners have a
public relations-related education and training (such
as public relations courses or majors).
Where do Public Relations practitioners come
Public relations is still very much an ‘open’ field, a
profession for practitioners with backgrounds in such
diverse professions as journalism, law, and engineering.
This is shown by a 1989 survey of DPRG
members as well as by a more recent study. Both
studies showed that a third of all interviewed persons
originally came from journalism, another third
came from business or administration, and about 15
per cent had previously worked in advertising and
market research. Interestingly, about 20 per cent
Age structure of DPRG members
had had no other occupation before entering public
‘Feminisation’ is a feature that has developed into a
distinct characteristic of the German public relations
field. Whereas in the late 1980s less than 15 per
cent of the people working in PR in businesses, administration,
and associations were female, by 1996
women accounted for 42 per cent of the work force.
This is confirmed not only by the present proportion
of females among the members of the professional
association DPRG (43 per cent in 2001), but also
the proportion of female students of public relations
reached more than 60 per cent.
State of the Art and Future of Public Relations
As with social, technical and media-related developments,
the requirements for the occupational field
of public relations change continuously. New trends
and practices of public relations emerge all the time,
of which we name only these: about five years ago,
numerous businesses (amongst those were young
start-up firms, but also slowly
developed corporations) entered the stock market,
which led to a boom. As a result, investor relations
especially, as part of financial relations, experienced
an immense upturn. Additionally, ‘issue management’,
‘crisis communication’, ‘employee relations’
and ‘event public relations’ gained more and more
relevance for practical PR activities (and PR research).
New trends at bigger public relations agencies
are, for example, ‘change communication’, ‘sustainability
communication’, ‘brand PR’, ‘corporate citizenship’
and ‘impression management’. Another hot
issue is ‘corporate communication’ (and public relations
as its part), understood as an element of the
process of corporate value creation. Some characteristics
of public relations are typical for Germany.
Among these we can mention the process of professionalisation
- including scientifically based PR
education and an emerging PR science - and the ongoing
feminisation. Ethical problems are discussed
in the scientific community - much more seldom in
the practical field.
1 PROPR winter 2007.
older no mention
20-25 25-30 30-35 35-40 40-45 45-50 50-55 55-60 60-65 älter k. A.
Number of members as of October 26, 2007: 2,677
Breakdown by sectors (in absolute figures):
Training and advanced training
Business associations, labour and
Non-profit organisations, churches
Could you, please, list some of the activities used
by the German public relations association in
• organises annual congresses, specialist conferences
and, via its regional groups, events and
workshops on central PR issues
• since 1999 has established the conference series
“Capital Market Relations“ in cooperation with
various regional stock exchanges (Frankfurt etc.)
• has annually awarded the ‘Deutscher PR-Preis’
(German PR Award) since 1970, the highest
award for PR and/or communication management
in German-speaking countries; since 2002,
joint call for submissions with the ‘F.A.Z.-Institut’,
several hundred entries each year.
• has biennially awarded the Albert-Oeckl-Nachwuchspreis
(… Award for junior PR specialists)
for academically outstanding theses on PR
issues; this has now been integrated into the
‘Deutscher PR-Preis’ since 2002
• as a member of the Féderation of European Industrial
Editors Associations (FEIEA) participates
in the annual Grand Prix honouring the best
European staff publications
• Provides special services at the regional level
and in expert groups
• Has strong international links to CERP, Global
Alliance for PR and Communications Management,
Some time ago Eastern and Western Germany
united. What was the perception of public relations
before and after that?
The most important difference is that in the former
Eastern part of Germany, free press was not known.
Censorship and government-owned press was the
norm. This has now changed completely, westernstyle
media has taken over regional newspapers, the
former state-owned broadcasting stations are now
often privatised. In the East, public relations has
been considered more propaganda than in the West,
even though there are still many people who confuse
both terms in the whole of Germany.
Image of the public relations field
The image of the public relations field varies considerably.
The wider public has a rather diffuse image
- if any - of public relations and can hardly perceive
it directly. Media representatives and journalists
often have an ambivalent image of public relations:
they recognise that public relations is indispensable
as a source of information, but at the same time
they often use such characterisations as ‘PR gags’,
‘PR pretence’, ‘typical PR’. These expressions refer
to events that are considered overstated and lacking
content. In contrast, communication experts
are treated by
journalists as partners, colleagues ‘on the other side
of the desk’. In company boardrooms especially,
the image of the communication expert has significantly
improved over the last two decades.
New technologies have contibuted to the development
of communication. How do you see a distribution
of communication messages in the future?
In Germany, the wide circulation of broadband-internet
has its implications on the way PR is practised.
Journalists do not want to receive press relea-
PROPR winter 2007.
ses via Fax anymore - they prefer emails with digital
attachments or links to further information. Also,
there is a wide offer for journalists to subscribe
to online news programmes from companies. They
will then receive podcast- or videocast-information
automatically. Access from company-websites on
mobile phones or other mobile devices is also a future
trend that is clearly picking up speed in Germany.
The whole web 2.0-discussion over interactive
media, user-generated content, second life and online-blogging
has also found its way into the German
communications market. Companies use those tools
to build up communities of customers or journalists
around their services, products, and brands.
In your opinion, what are the most important
rules in running a successful public relations
The most important rules to run a PR agency in Germany
are to find your niche, to work in a very service-oriented
manner, and to explain every step that
you make to your client. German companies want to
know exactly what a consultant spends the budget
on, and why an activity is necessary. Clear invoices
are also important, otherwhise the strict German
accountants will cause you trouble. Some Germans
want to see senior staff on their team, as young consultants
are not considered qualified and experienced
enough to run whole campaigns on their own.
As there is no real center of Germany, the right location
for the consultancy is also important. Major business
areas are Berlin, Munich, Frankfurt, Duesseldorf
The role of media
Can you describe the media structure in Germany?
Germany has one of the most vast and prolific media
industries in the world. German-based print, radio
and television deliver high-quality journalism
that is widely respected by both the German public
and international media experts.
The media system is divided into the privately
owned print market and the
broadcasting market (dual market), consisting of
private and public sectors. The basic types of print
medium are daily newspapers, weekly newspapers,
magazines and free newspapers.
In the 1980s private broadcasting was introduced.
Public and private broadcasting are subject to different
legal regulations. Public broadcasting has to
serve public welfare and guarantee basic programmes
(information, sports, entertainment, culture).
It has a central integrating function since it articulates
the interests of minorities and encourages interaction
between different interest spheres. For that
reason, public broadcasting carries out a strict internal
pluralistic concept: every
programme has to reflect the actual diversity of the
society. Private broadcasting, on the other hand,
since it depends on income from advertising, faces
lower constitutional demands. As an indirect consequence
of economic competition, the concession
of private broadcasting activities is expected to result
in an increasing diversity of offerings and thus
in more choices for the radio and television user.
Besides the dual broadcasting system, and as compensation
for the concession of large private providers,
some provisions for ‘citizens’ broadcasting’
have been made. Citizens are allowed to produce
their own radio and televisions programmes for
these ‘open channels’, and they can also publish
In 2001, there were 136 ‘media units’ in Germany
- a media unit is an independent complete editorial
office, with a politics department and all the other
editorial departments. This amounts to 386 daily
newspapers with 28.4 million copies sold. Adding
local and regional editions the number rises to nearly
1,600 newspapers. On top of that, there are 23
weeklies (circulation 1.9 million), 845 popular magazines
(circulation 129.7 million), and 1,094 professional
journals (circulation 18 million).
Please list some of the most important communication
features towards the foreign public.
What is the perception of Germany, viewed by
your own citizens? What about the perception
of Germany outside of its borders?
This is difficult to say. My experience is that Germany
is still considered to be a well organised, rich
country with a strong economy, and boring people
who mostly work as engineers etc. I have to say
that there are more sides than this, and if people actually
come to visit Germany, and if they go to parts
of the major cities, they will see that Germany can
be warm-hearted, creative and easy-going as well.
What is interesting for most foreigners from Eastern-European
countries is the fact that the police
are very respected and trusted in this country, more
than private companies or politicians for example.
Governmental and public insitutions have a solid
reputation in general, as the level of corruption
is relatively low.
Germany still wants to be considered a good business
partner and an innovative, future-oriented country.
Can you provide a high quality education in the
field of public relations for your members?
Education is a big issue in Germany. Traditionally,
professionals identify themselves very stongly with
the formal education that they have received. With
PR it has often been the case that there was a lack
of universities or training courses. This situation is
likely to change, with several universities offering
communications and public relations as subjects
for bachelor and masters level courses. Also, there
are several eductional institutes in Germany that
are certified by the DPRG, the association does not,
however, offer its own training courses.
Research Traditions and Development of Education
While public relations can draw on a gradually
evolved history, good education in public relations
and research in public relations are in their infancy.
Though young, research can be divided into two
main areas: basic research and applied research. Ba-
sic research is mostly pure or settings. Examples
are theory-building, historiography and meta-research
- that is, the generation, testing, and perfection
of general basic findings about a specific field.
There are two different types of theory within the
field of theory-generation: middle-range PR theories
and general theories. Most theoretical approaches
to PR belong to the group of middle-range theories.
For example, Baerns (1985) conceived the Determination
Hypothesis, and Bentele, Liebert and
Seeling (1997) developed their
intereffication approach. Both mark the beginning
of a theoretical research tradition with many empirical
studies (Bentele 2002). To this group of theories
can be added Burkart’s (1992) consensus-oriented
public relations approach and Bentele’s (1994)
theory of public trust and his Discrepancy Hypothesis.
On the other hand, so far there is only one systematic
and comprehensive German general public
relations theory, which goes back to Ronneberger
and Rühl (1992).
For a long time, public relations training in Germany
was ‘on the job’. In the 1960s and 1970s, the
DPRG and some private institutions offered the only
training and advanced courses. These courses took
one or several weeks. Only since the early 1980s
has public relations been institutionalised at universities
and polytechnics (Fachhochschulen) as a
marginal field of communication studies programmes.
In the early 1990s, a development boom started
to improve significantly the situation of public
relations and public relations training. By now, several
German universities had established public
relations courses, within their communication-studies
programmes (e.g. Berlin and Leipzig). Furthermore,
there have been some PR degree schemes at
polytechnics and universities since 1999 (e.g. Hannover,
Several universities plan to establish public relations
courses, too. Equally important, the professional
associations established a training and exami-
nation academy (Deutsche Akademie für Public Relations
[German Academy of Public Relations], DA-
PR) in 1991, and there are some forty other private
academies and institutes offering PR training courses
as well as further education courses of different
kinds (evening schools, distance-learning courses,
etc.). In the near future public relations training will
shift more and more to the traditional education
institutions (polytechnics and universities).
The content of academic training programmes and
of many general courses offered by private institutions
is very diverse. They cover the entire spectrum
of the profession: the basics of communications and
public relations, history of public relations, public
relations theories, methods and tools of practical
public relations, and several aspects of communication
management (such as media relations, investor
relations, event management, internal communication,
crisis public relations, methods of evaluation,
methods of empirical communication research
and social research). Economic, legal and ethical topics
are included in most courses at universities and
sometimes also at private academies. The body of
scientific literature has been growing since the beginning
of the 1990s; it often deals with problems of
the occupational field, to public relations techniques,
public relations tools and problems of organisational
communication. Both types of research are
brought together in the journal PR-Forum and on
the internet at www.pr-guide.de
About the German PR Association DPRG
The DPRG is a leading German PR experts/communication
managers’ trade association that was founded
in Cologne in December 1958. DPRG is an association
run on a voluntary basis and has approx.
250 active voluntary workers. As of October 2007,
the DPRG counts 2677 members from various sectors.
There is a dedicated chapter that deals with
international public relations and international
knowledge exchange with colleagues from all over
20 PROPR winter 2007.
PROPR winter 2007.
Croatian journalism - now and then
Newspapers - the last defender of public interest
by Ante Gavranović
It would be impossible to view a sequence of events
in the past without having developed journalism, as
it contributed to the realisation of the unique Croatian
language, its grammar, spelling and orthography.
Throughout the last three centuries journalism
has been a strong and inevitable lever of growth in
politics and the struggle for independence and national
In all critical moments of Croatia’s stormy past,
newspapers have defended public interests and gathered
the intellectual circles involved in social movements,
transformations and changes. And so they
still do nowadays.
• Road to the free press
It was a long thorny road to the free press - from
the first real and true Croatian newspapers „Novine
Horvatske“, edited by Ljudevit Gaj, through times
when anything related to the term Croat, Croatian
or similar was not welcome to be used or said, until
its complete wipe-out in 1941, when World War
II began and the entire Croatian press was liquidated.
Communism, despite any expectations, brings
up a narrow-minded one-party system and executes
it according to a row model of the Soviet media.
Journalism increasingly develops into a „pure
propaganda of socialism“, where texts and comments
are controlled and managed by the authorities.
The complete political monopoly takes its place
In 1952 Bolshevism ended, and a new weekly magazine
called „Vjesnik u srijedu“ was launched. This
magazine would contribute greatly to the development
of the Croatian press. This was an era when
all kinds of newspapers and magazines, dedicated
to large reading audiences, started popping up. The
development of various media including the religi-
ous and juvenile press lasted until 1971. The „Vjesnik“
concern is the largest company in the publishing
industry in SE Europe.
In 1971, the entire system of liberalism and pluralism
in the Croatian media was ended by force. It
was proclaimed as inappropriate. Anything containing
the term „Croatian“ was related to ethnic affiliation
and, hence, was politically unsuitable and
incorrect. The next 10 years were dark ages for the
Croatian media again.
In 1982, the newsmagazine „Danas“ was published.
It was a comeback for the free press on the Croatian
• Journalism in independent Croatia
Croatian journalism returned to life when Croatia
was established as a new and independent country.
Major changes took place in reviving some papers
and magazines that had died. Also, many new
ones were published. However, the ruling party took
control over some of the press (e.g. Vecernji list,
Vjesnik), as well as printing and distribution companies.
Newspapers like Glas Slavonije and Slobodna
Dalmacija were literally snatched away by some
of the „newborn tycoons“.
The concern „Vjesnik“ went to pieces. It disintegrated
into individual newspapers and magazines,
one independent from another. The leading newsmagazines
„Danas“ and „Start“ died out. New media
owners (e.g. EPH) published a variety of press.
Supported by foreign investments, the EPH has
become the most prominent media house in Croatia.
Globus, Nacional, Feral Tribune, Vijenac, Zarez,
Hrvatsko slovo are just some of the new titles available
on the market.
It follows: Gloria, Svijet, Zaposlena, Mila, Auto klub,
Arena. The escape from the political papers towards
light texts has been highly noticed. The „gutter
press“ penetrates journalism more and more.
When the daily paper Jutarnji list (of the EPH) came
out in 1998, the media picture changed radically.
The fight for political influence and its position on
the market started. The third national political daily
paper appeared. German investments were made in
the EPH (WAZ-Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung)
and Styria from Graz, Austria invested in Večernji
list (Die Kleine Zeitung and Die Presse).
At the beginning of the 21st century, Croatian journalism
has got about 500 media altogether. 14 of
them are daily papers, and there are also many newsmagazines,
weekly magazines and local papers
(Karlovac, Zadar), as well as local radio stations.
The national Croatian radio and television developed
and new commercial televisions came onto the
scene. In 2005, a new tabloid „24sata“ appeared and
a new era in Croatian journalism began. „Poslovni
dnevnik“ was the first business daily paper published
in Croatia. It followed the weekly magazines
„Business.hr“ (2005), supported by the Swedish
capital, and „Lider“.
In 2006, EPH published „Metro“, the first free
newspaper in Croatia. In short, the press market
frequently gets loaded with new issues and the fight
among them takes place.
• Instead of conclusion
Through the analysis of the Croatian media scene,
it has been seen that there was an adequate withdrawal
of the political media towards media dealing
with more entertaining topics such as show business,
jet-set, glamour, health, technology, sport
etc. Apart from some of the existing papers (e.g. Jutarnji
list, Nacional, Fokus, Poslovni tjednik/dnevnik,
24sata, Lider and Business.hr) there are no new
ambitions to suppress publishing papers writing
about politics and social movements. However, our
political journalism is in crisis due to the downfall
in publishing of the political press.
The Croatian media market is still in disorder because
of the lack of finances. This is the reason why
All previous research has shown the complexity of Croatian journalism. There were cases
where many valuable data and materials were misplaced or lost, especially in the late 18th
and early 19th century. It is worth mentioning the importance of written press release and
paper texts in the creation of the new independent state and its political identity.
the editorial board has to compromise with advertisers
that assure them the necessary income. There
is an urgent need to strengthen the professionalism
and ethical standards and regain faith in the press.
However, from the late 18th century, there has been
a noticeable linkage throughout the development
of Croatian journalism. The fight to reach national
identity, freedom and rights on different opinions
has been obvious in the press. It is the unique feature
of Croatian journalism that could not be taken
away from anyone, in spite of occasional wandering
in all kinds of parties in power and political influences.
The fight continues up to now…
22 PROPR winter 2007.
by Nella Mandić,
Press clippping, Croatia
Member of Media Inteligence Group
A level of free media is a row model of real freedom
in any country and shows a level of democracy.
Domestic and foreign specialists who work on media
analysis in Croatia agree on improvements to
the Croatian media picture in various ways. Positive
evaluations of the Croatian media, this year, come
from abroad. The freedom of the Croatian media
has been evaluated by following up the standards
and categories made by international organisations.
According to that, Croatia is in the midpoint. It
has been considered an open-minded media in the
actions taken towards domestic and foreign politics.
It is a satisfying situation where we can say that
Croatia has reached a happy balance.
Media financing transparency and media publishers/owners’
dependence upon current political
and business spheres are within bounds, since
Croatia is one of the transitional European countries.
It also, applies to all other countries that recently
entered the EU. Media financing, in large measure,
depends upon potential advertisers, especially
upon commercials placed by the leading business
subjects. They can have the impact on media to a
large extent, for they can go back on their decisions
and withdraw them. It is a new kind of dependence,
already well-known in traditionally developed democratic
Some media die out. It depends on their own success.
However, the new issues come off along the way
and the entire press continues to rise. They cover all
spheres: politics, economy, regions, health, lifestyle,
fashion, show business and entertainment, sports
and cars. There are numerous specialised publications.
Many successful companies have their own
newspapers dedicated either to their employees,
clients or partners. Students and their organisati-
PROPR winter 2007.
Media picture in Croatia
A level of free media is a row model of real freedom in any country and shows a level of
democracy. Domestic and foreign specialists who work on media analysis in Croatia agree
on improvements to the Croatian media picture in various ways.
ons, professional associations and other scientific
societies have their own papers and publications.
Media owned by state has to go through the process
of privatisation. The daily paper „Vjesnik“ and the
Croatian Radio-Television are state-owned.
Private media are financially independent and market
Press edition is the final sum of all published press.
It is the sum of the press that has been sold out and
returns from agents. Leading daily papers, according
to their sale and readership rating, are 24 sata,
Jutarnji list and Vecernji list (e.g. Jutarnji list
and Vecernji list have their regional issues). Statistically,
in Croatia, one daily press goes per 10 readers,
in Germany, France and Italy one per 2,5 readers
and in Japan one per 2 readers, as well as in
the USA, Canada and Scandinavian countries. Low
newspaper sales in Croatia have been caused by the
population’s relatively low standards of living. Sales
increase on Fridays, when all daily papers enclose
additional materials and TV schedules for the upcoming
Image 1. media growth in Croatia
Variety of press
There is a large variety of press available on the
Croatian market, dedicated to different readers’ social
groups and different ages. About 700 different
papers are published in Croatia. There are also special
issues (weekly, monthly) with regular and satellite
TV schedules. Apart from publishing the real
Croatian papers and magazines, there are many
prominent licensed issues available, e.g. Grazia, Cosmopolitan,
Men’s Health. A variety of foreign press
is available as well. Two types of press are dominant,
one deals with social life (economics and politics)
and the other one contains topics about lifestyle
(fashion, health, home decoration). There is also
a variety of press dedicated to children and youth,
as well as crosswords, comic books and novels.
Broadcast companies for TV and radio programmes,
Concession is an official permission to broadcast radio,
TV and cable TV programmes in accordance
with the Statute of Electronic Media and approved
by the Croatian Council for Electronic Media, appointed
by the Croatian Parliament.
Printed press Radio TV New s agencies
Image 2. variety of media in Croatia 1- most-represented categories
Public television is the national television, led by
its editorial autonomy and free of any political influences.
HRT - the Croatian Radio-Television is regulated by
its statue and consists of three programmes: HTV 1
and HTV 2 nation-wide and HTV Plus via satellite.
Its General Manager is chosen by the HRT Council
and approved by the Croatian Parliament.
TV and radio stations
It is a lot easier to publish a new press than to establish
a TV or radio station, because for the first one
there is no need to win a concession. In Croatia, there
are 22 TV stations (2 national, 8 regional and 12
local) with concessions. TV audiences also have
access to cable and Internet television (e.g. B.net or
There are 152 radio stations with concessions; 3 of
them are national, 19 regional and 130 local ones.
The rating of stations playing Croatian and foreign
music is about equal. Otvoreni radio plays a lot of
foreign music, and Narodni radio plays only Croatian
music. HR 1 and HR 2 have high ratings as well,
according to the data given by MediaMeter.
TV programming consists of three channels on the
national level – HTV, RTL and Nova TV. HRT, as
the Croatian national television collects a monthly
fee from its viewers and has the highest rating. Advertisers,
who pay a lot of money for leased minutes,
require rating analyses of programmes and terms
of broadcasting. The prices of seconds and minutes
have been shaped according to those ratings. Advertisers
are allowed to negotiate over the prices and
terms of broadcasting.
Table 1. TV stations in Croatia (N=23)
Regional and local TV stations experience a lot of financial
troubles and depend upon potential adver-
tisers. It has an adverse effect on the quality of their
programming, so the length and content of commercials
are defined by the Council for Electronic
Media. The concession can be taken away by
the Council should any inappropriate content occur.
According to the Statue of Electronic Media (article
19), the advertising duration on national and regional
stations must not exceed 12 minutes per hour
and 15% of the entire daily programme. Advertising
on the local stations can occupy 18 minutes per hour
and 25% of all programming. Article 44 states that
electronic media is publicly owned.
Article 56 writes about pluralism and the variety of
electronic media and supports programmes of social
interests dedicated to a wide audience (general
information, programmes for ethnic minorities, development
of culture, education, science and art).
Radio stations are so numerous that sometimes one
station interrupts the other’s frequency. HR – the
Croatian national radio, consists of 3 national programmes
and 9 regional programmes. They are Radio
Sljeme, HR Dubrovnik and HR Rijeka.
Apart from HR, there are another 3 national stations;
Otvoreni radio, Narodni radio and Hrvatski katolicki
Table 2. Radio stations in Croatia (N=162)
50% of the entire Croatian population over 15 years
of age has Internet access. According to the Gfk data,
Croatia sits in the middle of the scale in comparison
with other European countries. 39% of Europeans
and 38% of Croats use Internet. The average of
17% Internet users stands for the entire world’s population.
Almost all press and electronic media has its own
website. Websites such as T portal, Net.hr, Indeks,
Javno provide their readership with news, comments,
events, service information and other infor-
Regional /Localna issues
mation. The number of people using the Internet as
a source of information is growing.
Points of interest
In November 1996 Zagreb radio station 101 lost its
concession because of its „old-fashioned programme
concept“, as it was explained within some circles.
Its audience protested, with about 100,000 people
gathering in a rally on the Ban Jelacic Square
National TV stations broadcast different seasons of
the same TV series (e.g. CSI) and sitcoms. It shows
their inventiveness and efforts to retain the audience.
In Croatia, like in other countries, press and electronic
media often invite their audience to participate
in creating their contents. This means that they can
volunteer and supply the editorials with reports,
texts and photos from events they visit (e.g. 24 sata,
RTL, Nova TV, global tv CNN has its own „iReport“).
One of the trends in the last few years has been the
promotional sale of different kinds of literature
along with daily papers. Apart from the enclosed literature,
things like CD’s, DVD’s, hats, bags and other
stuff can often be found in the press.
Free press is also available. The Croatian issue of
the free daily paper Metro has been published in
The daily paper 24 sata comes out every day in the
late afternoon in its abridged version and is free of
There are numerous free papers available either on
a regional or local basis dedicated to different social
groups and ages (e.g. for senior citizens).
The intriguing newsmagazine Feral Tribune is
unique for it does not contain any commercials.
The Croatian www scene is filled with blogs and
online diaries. „You tube“ has become a very popular
site and it is rather often a „host“ to some of the
Croatian politicians and ministers.
Nowadays, some authors agree about the lack of
privacy. One person can approach another via the
web, people are entitled to speak out their thoughts
and display their experiences, photos and animations.
It leads us to a new opinion where all the inhabitants
of the cosmos become public people as well
as potential „celebrities“.
2 PROPR winter 2007.
by Sanela Tunović,
Media Intelligence Agency (MIA)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Media Intelligence Agency conducted a survey in
Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to evaluate the
need for media monitoring services. PR professionals
were contacted at all levels of government in
BiH, private companies, internationally funded projects,
international organisations, Embassies, financial
institutions and banks.
Our findings show that PR practitioners in BiH
spend literally hours every day just going through
newspapers. They usually lack the resources or organised
mechanisms at their disposal for monitoring,
especially of electronic media.
Furthermore, in some cases the public relations offices
deem that this “reading of the newspapers”
and arranging press clipping is a justification for
their existence within the company or organisation,
which puts them completely out of general political,
economic and social context.
PR professionals rather choose to continue with
established practices such as press clipping than
accept more sophisticated tools such as media monitoring.
Press clipping as the primary media monitoring tool
has lost its effectiveness and purpose with the increase
in media outlets. Clients wanting only press
clipping on their activities, consciously or not,
are ignoring their PR weaknesses and risk possible
unproductive relations with the media.
Getting an accurate picture of the effectiveness of
PR campaigns and activities requires the monitoring
of an ever-greater number of sources, and monitoring
media is more important than ever. To remain
competitive, enterprises must be certain that
their campaigns have maximum value and impact,
with public information campaigns requiring comprehensive
information. Managing corporate reputation
also depends on an acute awareness of how
the enterprise is being covered in media, blogs and
message boards around the world.
In layman’s terms, media monitoring can be understood
as a standardised method of gathering data
from a range of different sources - newspapers, radio
and/or television programming, internet - which
is then filtered into understandable and measurable
pieces of information. While this provides almost
limitless delight for methodology experts, the
PROPR winter 2007.
The role of media
monitoring in PR
With all the media in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the region, it has become increasingly
difficult for enterprises (private or public, government or non-government) to track and
evaluate their media exposure.
exceptional strength of media monitoring lies in its
diversity of applications.
People rely on media as their key source of information
on what is happening around them, making
it critical to know what is in the news and how it is
told. It is of no surprise that an issue that dominates
media reports will also be regarded as priority by
governments to address, act or formulate policy on.
On the other hand, issues, people or institutions
that receive less media coverage - intentionally or
not - become of lesser importance, unlikely to be in
the focus of the decision makers. What media cover
and do not cover now become vital indicators for
any PR specialist. And one of the best ways of finding
out what is in the media focus and how it influences
public perception is to monitor them.
One of the key advantages of media monitoring is
that it offers a vast amount of data to be analysed. It
gives both positive and negative sides of the story.
It may not reflect the real truth behind a certain
event, but one should not forget that its presentation
is truth in the eye of the public. Thus, media monitoring
reports indicate how media presented the
information, and which events were treated as the
Firstly, it is important to choose the media to be monitored,
not on the grounds of personal fondness
but on the following indicators: circulation/viewership;
political affiliation, if any; popularity among a
specific target group; speed and accuracy. To obtain
a fair picture of which issues media cover or not,
it is also necessary to monitor over a period of time.
The assessment of trends in what, who and how
makes it into the news is only reliable under these
Consistent media monitoring over a period of time
has another distinct advantage: it enables time periods
and trends to be compared and analysed. Not
only does media monitoring highlight the amount
of coverage on a certain issue, it also provides an insight
into how issues, people, institutions, countries
and policies are represented both individually and
against other key events dominating media. In addition,
media monitoring also enables more qualitative
analysis on elements including fairness, ethics
Below are listed just some of the examples which
demonstrate how media monitoring findings can be
of use to PR specialists:
- Assess whether your public campaign reached
the target audience and achieved previously set
- Employ a proactive approach by using media
monitoring as an early warning system to adjust
to new circumstances’ messages i.e. at some point
of your campaign your media monitoring indicates
that alterations are required;
- See how certain media treat issues of importance
to your organisation, why some treat it more
favourably than others, etc.
- Integrate a media monitoring component into
comprehensive media focused strategies;
- Use monitoring as the basis for developing new
policy, training and briefing media professionals;
- Benchmark media houses, and monitor trends
among media in different countries.
In order to undertake media monitoring it is important
that people are able to analyse and code media
content. To do this, media monitors require critical
media literacy skills. These skills are acquired during
media monitoring training and are then enhanced
as they are practiced.
While media monitoring offers almost limitless capabilities,
empowers clients and encourages organised
action, its limitations also need to be acknowledged.
It requires substantial human and other
resources as well as rigorous standardised methods,
accuracy and attention to detail from monitors.
However, closer examination of media monitoring
sustainability shows that it is not only sustainable,
but also lends itself to replication, development and
Media Intelligence Agency is currently organising
a round of educational seminars in Bosnia and
Herzegovina for PR practitioners in an attempt to
explain the role of media monitoring in PR strategy
Deutschland - a
world for heroes
Around 1.3 million people visit the German LEGOLAND® park near the Bavarian town of
Günzburg every year. With its unique array of attractions, comprising over 50 million LEGO®
bricks, and its unrivalled blend of entertainment and learning through play, the park is an
eldorado for families with children.
by Annette Uhlmann
As colourful and varied as the park itself is, the LE-
GOLAND press relations work. From welcoming
celebrity visitors or creating and organising meticulously
staged press conferences to TV productions
in the park, there are exciting challenges and topics
to be dealt with every day.
The history of the LEGOLAND parks
It was almost 40 years ago that Godtfred Kirk Christiansen,
son of the LEGO company founder Ole
Kirk Christiansen, opened the world’s first LEGO-
LAND park at the headquarters of the LEGO Group
in the Danish town of Billund. The idea of creating
a park for all the family, based on the popular
LEGO bricks and their numerous configurations,
was a resounding success. In the opening season, in
the summer of 1968, the park welcomed 625,000 visitors!
After some further developments and refinements
to the concept, in the 1990s the company decided
to export the successful format to other countries
too. 28 years after the Billund park was opened,
LEGOLAND Windsor, west of London, was opened
in 1996. Because the number of visitors in Billund
remained high, and due to the rapid success at
Windsor, a third LEGOLAND park was opened just
three years later (1999) in sunny Carlsbad, California,
the only one to be kept open all year around.
Since May 17, 2002, Germany has had its own LE-
GOLAND park near the Bavarian town of Günz-
2 PROPR winter 2007.
urg. More than 150 million euros were invested
in this new park, which offers all the highlights of
its predecessors as well as numerous new attractions.
The geographical and structural advantages
of the location gave it a decisive edge over the Japanese
capital, Tokyo, in the crucial final round of
negotiations in September 1999. More than 25 million
people live within a radius of 300 kilometres,
not to mention the numerous additional visitors
from Germany and abroad who come every year
to visit Bavaria, Germany’s most popular holiday
destination. The LEGOLAND park is now among
Germany’s top three amusement parks, with a visit
featuring very high on the wish list of families
PROPR winter 2007.
LEGOLAND and Merlin
Since July 2005, when the LEGOLAND parks
worldwide were sold by the LEGO Group, they have
belonged to the British-based leisure concern
Merlin Entertainments Group. Merlin Entertainments
Group welcomed over 30 million visitors
to 51 attractions in 2006. Globally they operate in
12 countries and across three continents (Europe,
North America and Asia), employing over 13,000
staff. Merlin Entertainments’ leisure facilities include
numerous globally renowned brands that
attract families with children, teenagers and young
adults: in addition to the LEGOLAND parks, these
include, for example, 23 Sea Life Centres, Gardaland
in Italy, Heide-Park in Germany, 5 Mada-
me Tussauds and the English amusement park Alton
Heroes wanted! - the park concept
The target group for Bavaria’s most popular leisure
attraction is families with children aged between
three and 13. Be it as test drivers at the LEGOLAND
Driving School, as explorers on the grand Safari Tour
or as dragon hunters on the Fire Dragon roller
coaster - the eight themed areas at the LEGOLAND
park allow children to slip into these different roles
and make their wishes and dreams come true, in line
with the motto “Heroes wanted!”. Based on the
LEGO values of “learning through play”, “limitless
variety of ideas”, “interactivity” and “active fun”,
the park offers a unique blend of exciting entertainment
and educational challenge. The centrepiece
of the LEGOLAND park is MINILAND. Famous
European cities, monuments and landscapes have
been replicated here on a scale of 1:20. From Berlin
and Neuschwanstein Castle to Venice and Munich’s
Allianz Arena stadium - moving cars, ships in the
canals, lit-up houses and stunning attention to detail
breathe life into this miniature world and leave visitors
LEGOLAND Deutschland press relations
The press and public relations work of LEGOLAND
Deutschland are aimed at two main target groups.
One focus is on children between three and 13 years
of age, particularly on those in the six to eleven
age bracket. It is, however, also important to address
parents, especially mothers. Communication via
the daily and monthly press, radio, TV and Internet
goes hand in hand with maintaining a presence in
the specialist media in the areas of tourism, caravanning
and amusement parks.
The objective is to profile park-related topics in four
waves throughout the season (which commences
shortly before Easter and ends in early November).
The timing of the communication is closely
linked to that of conventional advertising communication,
namely before each of the four main
holiday periods: Easter, Whitsun, summer and
PR communication is kicked off each year with a
major press conference at the park, in which the
new attractions for the year are unveiled. These
might include new areas in MINILAND (such
as Munich Airport, Neuschwanstein Castle or
Munich’s “Allianz Arena” football stadium, all built
of LEGO bricks), a new park attraction (such as
Germany’s first passenger robot that visitors can
programme for themselves) or a whole new theme
area (such as PIRATE LAND in 2007). The press
conferences, attended by an average of 50 journalists
from all over Germany (daily press, magazines,
radio and TV), are meticulously staged and
painstakingly tied in with the theme of the new feature,
from the invitation of celebrity guests and
presenters to the fine details of the programme.
In 2007, for example, journalists were greeted by
a pirate crew and witnessed an exciting chase in
one of the new pirate attractions. The new theme
then serves as a publicity vehicle and as the principal
communication theme of the year. In 2007, the
central theme from February to the end of the season
was pirates - also in traditional advertising
media. In addition to the new attractions, the numerous
events at the park also provide important
opportunities for up-to-the-minute press relations.
Concerts, LEGO building records, the traditional
Late Night Opening events and celebrity visits
to the park are publicised in Germany, Austria and
Switzerland by means of press invitations, press
newsletters, press releases and mailshots containing
photographic material. On top of this come
corporate PR themes, such as charity events with
the hospital clown group Clown Projekt e.V., or the
strategic partnership with the Trägerkreis Erdgasfahrzeuge
(Gas-Powered Vehicle Organisation),
which enables LEGOLAND to convey the image of
a sustainable park. Additionally, packages combining
overnight accommodation with park admission
are regularly offered as prizes in a large number
of monthly magazines for families and children as
well as in the daily press.
Again and again, there are highlights in the press
relations work of the PR team. These have included
a visit from the heir to the Thai throne, with
his two-and-a-half-year-old son and 40 courtiers
in attendance, and the opening of the LEGO model
of Munich’s famous “Allianz Arena” football stadium,
in the presence of Karl-Heinz Rummenigge,
two weeks before the opening of the actual stadium.
A new challenge awaits the PR team in 2008: the
opening of an on-site holiday village at the LEGO-
LAND park is aimed at consolidating the status of
the park as a destination for short breaks and increasing
the numbers of visitors with a journey time of
more than three hours.
The all-female staff at the LEGOLAND Deutschland
press office consists of two full-time PR specialists
(Annette Uhlmann, Press & PR Manager,
and Stefanie Feifel, PR Officer), a freelance colleague
specialising in media promotions and a trainee.
The team is supported by a PR and radio agency
which covers the basic groundwork (preparation
of press kits, sending releases, maintenance
of distribution lists, etc.) in addition to radio promotions.
2 PROPR winter 2007.
PROPR winter 2007.
Enthused with Vitality
Macedonians made the biggest
Hellmann’s Russian salad
by Nadica Dimitrovska
Brand Building Executive for Macedonia,
Kosovo and Albania
Unilever S.C.E. Representative Office Skopje
The mission of Unilever is to add Vitality to life. We
meet everyday needs for nutrition, hygiene and personal
care with brands that help people look good,
feel good and get more out of life.
Ever since the 19th Century when William Hesketh
Lever stated that the company’s mission was “to
make cleanliness commonplace; to lessen work for
women; to foster health and contribute to personal
attractiveness, that life may be more enjoyable and
rewarding for the people who use our products,” Vitality
has been at the heart of our business.
Vitality is at the heart of everything we do. It’s in
our brands, in our people.
Vitality defines what we stand for: our values, what
makes us different, and how we contribute to society.
It’s the common thread that links our brands
and it’s central to the unique way we operate around
Health & nutrition
Our Vitality mission commits us to growing our business
by addressing health and nutrition issues. We
focus on priorities including child and family nutrition,
cardiovascular health and weight management.
Inside & out
Our culture also embodies Vitality. Adding Vitality
to life requires the highest standards of behaviour
towards everyone we work with, the communities
we touch and the environments on which we have
Following our Vitality mission we tried to do something
spontaneous and meaningful in our country; that
is how the Hellmann’s Salad Day event had its glint.
The Russian Salad originates from the 1860’s and
was invented by the recognized chef Lucien Olivier.
Since spreading the recipe from the famous Moscow
restaurant, its taste was accepted by international
cuisines, including wide acceptance of the flavour
on Macedonian ground.
This idea came very spontaneously and at first glance
we all liked it and accepted it not only as a general
idea, but as a possibility to do something that had never
been done in our country before. At the beginning
it was a challenge that later turned into an opportunity
to do something in accordance with our company
mission that would be beneficial to our community as
well. As always, organising something for the first time
ever has its positive and negative aspects. There were
many questions, doubts and issues that needed to be
addressed and discussed very carefully at each step of
the event’s organisation. But the most important thing
was that we knew exactly what we wanted to achieve
with this event, and how it would be interpreted and
have an effect on our target audience. It includes all
the people who enjoy food as one of life’s pleasures. In
a few words, everyone was invited.
We were aiming towards two main purposes:
• Making the biggest Russian salad ever,
• Making a worthwhile contribution towards our
• by cooperating with the Kindergarten’s kitchen
for the preparation of the salad. In return Unilever
restored their kitchen with 350 square metres
• The first portion of the prepared salad (300 kg)
was donated to the national kitchen of St. Petka’s
We received full support from the kindergarten
kitchen’s employees for the preparation of the salad.
Although there were large quantities of food involved,
they weren’t afraid of the challenge. In other
words, they shared our enthusiasm for the success
of this event.
We had the full support and cooperation of the City
Council on this project, as the event took place on
the square in Skopje. Besides the previously mentioned
support, we organised this event together with
the advertising agency Lowe and the PR agency
Apriori Communications. Once the team was complete,
the preparations began.
The preparation period lasted 3 months, maybe
30 PROPR winter 2007.
Event - Live preparation of the biggest Hellmann’s Russian Salad in Macedonia.
even a bit more taking into consideration all the
things that had to be figured out, the many people
that needed to be contacted and organised in order
for all the parts to function properly. So, in the end
we managed to complete this puzzle, this event that
we are all proud of. I always say that at the root of
everything we do there must be proper organisation,
knowing what you have done in each step, what
you need to do next and how your work is going to
be combined and completed with other people’s
Lowe was responsible for the total realisation and
outcome of the event and Apriori Communications
had their tasks to create a buzz in the media and
spread the word of mouth among the public.
The journalists’ attention was attracted in a very interesting
way. One week before the event, one jar of
Hellmann’s mayonnaise was sent to all the editors
of the media, with a mysterious message “see you
on the 14th …”
Both the agencies gave their best through the whole
organisational period. We were driven by the thought
that we were making something unique for our city
and unique for our citizens as well. The event took place
on the 14th of April 2007 on the square in Skopje.
The five chefs from the kindergarten, apart from
the 220 kilograms of Hellmann’s mayonnaise, also
used 220 kg potatoes, 120 kg pickles, 120 kg carrots,
100 kg green peas and 70 kg ham and yellow cheese.
The salad weighed 1 ton and was prepared in two
huge bowls measuring 70 cm deep, 2 metres long
and 1 metre wide.
All of the visitors on the city square had the chance
to taste the giant salad.
More than 5000 people followed the event live on
the city square. The biggest portion was donated to
the National kitchen of St. Petka’s church in Skopje
as a gesture of humanity and care for the homeless.
The salad was moved the same day directly from
The MC of this interesting event was Tanja Kocovska,
and the visitors were entertained by Toni
Zen, Sara Kostadinovska, Darko Nikolovski and
PROPR winter 2007.
the choir of the “Majski Cvet” kindergarten. The
most popular performances among the visitors
were the children’s ones especially prepared for
the event, while the most amusing one, the “eating
contest”, showed that everybody enjoys tasty
food. During the event, the main nutritional
benefits of Hellmann’s mayonnaise were communicated.
We hope that this Hellmann’s event contributes to
Skopje becoming one of the world’s metropolises
which host these kinds of interesting and extraordinary
events. This event could also become a pleasant
happening that citizens would visit with pleasure
Hellmann’s, as a sign of appreciation of the contribution
to the organisation of the event, promised to
help with the reconstruction of the kitchen at the
“Majski Cvet” kindergarten.
In the last decade of the 20th Century the received wisdom of most foods businesses
was that if we could satisfy the consumers’ demands for taste, convenience and value,
then we would succeed. We all recognised that, whether people lived in Brussels or
Bologna, they were not going to compromise on flavour. Food, after all, is consumed for
pleasure as much as fuel.
The promise was kept and the reconstruction was
successfully completed. The new kitchen officially
started operating on Monday, September 10, 2007.
The people from the kindergarten said that they
were satisfied because the whole job had been done
in the short space of 2 weeks. However, they were
most impressed with the kitchen’s new look!
The new atmosphere can be felt right from the entrance.
The old and shattered beige tiles were replaced
with new, fresh blue and white tiles that really
give a new, better look. This contributed to the kitchen
looking like a new one - brighter and cleaner.
And now, the brave chefs who accepted the challenge
of making such a huge Russian salad are enjoying
their new working atmosphere while preparing food
for all the children at “Majski Cvet”.
The promotion presented an excellent source of direct
communication with the target audience; enhancing
the quality of healthy life through the benefits
and usage of Hellmann’s Mayonnaise was communicated
Some of the statements:
“Very, very good initiative. It is REAL, it is TASTY, it
is FOODS EXPERIENCE.”
Fulvio Guarneri - Foods Director of Unilever
South Central Europe
“Strong activation building on the current brand
credentials and towards the brand’s vision.”
Daniel Barbulescu - Category Manager Dressings
“Initiative so close to Hellmann’s vision, which
needs to become local tradition.”
Tina Trpkovska - Foods Brand Building Manager
Serbia, MNE & Macedonia, Albania and Kosovo
“Very good innovative Brand activation and
Vitality experiences that help people feel good
and get more out of life...”
Goran Georgievski - Country Operations Manager
of Macedonia, Albania and Kosovo
“Generally, the citizens of Skopje were proud
that Hellmann’s made it possible for them to be
a part of this extraordinary event because it puts
this town among the world’s metropolises. This
event was one of the prevailing topics among the
people for a long time.”
“This whole event, apart from its huge and one
of a kind charity message that was sent to the
public, also made an impact on all target groups.”
Konstantin Ikonomov, Apriori Communications
The event was covered by all printed and
electronic media over a period of 6 days. There
were many publications and here are some of
“Citizens of Skopje tasted the biggest Russian
salad” - daily newspaper Nova Makedonija
“A giant Russian salad of one ton on the square
Macedonia” - national TV Kanal 5
“Hellmann’s is going to make a Russian salad on
the town square” - daily newspaper Vreme
“One tone of Hellmann’s Russian salad was eaten
in only a few minutes” - daily newspaper Spic
Grand Slam Tennis
by Sara Pennant
. Marketing & Communication Manager
In 2006 female emancipation was still lost on Grand Slam Tennis. Even though the
US Open had agreed to award equal prize money to men and women back in 1973,
two remaining tournaments, Wimbledon and Roland Garros (the French Open), both
In 2006 female emancipation was still lost on Grand
Slam Tennis. Even though the US Open had agreed
to award equal prize money to men and women
back in 1973, two remaining tournaments, Wimbledon
and Roland Garros (the French Open), both resisted
change. For over 30 years The Sony Ericsson
Women’s Tennis Association (WTA) had lobbied
hard against Wimbledon and Roland Garros to end
sex discrimination and, in January 2006, Cohn &
Wolfe London was asked to invigorate the campaign.
The agency devised a strategy that enlisted support
from political stakeholders, including the British
Prime Minister Tony Blair, the media and the
public. By March 2007 Cohn & Wolfe had achieved
its objective when both tournaments announced
equal prize money for male and female competitors
starting from 2007.
Research & Planning
The first stage of planning was to review and understand
where previous lobbying had failed to achie-
ve the desired result. This showed the need to tread
a fine balance between creating sustained pressure
and avoiding alienating the target tournament
Secondly, the target audience was defined. The decision
was taken to concentrate on the 12 committee
members of The All England Club - the organisers
of Wimbledon. If they relented then it was likely
Roland Garros would follow suit. Research was
then conducted into potential ‘stakeholders’: individuals
and organisations who could most powerfully
endorse the campaign. This list included politicians,
former Wimbledon Champions and high-profile
The campaign would focus on the moral argument
surrounding equal prize money. Rather than getting
bogged down in lengthy debates over practical issues,
such as the length of the game, as had happened
in the past, the tournament organisers would simply
be asked to ‘Do the right thing.”
1. First Phase: April to May 2006
Cohn & Wolfe started to generate media debate. In
the week preceding the annual Wimbledon Championships
press conference in April, the campaign
was launched through targeted broadcast and
print interviews with previous Champions, including
Venus Williams, Maria Sharapova and Billie
On the day of the Wimbledon press conference Venus
Williams was used to hijack the news agenda via an
interview with the BBC news programme “Today”,
enabling prize money to be the lead discussion point.
Following the official prize money announcement,
an immediate response was issued to the UK pre-
32 PROPR winter 2007.
ss highlighting WTA and player disappointment generating
significant debate and media coverage. The
account team also personally contacted key stakeholders
in the UK with a call to action to support the
WTA’s campaign for equal prize money.
2. Second Phase: June to July 2006
The debate over equal prize money was then placed
on the political agenda. Following the personalised
letters to key stakeholders, one-on-one briefing
sessions were organised for Larry Scott, CEO of
the WTA, to present the arguments against discrimination
and discuss how politicians and pressure
groups could endorse the campaign. After these briefings,
Tessa Jowell MP, Secretary of State for Cul-
PROPR winter 2007.
ture, Media and Sport issued an open letter to the
UK media calling for the All England Club to award
equal prize money.
The message was reinforced by Janet Anderson MP,
who tabled a question during Prime Minister’s Question
Time, an opportunity for MPs from all parties
to question the Prime Minister on any subject, which
resulted in positive endorsement for equal prize
money from Tony Blair. Richard Caborn, Minister
of State for Sport, and London Mayor, Ken Livingstone
both requested meetings with the All England
Club Chairman, Tim Phillips.
Equal prize money was also put forward as an Early
Day Motion, which are formal motions submitted
for debate in the House of Commons, and attracted
more than 100 MP’s signatures in support. To maintain
media momentum, Cohn & Wolfe commissioned
public opinion studies in the UK and France
to capture popular sentiment on the issue. In
the UK, 93% of respondents expressed support for
equal prize money. With the support of Sir Richard
Branson, a photo was staged at the pre-Wimbledon
Player Ball with leading players displaying a scoreboard
highlighting the cumulative difference in prize
money received by male and female players over
the last decade - over £6 million.
3. Third Phase: November 2006 - February 2007
The next stage of stakeholder relations, after the
2006 Wimbledon Championships had concluded,
was for Meg Munn MP, Tessa Jowell MP and London
Mayor Ken Livingstone to write directly to Tim Phillips,
Chairman of the All England Club, calling for a
change in policy. As a result Larry Scott, CEO of the
Women’s Tennis Association, was invited to present
the rationale for equal prize money to the board of
the All England Club on November 8, 2006. C&W developed
a presentation for Larry Scott outlining the
moral arguments and, most significantly, a communications
strategy to support the All England Club if it
were to announce equal prize money.
The All England Club announced the end of inequality
on February 22, 2007. Media and stakeholders
increased their pressure on the Roland
Garros Tournament - resulting in the French Tennis
Association’s decision to offer equal prize money
some three weeks later, on March 17, 2007.
When Wimbledon finally relented, their press conference
was called at 12 hours’ notice. The objective
then focussed on maximising positive press cove-
PROPR winter 2007.
rage of the announcement and ensuring WTA messaging
was included. Statements were issued from
Larry Scott and key players, interviews were facilitated
for UK and global media between Larry Scott
in New York and players (who were participating
in the Dubai Championships at the time), and stakeholders
were encouraged to publicly endorse the
In addition to meeting the overall campaign objective,
each phase of the programme was separately
A) Media Impact
Between April 2006 and March 2007, Cohn & Wolfe
secured the following media coverage with a total
PR value of £2.8m:
• 112 UK national print articles
• 374 broadcast pieces with interviews for Larry
Scott placed with BBC, CNN and Sky
• 333 online articles
• 15 international pieces
• 34 pieces in regional press
• On release of the public opinion poll, which clearly
showed the nation’s support for equal prize
money, Cohn & Wolfe fuelled media debate with
interviews and key facts, generating print coverage
for seven consecutive days (23 -19th June
B) Relation to Objectives and Cost Effectiveness
• Messaging: 98% of articles contained one or more
key messages for the WTA in favour of awarding
equal prize money
• Strategy: 92% of articles urged Roland Garros
and Wimbledon to do the right thing
• Cost Effectiveness: The campaign provided a Return
on Investment of 56:1
The success of the campaign was recently endorsed
through an award from the IPRA (International
Public Relations Association) for best Public Affairs
Campaign 2007. It was also a finalist in the PRWeek
2007 Awards in both Public Affairs and Issues and
Crisis Management categories.
Fairs - PRofessionals’ Challenge
by Marijeta Lazor
As the challenging white paper or computer screen tempt
the creative people’s pouring ideas and thoughts to turn into
a unique experience, the same challenges rest with the people
in the exhibition industry when the exhibition and congress
halls are empty. The challenges turn into creative ideas
for events finalised in emotions that are harboured even after
the official closing of the event. In all the stories of professional
challenges stemming from fairs, there are two main characters
- the exhibitor and the visitor. The prologue is written
by the media and the publisher - the exhibition organiser - is
always eager to make their edition a bestseller.
Whichever role you take, quality communication will be the
fundamental power adjusting all the circumstances into a successful
event. For several days, under the same roof, are all
those who, in the minds of PR professionals, take an important
place in the target public. Such chances professionals do
This is exactly the idea the Novi Sad Fair, as the oldest fair institution
in Serbia, on its foundations of 85-year long tradi-
3 PROPR winter 2007.
tion, builds its future on. As one of the leading fair
institutions in Southeast Europe, in times of global
growth, development and the importance of the
exhibition industry, it successfully meets the evergrowing
challenges of internationalisation of the
global economy. Along with the development of the
domestic and the world market, exhibitions as marketing-communication
platforms are also expected
to follow the economic flux in terms of their infrastructure
and events and stay on as instruments
of the market, which promote and present trends,
inspire the development of technologies and the
strong interaction between knowledge, information
and innovation. The strategic importance of fairs
is reflected in connecting economies that establish
business contacts at fairs, examine new markets, look
for partners and investors. The services offered
should have their unique selling points and quality,
and the measure of these things is seeing the client.
Therefore, permanent education in the field of the
exhibition industry represents a new, important segment
towards which the Novi Sad Fair directs part
of its resources in order to maximise the effects of
the fair presentation.
Public relations play an important role in achieving
the goals of a fair’s presentation, set by companies
prior to their decisions on partaking (sales, promotion,
relations with clients, market research, brand
development...). Because fairs represent a concentrated
market, and it is important to emphasise the
power of fairs. The scope of the event (a fair) is clearly
determined by exact figures supplied by the organisers,
which PR professionals can and should
use when addressing a certain target group - square
metres of indoor and outdoor exhibition area,
number of exhibitors, and the number of countries
the exhibits originate from, the number and origin
of visitors. Furthermore, the presence of events
in the Global Association of the Exhibition Industry
(UFI) or in the International Congress and Convention
Association (ICCA) are also listed among the
important indicators of international recognition
for a certain event. Data from the most significant
fair in Novi Sad, the International Agricultural Fair,
can be used to illustrate the above mentioned: more
than 2,000 exhibitors from all over the world participate
in this event; it is visited by half a million people
- membership in the UFI since 1958 is the kind
of information used by planners of the exhibition
presentation in terms of the type of public expected
at such an event.
Generally speaking, we can differentiate at least five
categories of visitors: buyers, representatives of the
media, international visitors, students (potential future
buyers), and visitors tied to the industry represented
at the fair. Obviously, competition is mainly
present at the fair, just like potential investors,
representatives of government institutions…, which
makes the plan for the public relations of participants
in fairs more complicated. Additionally, we
must not forget that visitors spend their own time
and money in order to see the exhibition and there-
PROPR winter 2007.
fore, maximum effort must be made to make their
The media is always unquestionably interested in
the events at fairs. This can be supported by the data
of the Novi Sad Fair showing that the activities of
the most important fair, the International Agricultural
Fair, are covered by about 1,400 accredited reporters
from nearly 600 editorials from Serbia and
abroad. It is apparently important to appear on the
“media radar” during the fair event, which the exhibitors
can do if preceded by well-planned and efficient
work by the professionals who take care of their
public relations. First and foremost, PR officers
must observe the rule that the fair starts significantly
prior to the official ceremony, by announcing
the participation in the event to target groups. The
fact that publicity and news before the presentation
at fairs boosts the visit of expected guests at the
stands by about 50% speaks in favour of pre-exhibition
communication. Good planning of the presentation
has to be adjusted to the other communication
activities, and the chance must not be missed regarding
the inclusion of all means and instruments
that the fair organiser can provide in the action
plan. At the Novi Sad Fair, these services include organising
press conferences, listings in the exhibition
catalogue, on the web portal, common public announcements,
participation in the programmes of the
Fair Radio and the TV production of Sajam InfoNet,
all the way to arrangements with sponsors.
Sponsorship is becoming more and more apparent
as a form of presence at fairs. This is how sponsors
buy the visitors, the public that the Fair has or can
establish contacts with. They are buying a certain
communication value that can be expressed as a
potential range of the message or the potential range
of its display. A range of communication goals can
be achieved through the quality of the sponsor of-
fer combination - brand launching, image reinforcement,
media exposure, establishing friendly relations,
opening new markets, enhancing sales and
new initiatives on the market… The clients of the
fairs are firstly the exhibitors and the visitors, but
also those who decide to participate in a trade fair,
i.e. representatives of governments, ministries, exporters
and economic associations and the decision
that such opportunities should not be missed when
making communication plans for a fair is all the more
Events, Events, Events
Organisers do not primarily sell space to the exhibitors
and visitors, but also the perception of the
event. An excellently organised event on the market
is promised to the client, this being based on
experience, professional knowledge and the reputation
of a notable and reliable company. Fairs, above
all, basically mean an exchange of ideas, transfer
of goods and know-how, which denote communication
and cooperation. The experience of the Novi
Sad Fair, which organises about 30 fairs annually
in 10 terms and about 100 extracurricular activities
at the “Master” Congress Centre, teaches us that organising
good fairs, beneficial to both the exhibitors
and the visitors, builds trust that lasts longer than
a year, which is everyone’s goal participating in such
events. Success, excitement and entertainment
represent emotional elements that keep the trend
of the fairs and the exhibition industry still significantly
growing in Europe. These facts support the
efforts of professionals who manage public relations
in companies to use fairs for three basic goals -
partnership reputation building, client relation building
and generating media coverage.
The fact that during fairs in Novi Sad since the beginning
of this year, 250 events have been organised
speaks in favour of the synergy effect of promotional,
professional, conference and media activities.
During these “concentrated” happenings within
a limited period of time and space, it is necessary to
prepare a good plan, personalise the messages, provide
enough quality material for the stands and the
press centre, direct the journalists towards your
own stands… rather than to play it by ear.
The exhibition area does represent a kind of “representative
office” of the company and, therefore,
the placement of nonverbal messages is important
not only through stand design, but also through the
provision of the necessary quantity of quality printed
and other promotional material for the visitors,
as well as through the educated staff on the ‘frontline’
of the service.
To show and express interest in what the journalists
are doing is just as necessary as the creativity in
the topics and ideas that can be offered, along with
the pre-prepared press kit. Should the participant
opt for a press conference at the fair, the person in
charge of media relations has to plan the activities
of sending invitations before the beginning of the
event, of hall booking, the treatment of VIP guests,
of the speech to the representatives of the company,
of the printed, audio and video material as support
to the press, of food, drinks, souvenirs from the exhibition
and so on. In larger fair institutions, where
they have the complete logistics for such events, like
the Novi Sad Fair, such activities can be done aided
and supported significantly by the host.
And these are exactly the situations when, deciding
to participate in the fair, clients investigate the rating
of the organiser, especially when the event is
new. Moreover, many exhibitors mistakenly expect
that the organisers of fairs bring the public. Therefore,
one should advise personalised, direct mailing
to exhibitors as a powerful visit booster and as support
for other PR activities.
Future of Fairs
Fairs give business some feeling and, therefore, it
is very important that communication continue
when the event is over - from media reports on the
event’s outcomes, supporting visits by important
guests to the stand, to sending sought information
material by post and communicating on the exhibition
presentation with the internal public. Building
a network of contacts is one of the most important
indicators of the success of a fair’s presentation.
Measuring communication effects, some fairs,
like the Novi Sad Fair, design structural tests that
check the standpoints of exhibitors and visitors in
order to obtain a picture of the opinions of these important
At the same time, data are collected that speak about
the image of the exhibition, and, based on these
facts, the plan of further communication is modelled.
Historical data comparison, obtained through
polling, shows trends and tendencies that can make
planning easy for the communication planners during
the company’s presentation at the fair as well as
design tactical plans for the company that participates
in the exhibition. Obviously, polls organised by
the exhibitors during fairs largely contribute to the
future planning and evaluation of the presentation.
The trends of the exhibition industry in the last several
years indicate several important directions
of development: specialisation of fair events, development
of the fairs of ‘the fourth generation’, fast
development of modern exhibition strategies and
styles of presentation - both through design of exhibition
stands and through specific aspects of marketing
and communication presentations. Congress
activities, as supporting segments of exhibitions,
are becoming more and more significant and are
growing into an important individual activity of the
fairs that organise them.
The education of exhibitors as a new activity aiming
at the development of the exhibition industry
as the intellectual potential of the Novi Sad
Fair, along with the modern exhibition area gives
Novi Sad its deserved ranking among the companies
that follow, but also creates trends in the exhibition
3 PROPR winter 2007.
SARAJEVO, Bosnia and Herzegovina
16. - 20. 04. 2008.
A story of open and
CASE STUDY Pfizer’s PR campaign
„Openly about sex“
by Spona Communications Ltd.
Situation analysis - the need for a new, OPEN approach
Sex and sexuality are closely linked with all other
aspects of our lives, from procreation as an essential
function of sexuality and sexual intercourse, to
the psychological, emotional and social significance
of sex. Erectile dysfunction is an illness, as well as a
trigger for a variety of negative emotions and attitudes
and the cause of many disrupted relationships.
152 million men worldwide have some form of erectile
dysfunction (ED), while the number of men
in Croatia with ED according to some estimates is
300,000 ranging from 35-65 years of age, of which
only 15% are being treated. According to research
conducted by Dr. Aleksandar Štulhofer, a sociology
professor at the Faculty of Arts in Zagreb, 12.5% of
the male respondents admitted they had experienced
erectile problems. The results showed that the
disorders were experienced more by men exposed
to stress and anxiety, and those with more traditional
attitudes towards sexuality.
After the discovery of the first drug ever used to treat
ED, the famous diamond-shaped blue pill, Pfizer
opened a Pandora’s box of this heavily concealed
problem. The problems of a large number of men
and their partners who are deprived sexual satisfaction
have been addressed for the first time. Today, a
blue diamond pill is taken every 9 seconds. Despite
the availability of this drug, in Croatia where the
environment is far more conservative compared to
Western countries, this widespread problem is still
not being discussed enough, and a large number
of men and couples are spending their sexually active
years in dissatisfaction, which is reflected in other
aspects of their lives. In most cases, the problem
is ignored, and the embarrassment related to sexual
inadequacy blocks the person from proactively searching
for a solution - by discussing the problem,
visiting a therapist or physician. Many physicians
also feel embarrassed discussing sexual problems.
Thus, the vicious circle of broken communication
just keeps widening.
That is why we decided to take a step further and
open the next Pandora’s box - to speak openly about
sex, to try and resolve some of the issues many
couples throughout the world, including Croatia,
Goals of the campaign
• Encourage an open discussion about sex, raising
the awareness of the widespread problem of ED
as well as acceptance and treatment options
• Address the problem of a lack of dialogue on the
subject, caused substantially by embarrassment,
and use a new approach, an open dialogue, to
promote the product (ED treatment) and introduce
it to the user
• Present Pfizer's medication for ED in a new,
exciting and innovative way
• Improve the flow of information, which helps
scientific advancements, and increases the odds
of discovering other effective treatments.
Strategy - a new approach to an old problem (AN
As part of the new approach to an „old“ problem, we
launched a comprehensive educational programme
entitled „Openly about sex“. The goal of this project
was to emphasise the need for an open discussion
about sexual problems, notably ED.
The underlying idea of the PR campaign was that
open discussion is the first step towards solving the
Target groups we addressed on the one hand included
physicians, who need to be able to recognize
the problem, therapists and pharmacists, who
need to make it easy for the patient to talk about this
issue, and the media, because if the media covers it,
it will be widely discussed. On the other hand, our
target groups also included the general public, which
needs to be more sensitized to this problem in
order for attitudes to change. Each of the target groups
plays a critical role in conveying messages to people
affected by this disorder - whether it’s a man
older than 40 with some form of erectile dysfunction
or a woman whose partner has ED.
Hiding intimate problems (and secrets about sex)
contributes to the problem and, coupled with the
general belief that “if I say something, I’ll be rejected”,
enforces the “vicious cycle“ of silence. Accor-
dingly, we created the campaign’s key messages, divided
into the following categories:
• The first category of “Openly about sex” messages
included messages such as: Open towards
yourself, Open with your partner, Speaking
openly with your doctor, Speaking openly with
a sex therapist and Speaking openly with a pharmacist.
• The second category dealt more directly with
ED. We communicated that achieving an erection
is possible in an open relationship, where the
two partners lead honest and open conversati-
0 PROPR winter 2007.
Despite the fact that sex is as old as mankind itself, and that a lot of details have been discovered about
sexual intercourse throughout the development of civilization, from the aspect of medicine, psychology
and human physiology, sex is still an awkward topic to discuss. The most natural thing on earth is still
a taboo, not to mention sexual problems, as well as everything that has to do with our sexual intimacy.
If we do have problems “in that department”, we would rather not talk about them. It was precisely this
that was the starting point of the PR campaign “Openly about sex”.
ons, thus creating a pleasant environment as the
basic precondition for successful sex.
• Since the final outcome of the entire process is
very important, pleasure in sexual relationships
was the topic of the final category of messages:
“Achieving better sex, by speaking openly about
sex” - our emotional relationships are also influenced
by external factors (such as failure at
work, discontent, stress...). Hiding who we are,
what we want or what we feel prevents us from
relaxing and trusting the main “ingredients“ of
pleasurable sex, and the insecurities a man feels
at certain moments of his life can and will cause
PROPR winter 2007.
physical barriers to achieving and holding a firm
erection. If an open conversation reveals that the
problems are organic, the appropriate medication
can be selected with the help of a physician.
Communication plan and implementation
Through all three phases of the PR campaign we
wanted to highlight the lack of open dialogue and
problem of breeding the wrong attitudes toward
human sexuality. That is why we enabled all key stakeholders
to take part in the discussion and presentation
of various aspects of ED.
The “pre-launch” phase of the campaign was focu-
sed on communication with the media, introducing
them to Dr. Marty Klein, a distinguished sex therapist
from the US, author of award winning books
and editor of a provocative electronic newsletter
called “Sexual Intelligence” and a popular website
www.SexEd.org, who has devoted his entire career
to discovering new ways of thinking and discussing
To initiate a dialogue and sensitise the media over
the correlation between open communication and
good sex, we organised a casual gathering with the
media. The event was used to announce the first
ever sexual therapy congress held in Croatia and
create a good atmosphere before introducing Dr.
Klein. The next step was establishing a two-way communication
with the media by organising a roundtable
where we invited specialists from various relevant
fields of expertise (sexual therapy, hypnotherapy,
sociology, family medicine, urology, diabetology,
pharmacy) and journalists, in order to encourage
a widespread open discussion about sex.
To directly address individuals suffering from ED,
we published a patient brochure entitled “OPENLY
ABOUT SEX” presenting ED in three simple steps
- recognising the problem, talking about it openly
and treatment options. The brochure also stresses
the role of the female partner, who also needs
to be included in the open discussion, in order to rekindle
the closeness between partners and provide
support. 75,000 copies of the brochure were published
and distributed in the waiting rooms of general
practitioners’ offices and urology and diabetes
The “launch” phase of the campaign included the
first ever sexual therapy congress held in Croatia,
“Openly about sex”, with Dr. Klein as key speaker
and Dr. Gerhard S. Barolin, an Austrian psychotherapist,
as speaker. The congress was held in Zagreb
(the venue, Boćarski dom, is located in a park
on the bank of the river Sava), and during breaks
the participants came into direct contact with the
surrounding nature, which contributed to the relaxed
atmosphere that is one of
of open communication.
the world have
dication of other illnesses and an important indicator
of the patient’s overall health, the doctors and
pharmacists at the congress got an opportunity to
learn how to make the conversation about ED pleasant,
effective and OPEN. To that aim, we also organised
a panel discussion, encouraging an open dialogue
with physicians that served as a platform to
share clinical experiences. The discussion presented
various ways to introduce patients to the available
options that can ultimately improve their quality
of life which is disrupted because of the stress associated
The physicians received a clear message that it is
their responsibility to initiate the conversation with
their patients, because such an approach encourages
patients and enables them to receive the appropriate
help on time. A separate roundtable was also
held with pharmacists stressing their role in creating
an open communication with the person seeking
The “post-launch” phase of the campaign included
placing the topics and interviews with the speakers
in the media and specialised medical publications.
Results and methods of evaluating the success of
The success of these communication activities was
evaluated based on media coverage, in terms of volume,
quality and frequency of media coverage. The
coverage generated a minimal five-fold return on
the funds invested - i.e. investments represented
18% of the coverage value.
On the other hand, success can also
be measured by the exceptionally
of physicians at the
congress (400), exceeding
the usual attendance
numbers at similar
congresses. The participants
satisfied most with how interesting
and useful the topic
was and with how well
the entire event was organised.
What made the communication
activities for the “Openly about
sex “ campaign special was a new
approach to a healthcare problem,
in this case ED, a topic which is still
considered a taboo. Open communication
was encouraged in a straightforward
and innovative way, thus contributing
to reducing the negative effects
of ED on men and their partners. In addition,
the congress itself was organised in a
completely new way compared to the usual
wearisome Croatian medical congresses
held in the same old hotel facilities, with no
corresponding visual identity.
2 PROPR winter 2007.
by Dr. Gabriele Weishäupl
. Director of the Munich Tourist Office
Because it is so well known around the world, Munich’s Oktoberfest is both a magnet for
tourists and an export item par excellence. A survey of the international acceptance and
spread of German terms carried out by the German National Tourist Board revealed that
91 percent of those polled knew the word “Oktoberfest.” The Oktoberfest is also present
on the Internet. The search engine Google will find about 6,910,000 hits for the term.
Around 2,000 “Oktoberfests” in the Munich style
are organised around the world. The largest ones
are in Blumenau/Brazil and in Kitchener/Canada.
They boast around 1 million visitors each. They
are followed by Frankenmuth/Michigan, USA, with
around 350,000 visitors.
This festival of festivals has a powerful influence on
the Bavarian capital’s image. The advertising value
of the so-called Wiesn for Munich is not quantifiable;
but the reputation that the city enjoys thanks
to the Oktoberfest at home and abroad does have
an impact on the number of tourist arrivals. Thanks
in large part to this uniquely popular event, Munich
numbers amongst the leading hubs of tourism in
As the head of the largest popular festival in the
world and as the director of tourism for the city of
Munich, I am often asked what is the origin of this
global reputation, the unbelievable meaning and
even emotion inherent to the Oktoberfest.
What can be said is that during the early period of
the Oktoberfest, the ruling Bavarian royal house
of the Wittelsbachs had the political desire to present
the newly organised Bavarian state overall as
a “homeland,” and therefore did an enormous amount
to promote the festival and use it as an instrument.
Another thing is certain: as of the 1950s, the
city of Munich began vigorously promoting the festival
world-wide, and there is the fact that this fe-
stival is perceived as an authentic “Bavarian festival”
in a matchless context. This is where public relations
come into play.
The Munich Oktoberfest, which is held for 16 days
on the Theresienwiese in the midst of the city, is a
festival that grew out of a historic process and has
an almost 200-year tradition.
Four years after Bavaria was elevated to the rank of
kingdom, Crown Prince Ludwig (later King Ludwig
I) married Princess Theresa von Sachsen-Hildburghausen
on October 12, 1810. The official celebrations
for the marriage lasted five days and were literally
staged as a grand ovation to the ruling house
of the budding kingdom. All of Munich acted as a
stage for the celebrations, which were both glittery
and popular. The inner city was transformed into
one huge festival, with parades by marksmen of the
National Guard and the citizens’ marksmen associations,
with light shows and music, food and drink,
drums and trumpets. It was a way for the Wittelsbachs
to show their proximity to the people and also
to thank their subjects, whose patience had been
sorely tested by the alliance with France and the resulting
wars, the expansion of national territories
and the administrative reorganisation of the country.
The time was ripe for a big feast to create a sense
of identity for the new Bavarians and as a way to
draw attention to the capital and royal residence
that Munich had become.
The celebrations, which were already called a “popular
festival” back then, concluded with a horserace
on October 17 on the field (“Wiese”) at the
city’s gates. “Individuals from the Cavalry Division
of the National Guard Third Class” under Major
Dall’Armi were able to gain permission from the highest
authority for this competition. Children in Bavarian
national costumes paid homage to the royal
family present, with poems, flowers and fruit from
the region. The field upon which the whole event
took place was called “Theresienwiese” in honor of
the bride. And that is the name of the Oktoberfest
venue to this day: “Theresienwiese,” or as the people
of Munich say for short, “die Wiesn.”
PROPR winter 2007.
The tradition of the many “Oktoberfests” began
thanks to the decision to repeat the very popular
horserace the following year. In 1811, the race was
supplemented by the first agricultural festival with
a trade exhibition highlighting Bavaria’s agricultural
economy. The race, the oldest part of the
event, disappeared from the Wiesn for organisational
reasons in 1938; the “Bavarian Central Agricultural
Festival”, however, still takes place once
every four years and is held in the southern part
of the Wiesn.
PROPR winter 2007.
From beer booths to beer castles
Originally, visitors were able to enjoy their beer
at little booths, whose number grew rapidly. The
first great beer castles were set up by enterprising
caterers in 1896, working closely together with
the breweries. The Munich breweries, by the
way, still have a monopoly on the serving of beer
at the Oktoberfest. Soon, hearty snacks and robust
Munich specialties were being sold, giving
rise to the Wirtsbudenstrasse, the Caterers’ Booths
Lane; to this day they offer everything necessary
to keep body and soul together and to ensure
that every visitor can experience sheer delight
Amusements for the people
The carneys and their operations dominate the other
part of the festival grounds. In 1818, the first carousel
and two swings were set up. Public amusement
was somewhat modest during the first two
decades. The 1880s marked the beginning of the
Golden Age of Germany’s carney business and carousel
industry. This paved the way to the Wiesn
as we know it today: a broad range of rides, amusements,
show booths and lots more to thrill young
and old alike.
The Wiesn here and today
The Oktoberfest continues to be a traditional Munich
popular festival featuring Munich hospitality
and Munich beer. That’s why - according to the
statutes of the festival - “only Munich beer made by
the efficient and tried-and-true traditional Munich
breweries and complying with the Munich Purity
Law of 1487 and the German Purity Law of 1906
may be served.”
The wellbeing of the Wiesn is firmly in communal
hands and has been overseen by the City of Munich
for over 180 years and, since 1975, by the Department
of Events of the Tourist Office.
What makes the Wiesn special is how it is able to
bridge the gap between being a festival for Munich
and an international large-scale event at the same
time. It remembers its own roots, but is also open to
new developments. The festival of festivals is imbued
with that typical mixture of high-tech and tradition,
which makes it all the more attractive.
Munich’s Oktoberfest sells itself. For the people of
Munich, who make up 72% of all visitors, it is part
of the yearly feast-day calendar, like Christmas or
Easter. Advertising it ceased after the anniversary
Wiesn of 1985, when over 7 million people came to
the festival and stretched its capacity to the limits.
Public relations are necessary, however, in order to
publicize, disseminate and position the content that
we feel is important to the Oktoberfest.
The City of Munich keeps a very sharp eye on this
festival and we are extremely careful and unobtrusive
when introducing any changes or novelties to the
Wiesn. We are aware of the fact that we hold responsibility
for a major traditional opus that generations
have already contributed to, and that local traditions
and customs here have lots of staying power:
the entrance of the Wiesn caterers on the opening
day, the barrel-tapping ceremony, when the Lord
Mayor of Munich does the honours and the world
media look on, the large parade of folkloric costumes
and marksmen on the first Wiesn Sunday, the
stand-up concert by the Wiesn orchestras, and the
firecracker shooting on the last day. Not forgetting
the splendid costumes that have resurfaced at the
Wiesn and in the city itself during the past five years.
The “Dirndl” and “Lederhosen” are de rigueur
with all generations, from infants to grandparents,
all coming to celebrate at the Oktoberfest. Local customs,
local costumes, local specialties, local beer….
this all is part of a whole that shapes the identity of
the time, the place, the festival … and our Oktoberfest
reveals this all in a unique manner.
But a festival the size of the Oktoberfest also needs
certain rules to prevent it from losing its traditional
character of a popular festival and degenerating into
a party and promotion pool. It’s the only way to
maintain the uniqueness and special character of
the Oktoberfest. This means: no public announcements
of stars of any kind, no promotional teams
and image-building before the coveted background
of the Wiesn.
The Wiesn Press Office work of 2007
Media representatives from around the world, whose
job it is to communicate the image of the Oktoberfest,
are assisted during the event at a separate
Wiesn press office, which also has work stations for
journalists. The Press Office today has contact with
2397 journalists (inquiries are made on location, by
email, phone or fax) from Germany and abroad, for
example: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Croatia,
Czech Republic, Georgia, Great Britain, Hong
Kong, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Serbia, Switzerland,
Turkey, Ukraine and the USA. A total of 240 filming
permissions were granted to various film and TV teams,
as well as online services. Information was passed
along in 60 press releases; 13 press events were
organised on location in 2007, such as a press tour
at the beginning with almost 200 participants, two
press conferences with around 40 media representatives
each, and a tour of the Wiesn caterers.
Addressing target groups
Public relations work is important in order to maintain
a high level of service and provide visitors with
the information needed for a successful time at the
Wiesn. Ever since I took on the management of the
event in 1985, one of my special concerns has been
the “gentle Wiesn,” which is backed up with targeted
PR measures on the subject of “Families/adults
with children,” for example, or “Ecology and sustainability”
and “The disabled.”
A 38,000-euro budget is available for public relations.
This is used to finance the annual (closed) poster
competition, the printing of flyers, posters and
press texts. As a graduate in communications, I had
already initiated socio-economical studies at the
Munich Oktoberfest as fundamental research. The
last study dates to 1999/2000, with another one
scheduled for the coming year. It revealed, among
other things, that the economic value of the Oktoberfest
stands at 954 million euros, that the Wiesn is
a “Bavarian festival” according to its visitor structure,
and that the Oktoberfest is enjoyed as a “community
experience.” The study also confirmed that the
Oktoberfest sells itself, from a public relations standpoint,
and that is something we, as the organisers
of the world’s largest popular festival, feel very comfortable
PROPR winter 2007.
PROPR winter 2007.
Oktoberfest 2007 - Facts and figures
The festival grounds Theresienwiese: 103 acres
Oktoberfest surface: 76 acres
Applicantsin all: 1374
Carneys: around 229
Caterers: 77 (34 with seating)
Large tents: 14
Employees around 12,000
Visitors 6.2 million
Beer consumption 6.7 million 1-liter mugs
FIJET - Federation internationale des
journalistes et écrivains du tourisme
World Federation of Journalists and Travel Writers
Founded in Paris in 1954 by the press associations of France and Belgium, FIJET is the
oldest association of professional travel writers and journalists in the world. With a
membership that currently exceeds 900 members in over 40 countries, it is the world’s
largest professional organisation of travel journalists operating internationally.
Since November 2000, FIJET has maintained its
world headquarters in Prague, Czech Republic,
where it is also registered officially as an international
In the difficult times after World War II, Europe
was divided into two blocks, east and west, not only
geographically, but also in aspects of richer and poorer.
Travel and leisure time were rare. Professional
travel writers and journalists in France and Belgium
tried to turn on the engines of media machinery
by promoting travel and friendship with no limits,
in order to tear down the material and ideological
borders between east and west. In a way, they set
the wheels in motion for the development of tourism
as a branch that can rapidly expand and return
economy to life.
Over 25 affiliated National Associations represents
FIJET in their respective countries and provide a
professional base for the exchange of ideas and information.
Individual members also contribute to the strength
All members are professionals engaged in journalism
related to tourism, such as writers, editors, publishers,
photographers and authors. They are committed
to objectivity in their work and to the promotion
of world tourism.
According to the FIJET Statute, 80% of its members
must be travel writers and journalists.
FIJET is a non-profit and non-political organisation
and it has three official languages; English, Spanish
The main objectives include: contributing to world
peace and security by strengthening co-operation
between nations through culture, education and tourism;
promoting the free exchange of ideas through
international tourism; and exchanging ideas, training,
education and resources among international
media and tourism professionals.
At its annual World Congress, which is held in a different
country each year, FIJET promotes a particular
aspect of world tourism. Executive Committee
and Board of Directors meetings are also conducted
at regular intervals at destinations around
The Executive Committee, general secretary and director
and treasurer are elected every four years.
by Tina Eterović Čubrilo
Member of Executive Board of F.I.J.E.T.
FIJET communicates with its members as well
as with tourist and business destinations, carriers,
attractions, hoteliers, resorts, national and local
tourism offices and international organisations via
two main methods:
The FIJET Website (www.fijet-web.com) and
The FIJET Monthly Newsletter.
The main task of FIJET is to promote the development
of tourism in countries struck by natural disasters
or wars. Croatia went through war in the
early nineties, when the presence of the media was
more than necessary; so, FIJET organised its Congress
in Croatia twice, once in 1995 and again in
2003, when the Croatian President Stjepan Mesic
was host. Croatia has hosted the FIJET Executive
Committee several times as well.
FIJET is an affiliated member of the World Tourism
Organisation and cooperates with many other
international associations. FIJET is proud of the high
position and respect it has achieved over the past
50 years in contributing to mutual understanding
between people around the world.
La Pomme d’Or or The Golden Apple
“La pomme d’or” or The Golden Apple Award is
FIJET’s equivalent of the Oscar. This award for
excellence is presented each year to an organisation,
country, city, or person in recognition of superior
efforts in promoting and raising the level of tourism.
The Golden Apple has gained significant recognition
over the years and always has a list of potential
prestigious candidates. Since it was established
in 1970, The Golden Apple has been awarded to 36
recipients. In Croatia, it was Dubrovnik in 1996 and
Split in 2005; both recognised for well preserved historical
and cultural inheritance.
CROAJET - Croatian National Association of FIJET
CROAJET represents FIJET in Croatia and was
established as a legal entity in the country. Whilst
operating independently, its members share resources
and experiences and invite other FIJET members
to join their activities.
PROPR summer /autumn 2007.
History of FIJET in Croatia
Croatian travel writers and journalists noticed the
importance of FIJET and its efforts to bring people
and nations together to promote world peace.
In the former Yugoslavia there were, from 1963-
1989, gatherings of travel writers and journalists
called „Majski skupovi“ in the small tourist destination
of Makarska on the Adriatic coast. The participants
at these gatherings were members of FIJET
from all over the world as well as leading people engaged
in the tourism industry and politics.
Our colleagues Milan Gavrovic, Ante Gavranovic,
Drago Ferencic and Frane Erceg were extremely active
FIJET members at that time.
During the „Majski skupovi“ of 1977, Jean Paul Delfeld,
as the president of FIJET, held a speech about
its contribution to mutual understanding among the
peoples of the world.
FIJET grew from a small group to the world’s largest
organisation of writers and journalists involved
in travel and tourism.
CROAJET continues to work on all the
activities that our older colleagues began with. The
FIJET initiators in Croatia, Ante Gavranovic and
Drago Ferencic, are still active in various ways. Frane
Erceg, an ex editor-in-chief in TV, had saved all
the printed documents from „Majski skupovi“ in
Makarska, which he published in a new booklet
form and gave to CROAJET as a remembrance for
the next generations of members. We thank all of
them for their help and support.
At the next FIJET Congress the new members of
the Executive Committee will be elected. This will
take place in Slovenia in 2008, the state that will
preside over the EU in the same year.
PROPR summer /autumn 2007.
by Altijana Marić
Head of Press Office
Bosnia & Herzegovina
During the Sarajevo Film Festival, the BiH capital
becomes a true regional centre and a powerful platform
for film business development in BiH and in
Although initially, in the early days of its beginning
in 1995, the SFF did not seem to be a prime candidate
for taking the role of regional leader in a region
rich with festivals of much longer tradition,
thanks to careful profiling and long-term planning,
the SFF is today a clear presence on the international
festival map. One of the first questions was
how to attract the attention of the audiences and
The organisation of a festival of this scope in a city
and a country in transition requires problems to be
approached as creative challenges.
The Sarajevo Film Festival
The Sarajevo Film Festival is considered to be the largest and the most influential
festival in the region, with 100,000 visitors, a strong industry section, an
educational platform for young filmmakers - the Sarajevo Talent Campus, 13
programmes, and a major presence from the film industry, writers and the media.
The absence of state strategy for financing culture
led the SFF to develop a unique platform for developing
partnerships with international, regional and
local companies of the highest standing which recognised
the importance of the Sarajevo Film Festival,
but also the opportunity to build their own image
and promote their products. Today, the SFF has
the status of a progressive, highly independent festival
whose financing comes from commercial partners
in the amount of app. 60%.
Although it has been nine years since the end of the
war, the city’s infrastructure cannot keep up with
the development of the Festival. For that reason,
every year the SFF revives and invests in existing,
yet unused other-purpose facilities to convert them
into its key locations, such as the abandoned school
playground which becomes the Heineken Open
Air Cinema seating 3,000, and the National Theatre,
which the Festival transforms into the liveliest
festival location, hosting the Competition Programme
Red Carpet. The SFF thus acquires its unique
identity and creates a special atmosphere that intertwines
the history of Sarajevo and a progressive, young
In the immediate future, our efforts will focus on
developing an adequate Festival Centre, which is
currently also a major challenge, particularly in light
of the analyses that indicate a steady growth of
accredited media outlets and film industry representatives
The inevitable question in profiling a young festival
is this: Do we need another A list festival? Cannes,
Berlin, Venice and Toronto draw major inter-
0 PROPR winter 2007.
national film titles, major funds and major commercial
hopes. To organise a festival with the same selection
criteria as those of the Cannes or Berlin festivals
would mean that programmers must be satisfied
with no more than a second or a third round
By placing the region in its focus and within the
context of an international festival, the Sarajevo
Film Festival has created a unique meeting point for
regional and international film industries and initiated
the creation of a platform for the promotion of
often neglected, talented writers and projects from
this part of the world.
The SFF offers the region a platform which focuses
its attention on talents and projects from South-eastern
Europe, facilitates access to a wide internatio-
nal network of contacts and serves as a catalyst for
cooperation within the region and for contacts with
partners from around the world. Moreover, the Festival
offers new standards in festival organisation
and film presentation.
On the other hand, the SFF provides international
film industry representatives with access to
new projects and new ideas, the possibility of discovering
new talents and a unique festival experience.
Today, the Sarajevo Film Festival is a place
where the presentation of the best and most recent
achievements of the film industry brings together
international and regional film in the spirit of mutual
cooperation and cultural exchange.
Placing regional film in the focus of the Festival
proved to be the right choice. The 13 Festivals ha-
Bosnia & Herzegovina
ve helped develop our Competition Programme,
which currently presents 16 countries and their
film industries, through selections of features, documentaries
and short films. Along with the focus
selection, which presents the best films from the
region in a non-competition selection, the Festival
also offers a full insight into filmmaking in this
part of Europe.
The presence of representatives from leading film
festivals, film institutions and funds at the Sarajevo
Film Festival offers filmmakers a single location
where they can meet colleagues and film professionals,
as well as an opportunity to have their work selected
for other festivals.
The high profile of our international jury, made up
of leading filmmakers and representatives of key
film festivals and the industry, adds to the prestige
of the Heart of Sarajevo Award, which opens avenues
for its winners to present not only the awarded
work, but also their work yet to come.
Parallel to the Competition Programme, the SFF continues
to develop its industry section, CineLink, which
has used its five years to become one of the leading
film markets in the industry, selecting, promoting
and awarding the best projects in the region.
After the successful completion of its programme
and industry segments, the Festival took a step further
in creating an educational platform. The Sarajevo
Talent Campus was launched last year, in collaboration
with the Berlin International Film Festival
and the Berlinale Talent Campus. It is an intensive
programme of lectures, workshops, discussions
and screenings, designed for young and talented directors,
actors and producers from the region, with
a plan to develop in the next few years, to include
other film-related disciplines (editing, scriptwriting,
light, sound etc.).
An important segment of the development of the
Sarajevo Film Festival is the investment in its audience,
which has full access to all the festival programmes.
Also, through its Children’s Programme and
Teen Arena, with selected titles and sidebar programmes,
the Festival invests considerable efforts in
bringing up a new generation of film lovers.
The Sarajevo Film Festival has also been recognised
as an important development project in BiH. Every
year, the Festival employs a considerable number
of young people, it fills hotels and restaurants across
the city, it uses all that our tourism has to offer,
by organising visits and trips for our guests - becoming
for that purpose consumers as well as guests
- showing them the richness of our country and encouraging
them to come back again. Every year, the
Festival uses this opportunity to improve the city’s
infrastructure by investing in its venues. At the same
time, the presence of an impressive number of
media outlets from the region as well as from across
the world, aids the development of a positive picture
of Sarajevo and BiH, needed as it is.
The development and status of the Festival is also
aided by a considerable number of guests and friends
of the Festival. Over the past few years, our guests
have included: Agnes B., Alfonso Cuaron, Anthony
Minghella, Bono Vox, Brad Silbering, Carol
Bouquet, Darren Aronofsky, Dušan Makavejev, Car-
los Reygadas, Gaspar Noé, Gerard Depardieu, Hugh
Hudson, Jafari Panahi, Jane Birkin, John Malkovich,
Joshua Marston, Leos Carax, Katrin Cartlidge,
Mike Leigh, Milčo Mančevski, Michael Winterbottom,
Phil Alden Robinson, Stephen Frears, Steve
Buscemi, Willem Dafoe, Alexander Payne, Terry George,
Daniel Craig, Sophie Okonedo, Claude Lelouch,
Emily Watson, Danis Tanović, Nick Nolte, Abel
Ferrara, Bela Tarr, Mat Whitecros, Simon McBurney,
Juergen Teller, Jeremy Irons, Juliette Binoche,
Michael Moore, Fatih Akin, Ulrich Seidl, Alexandra
Maria Lara, Sam Rilley, Anton Corbijn...
Many of them return to the SFF with their new
projects and thus expand the contacts which allow
the SFF to fulfil its aims, not only as a presenter of
the best that the international film industry has to
offer, through its eight programmes, but also as the
festival which offers open access to film writers
through its Q&A and numerous other sidebar programmes.
We are also in permanent contact with our audience
through our home page (www.sff.ba), which also
allows you to follow us on the way to another - and
we hope, even better - Festival.
2 PROPR winter 2007.
PROPR winter 2007.
y Dragana Jovanović
.Regional Editor, University of Megatrend
Due to recent historical and political events Serbia
is currently ranked among countries with negative
images. Is there any way to change this image, theoretically
Although I don’t have the evidence to prove it (Serbia
has not yet been included in the Anholt Nation
Brands Index, my global quarterly survey of national
images), there seems little doubt that Serbia has
a negative image. It’s also pretty certain that this image
has a powerful impact on the way the world behaves
towards Serbia, its people, its government, its
Interview with Simon Anholt
sporting and cultural offerings, its tourism and heritage
attractions, its products and services, its investment,
business and educational potential. People
trust what they hear from places with good brand
images, and mistrust what they hear from others;
and in the absence of reliable information, they make
favourable assumptions about the places with good
brands and unfavourable ones about the rest.
When I first proposed the idea of nations as brands
around 10 years ago, it created a lot of controversy,
but today, most rich countries now have branding
or public diplomacy initiatives, and an increasing
number of developing and even least developed countries
are working on their own strategies. There
has been a lot of talk about Serbia doing this too.
Unfortunately, many countries are also falling into
the naïve error of believing that they can enhance
their images in the same way that companies do,
through corporate identity, public relations and advertising
programmes. When I coined the phrase
‘nation brand’, I really meant something quite simple:
the images of countries are as important to their
progress as the images of companies and products
are to their market success. I didn’t mean that na-
tion brands could be artificially created or enhanced
through marketing in the same way that commercial
brands can. I didn’t mean that countries can
be ‘sold’ to investors, tourists or public opinion as if
they were running shoes or soap powder. I certainly
didn’t mean that a country like Serbia can build itself
a Nike-sized brand if only it can raise a Nike-sized
While commercial promotion techniques can be effective
for promoting tourism, they are virtually
useless for countries and cities and regions. Consumers
always reject this kind of naked propaganda,
and the images of countries are almost exclusively
driven by the things they do rather than the things
they say. Only the right combination of leadership,
policy, strategy, investment and innovation can
bring about a change in national image, and this is
neither quickly nor cheaply done.
For all the talk of ‘branding Serbia’ and the well-meaning
talk about logos, slogans and promotional
campaigns, these initiatives will do very little
to change the world’s mind about Serbia, restore
its credibility, or help it to escape from the gravitational
field of the ‘Balkan brand’. After all, people
Subject “Serbian Challenges in Building a
Statement of PC Belgrade “Nikola Tesla” Airport’s
Director General, Mr. Nebojša Nedeljković
The PC Belgrade “Nikola Tesla” Airport Management
is aware that Belgrade Airport is the place
where passengers from abroad get their first impression
The management of this public company recognised
in that very fact another chance to present Serbia
to its passengers in its real appearance, as our
country really is. Professionalism, competence, efficacy,
discretion and kindness - these are all values
that Belgrade Airport adheres to in treating its
Guided by such intentions, in the last few years the
biggest Serbian Airport has increased the level of
services, joining large global airports with its competitiveness.
Belgrade “Nikola Tesla” Airport has invested in the
newest technological systems. New communication
and surveillance systems have been fitted, which
have had direct effects on easier and faster passenger
and luggage flow. In order to meet our clients’
needs, we have enhanced the facilities at the
airport. Belgrade Airport has signed numerous
contracts on regional cooperation with neighbouring
airports. Constant investment, employee specialisation
and training abroad additionally contribute
to develop the airport in the direction that we
want. Our aim is to provide our passengers with
comfort, safety and reliability, so that they can pass
through all control-points and make check-in in
a pleasant and relaxed atmosphere.
Belgrade “Nikola Tesla” Airport wishes to present
its visitors with the real image of Serbia. In our country
people work hard and communicate without
prejudice. That is why I recommend all to come to
Serbia, to Belgrade - it is best to see for yourself, to
come and see.
We see Belgrade “Nikola Tesla” Airport as a leading
airport of South-East Europe. We are consistent
in our intention to represent Serbian intellect
supported by new technologies in our company.
The Airport is an open showcase that should represent
Serbia in its true form. The management,
together with employees, greets all passengers with
Belgrade Airport, modern and contemporarily equipped,
is determined to reclaim the leading position
in South-East Europe. Until the 1990’s, “Nikola
Tesla” Airport was the centre of passenger and
cargo traffic. Belgrade is at the crossroads of Europe
and Asia, and this fact is exactly what we want
to use for our further development. We see the future
of PC Belgrade “Nikola Tesla” Airport in the
further development and expansion of the airport
complex. The long-term vision of Belgrade Airport
is to build a complex consisting of offices, underground
parking, a hotel and a business centre.
Dušan Vulović, Executive director,
McCann Erickson Public Relations
Serbia is currently in a very difficult situation regarding
its identity and position in relation to the
PROPR winter 2007.
elieve what they believe about Serbia because
it’s all they have ever heard from the country: almost
no powerful, positive, media-friendly stories
have come out of Serbia since it emerged into
global consciousness from Yugoslavia, and as
a result of the way that Socialism ‘deleted’ the
brand images of its individual states, there is virtually
no international collective memory of the
existence of Serbia before 1992.
A reputation cannot be constructed: it can only
be earned. Any country that wants to enhance or
improve its international reputation has to ask
itself what it has done, or failed to do, to earn such
a negative or weak reputation in the first place
- and then start acting differently. Serbia urgently
needs to understand that building an international
reputation is far more than presentation,
far more than communication, and infinitely
more than logos and slogans. It is about
Serbia’s very identity, its right to exist, its role
in the community of nations and in the global
marketplace. And once there is clear agreement
on this vision, not just amongst government elites
but also among business and civil society, it
needs to start creating the leadership, the values,
the policies, the investments and above all
the innovations which will prove to the world
that Serbia deserves a better brand image than
the one it has today.
What is the best way to create a country brand
for Serbia? Using famous people or tourist de-
PROPR winter 2007.
stinations, investment opportunities or something
These are not proper alternatives. In Serbia, as
in most countries, there are many bodies, agencies,
ministries, special interest groups, NGOs
and companies all promoting their own version
of the country. But because most of these bodies
are working in isolation, they send out conflicting
and contradictory messages about the country.
As a result, no consistent picture of the country
emerges, and its overall reputation stands
still or moves backwards.
Much more can be achieved if the work of these
stakeholders is coordinated, of consistently
high quality, and harmonised to an overall national
strategy that sets clear goals for the
country’s economy, its society and its political
and cultural relations with other countries.
What Serbia needs today is a clear vision of
where it’s going and how it’s going to get there.
Then it needs to build a climate of innovation
in every sector - in business, politics, education,
government, industry, culture, sport, media
- and start showing the world all the great
new stuff that’s going on in the country, stuff
that proves the kind of country that Serbia is
today, and where it’s heading.
This is down to leadership, and the only important
branding question is this: does the leadership
of the country have the courage, the imagination
and the skills to lead this process?
Globally Recognisable Identity”
rest of the world. In other words, we are now de
facto a new state, in transition, under huge political
and economic pressure. Furthermore, we have
some twenty years of very bad publicity behind
us and, taking into account all those facts, it is highly
difficult to define a unique affirmative position
of Serbia in relation to the rest of the world. Serbia
is plum and plum brandy, kajmak spread, medieval
monasteries, Orthodoxy, sajkaca hat and opanak
footwear, Serbia is Belgrade, Kalemegdan, river
cafes and clubs and partying, Serbia is young, beautiful,
educated and capable people, Serbia is Mt.
Zlatibor and Mt. Tara, Serbia is Exit and Guca...
All that, and something more, is Serbia. All that is
beautiful, good, positive and unique in a way can
redefine us as a state in regard to the current
perception. Anyone who has had the opportunity
to spend some time in Serbia has a unique
impression regardless of the topic, place, time
and profile of people they have met here. Many
are simply “enchanted” by what they have seen or
experienced. Therefore, Serbia as a state relies on
word-of-mouth recommendations and the impressions
of individuals more than it can realistically
define its position and identity itself. Designing an
affirmative identity is a long-term process and does
not happen overnight. The Serbian Government
has recently established the Council for Promotion
of Serbia, whose main task is to define, design and
direct strategically something that is to be called
a “national brand”. The Council is headed by Milka
Forcan, Vice-President of Delta Holding and a
PR expert, which is definitely a good choice. It would
be perfect if the state Council could filter what
is the essential, refined, smooth and overwhelming
truth about us out of all the elements that define
Maja Stojanovic, Account Manager,
„Olaf & McAteer“
What does Serbia have to offer?
Serbia - country of smiles, hospitality, good heartedness
Simon Anholt is the world’s
leading authority on managing
and measuring national identity
and reputation. He is a member
of the British Government’s
Public Diplomacy Board, and
has advised the governments
of the Netherlands, Jamaica,
Tanzania, Iceland, Latvia,
Sweden, Botswana, Germany, South Korea, Romania,
Scotland, Croatia, Mongolia, the Baltic Sea Region,
Bhutan, Ecuador, New Zealand, Switzerland and
Slovenia, as well as organisations including the United
Nations, the World Economic Forum and the World
Bank. He is a Parliamentarian of the European Cultural
Parliament and Founding Editor of the quarterly journal,
Place Branding and Public Diplomacy. His books include
Another One Bites The Grass; Brand New Justice (which
deals with the role of brands in economic development),
and Brand America, (which charts the rise and fall
of America’s reputation). He is also a co-author of
Beyond Branding, Heritage and Identity, Destination
Marketing and The Economist’s Brands and Branding.
His latest book is Competitive Identity - The New Brand
Management for Nations, Cities and Regions, published
by Macmillan in November 2006. He is the founder and
publisher of three major global surveys, the Anholt
Nation Brands Index, City Brands Index and State Brands
Serbia - country of Novak Djokovic, Ana Ivanovic,
Jelena Jankovic, Vlade Divac... country of volleyball,
water polo, handball, shooting, chess...
Serbia - country of well-preserved nature, 5 national
parks, fresh air, pines and lawns, clear streams
Serbia - country of rich history, home of Nikola Tesla,
Vuk Karadzic, Ivo Andric, Biljana Srbljanovic,
country of unforgettable monasteries...
Serbia - country of gourmet food, wine and brandy...
Serbia - country of investment, young professionals,
development and European integration...
Serbia has been seen as a country with a bad image
throughout history. In order to keep up with the
development of other countries, it began to change
this by opening to the world. This was the starting
point in the process of its development and the only
chance to offer its potential.
High standards in projects related to tourism, culture,
trade and services have to be met for a better
Fresh human resources are required to accomplish
this task. By changing the conventional way of
thinking, Serbia will be on the right track.
Frankfurt - A Cosmopolitan
City in the Heart of Europe
by Ramona Gasteiger
Head of Marketing
A look at the city´s silhouette reveals what most people
already know: Frankfurt am Main exudes cosmopolitan
flair and style. The impressive skyline,
characterised by the unmistakeable Messeturm
and numerous banking skyscrapers, has become
“Mainhattan´s” unofficial city symbol. Today,
Frankfurt is home to the German Stock Exchange,
the European Central Bank, the Deutsche Bundesbank
and over 300 financial institutions from
around the world, making the 1200-year-old trade
and commerce city one of Europe´s foremost finance
Frankfurt has also become Europe´s largest and
most popular trade show location. Over three million
people travel to Frankfurt every year to visit one
of the over 50 international trade shows and exhibitions
held here. Frankfurt´s international standing
as a centre of business and finance has also increa-
Not far from the Römer one finds St. Paul´s Church, which in 1848 served as the
official meeting place for the first German national assembly. From this time
on, St. Paul´s Church has been known as nothing less than the “birthplace of
sed greatly over the past few decades. Over 44,000
companies now have representations and branch
offices in Frankfurt, while twenty of Germany´s
Top-100 businesses are headquartered in the Main
metropolis. Moreover, Frankfurt has also become
one of the world´s most important interfaces for the
Internet and telecommunications industries.
But not everything here revolves around money.
Frankfurt, the “home of apple wine”, has in fact managed
to retain much of its charm, serenity and oldtown
flair, especially the time-honoured going-out
district of Sachsenhausen. And as a city of contrasts,
Frankfurt continues to prove to one and all that there
is ample space and opportunity for art and culture
in the trade show and finance city of Frankfurt
Accommodating more than three million overnight
visitors from over 180 countries every year,
Frankfurt offers everything expected of a cosmopolitan
city. Historical buildings, a renowned museum
landscape, superb exhibition venues and countless
sightseeing attractions, combined with numerous
cultural highlights, international sporting
events, superb nightlife locations and excellent
shopping opportunities ensure that Frankfurt visitors
will not suffer even a minute of boredom - regardless
of whether they are in town for business
A City with a Fabled Past
First official mention of Frankfurt am Main has
been traced all the way back to the eighth century.
It was the great emperor Charlemagne who made
mention of Frankfurt in an official document in
the year 794, relating to an important council to be
held in the city. Frankfurt was at this time already a
PROPR winter 2007.
major European city, hosting meetings during which
imperial dignitaries discussed diverse theological,
social and political issues of great import. Several
centuries later, Frederick II granted Frankfurt
the official right to hold trade shows, coinciding with
the establishment of the first bourse.
Frankfurt am Main, with its international character
and cosmopolitan attitude, continues to attract people
from around the globe to its trade shows and exhibitions.
Frankfurt´s optimum geographical location,
the international airport and the excellent railway
and roads networks have all done their part in
supporting Frankfurt´s rise as a business and finance
Highlights of Frankfurt
Frankfurt´s premier landmark is the three-gabled
facade of the time-honoured “Römer”. This beau-
PROPR winter 2007.
tiful patrician´s house has been serving as the town
hall of the City of Frankfurt am Main since 1405 and
is to this day the official seat of the city´s lord mayor.
Trade shows were held in both the town hall´s spacious
“Römerhallen” and on the “Römerberg”, the
large marketplace in front of the Römer, as early
as the Middle Ages. Today, the Römerberg represents
the heart and soul of Frankfurt´s historical old
town, and is perhaps the city´s most popular sightseeing
destination. The Römerhallen are still used
to stage special events of every variety.
Not far from the Römer one finds St. Paul´s Church,
which in 1848 served as the official meeting
place for the first German national assembly.
From this time on, St. Paul´s Church has been
known as nothing less than the “birthplace of
PROPR winter 2007.
Internal communication in practice
Varteks - good communication between management and
employees brings improvements in business
by Nikolina Dežmarić Krofak
Head of Corporate Communications
Many European manufacturers and retailers had to
undergo the process of restructuring their business
in order to maintain their positions.
Varteks started creating a new business strategy in
2004. It was the first company in the Varazdin county
to found a Corporate Communications Department.
It followed this with a detailed communication
plan. Restructuring, confidence in management,
motivation enhancement, access to information
and strenghtening communication between
management and employees were the challenges of
this newly founded department. The Corporate Communication
Department took control of the mishandling
of information. It supplied all employees
with real and true information in order to prevent
pressure being put on the management over decisions
that had to be made.
Nikolina Dezmaric Krofak was the founder of the
Corporate Communications Department at Varteks.
With another two members she started the Internal
Communication project, based on several communication
tools. 3600 copies of the “Info” magazine’s
editions have been published. It is entirely made within
the Corporate Communication Department;
texts, graphic design, layout.
It is free of charge and is well accepted by all employees
as a source of true and current information.
Its content covers topics about business results, new
technologies, fashion trends, collections, reports
from the General Assembly, press conferences, production
and other topics of vital importance to the
company and its employees.
After publishing the internal magazine „Info“ , the
Corporate Communications Department created
the internal web site „IN“ as the fastest and most effective
access to internal information. Apart from a
display of documents and news, there is other interesting
The project „Management open days“, also initiated
by the Corporate Communications Department,
PROPR winter 2007.
Varteks is the leading and largest fashion company. In spite of its tradition and high
quality products, negative trends in production and clothes sales in European markets
have prevailed. These were caused by low quality clothes imported from the Far East.
brings employees closer to the management. That
means that each employee is entitled to ask the Board
of Directors questions, as well as talk to them
about eventual individual problems.
The „Management open days“project proved to be
very effective for it tore down the barrier between
the „untouchable“ Board of Directors and employees.
There are also „Info boxes“available for comments,
suggestions, criticisms and approvals written by
employees. It is worth noting that there have been
more approvals than criticisms collected. Our conclusion
is that the tools of internal communication
have turned out to be very successful sources of information.
The „Info“ magazine also launched a project titled
„The Best Varteks People“, which achieved good results.
Five Varteks employees were nominated by
their colleagues for „The Best Varteks People“. Their
extraordinary work results brought them this flattering
title. Since this kind of recognition was completely
new and unknown, the Corporate Communications
Department said that the participation of
employees in this project was more than satisfactory.
Winners were awarded by the Varteks CEO. It
was an injection of motivation to all participants.
For three years running, the Corporate Communications
Department has been using these tools of
internal communication, and they have been well
accepted by the readers. Before this magazine began
to be published, employees had been ill-motivated
and distrustful. Nowadays, when they are
entitled to speak out about their views and opinions,
their active participation in the creation of the
magazine has been highly noticed. Positive
changes in attitude
and mutual trust
have also been noticed
the long run, we
plan to carry out
in order to upgrade
m u n i c a t i -
y Jorg Kramer
PressWatch GmbH, CEO
Germany: One third of the day belongs to
– in future as well? If yes, to which ones?
According to the survey, German people spend two
and a half hours a day in front of the television, almost
two hours listening to the radio, 45 minutes
for private use of the PC and half an hour is reserved
respectively for newspapers, daily papers and
surfing the Internet for private purposes. Two or
even three different forms of media are often used
at the same time – the radio is often on while someone
is reading and television is often watched while
surfing the Internet. In addition around 57% of the
households questioned have a subscription for at least
one daily paper, 60% regularly buy a weekly magazine,
55% have a television and 67% have one or
With German households so well equipped with all
the basic instruments and such intensive use of the
media it could be assumed that all forms of media
now coexist amicably and that the future of print,
online, TV and radio is guaranteed. This was the
case until today.
Status quo - Use of media in Germany
With regard to the sales of newspapers, Germany,
with sales of 22 million editions a day, ranks 5th in
the world - following China (97 m), India (79 m),
Japan (70 m) and the USA (53 m) – in Europe it takes
first place. Around 47.5 million men and women
in Germany read a daily paper regularly. That
is about three quarters of the total German population
over the age of14.
Whereby “Bild“, which sells about four million papers,
has the biggest circulation of all German newpapers
sold on the street. Although their circulation
is lower, the big national dailies such as the “Frankfurter
Allgemeine Zeitung“, “Die Welt“ the „Süd-
On average a German person spends a total of 8 hours and 36 minutes with media on
a normal weekday. This was the conclusion reached by the representative population
focus survey Communication Networks (CN) 11.0 after conducting almost 25,000
deutsche Zeitung“, the „Frankfurter Rundschau“
and the „Handelsblatt“ have great influence on the
formation of opinion. The news magazines „Der
Spiegel“ , „Focus“ and the weekly “Die Zeit” are other
examples of important opinion makers. The
spectrum of printed media is rounded off by the
Sunday papers such as „Bild am Sonntag“, „Welt am
Sonntag” and the „Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung“.
The German magazine sector is also very diversified:
almost 10,000 titles are on offer including all
specialist periodicals. With 3,450 different titles,
the sector of specialist periodicals is the strongest,
general magazines follow with a selection of 1,800
different titles. In addition to the news magazines,
the category of TV magazines, current affairs glossies
such as “Stern” and “Bunte” and womens’ magazines
are of particular importance with their high
circulations. Special interest titles, confessional
papers and more than 2,300 customer magazines
and advertising journals as well as publications
from organisations and associations round off
the offer. The magazine with the highest circulation
figures in Germany, the country of cars, is the
“ADAC Motorwelt” with its circulation of approximately
13 million. This enormous choice means that
everybody can find “his/her” own magazine. Or so
one would think.
Use of media on the brink of upheaval
However, the German media landscape is extremely
volatile. The use of the media is undergoing radical
change and is becoming ever more dependent
on age. The advance of digitalisation, for example,
influences the readers of daily newspapers. It is
now possible for a reader to access the latest artic-
les from the Internet whenever he/she likes and to
access selectively those that suite his/her interests
best. In addition he/she has the opportunity of participating
actively, the reason why 3.8 million users
participate in weblogs.
The younger the media user, the stronger the demand
for personalised, inter-active information
seems to be, information that can be accessed easily
from home. According to a survey carried out by
Mercer Management Consulting and the HypoVereinsbank,
German society can be divided into four
generations: an online generation (younger that 19
years of age), a PC generation (20-29 years of age),
a TV generation (30-49 years of age) and a print generation
(over 50 years of age). Around 91% of the
print generation read newspapers while this figure
is only 20% for “onliners”. This indicates quite clearly
where the buyers of print titles come from and,
more to the point, it also indicates that the markets
of the future are obviously to be found elsewhere.
At all events the challenge this poses to newspapers
is a very real one. German youngsters between
12 and 19 years of age were asked which media they
would least like to forgo. The answer: they would
most especially not like to do without the computer,
the Internet or the television. All the same five percent
said they would not like to do without the radio
or books. Only three percent or rather two percent
of those questioned said the same for newspapers
Alfred Neven DuMont, a German publisher and
chairman of the supervisory board of the M. Du-
Mont Schauberg Group, which publishes the Frankfurter
Rundschau, summarises this trend as fo-
0 PROPR winter 2007.
llows: “The printed word has an enemy – and that
is the young person.”
The obvious solution for the publishing houses is
to offer editorial contents online as well. The board
of the Springer Group, for example, has recognised
that “the future of the newspaper is digital” and has
set up a central “Newsroom” in Berlin, where the
Welt, Welt am Sonntag and the Berlin Morgenpost
are produced together with their respective online
editions. “Online first”, is the motto at Springer: articles
are no longer reserved for the next day’s print
version, but are published as soon as they are ready.
There are around 400 journalists working in shifts
from 6:00 a.m. to 11:30 p.m. to achieve this. Their
texts and other services are made available to readers
and users via four distribution channels: online,
print, mobile and IPTV.
Already the number of readers of print versions
is smaller than that of online service users for some
newspapers. 1.2 million people read the British
newspaper the Guardian, but 12.7 million people read
its online edition – more than ten times as many.
7.5 million of these live in the United States making
the online Guardian the most read British newspaper
So are those Internet friends right when they warn:
“Stick with ink and sink” ? However, even today it is
possible to operate a newspaper successfully. Newspaper
publishers just have to make use of the new
medium Internet as well, because it is quicker, more
flexible and lends itself to experimenting. Major
TV broadcasters in Germany are also jumping onto
the Internet bandwagon. One example is the publicly
owned German broadcasting company ZDF. It is
now possible to watch ZDF programmes that have
been missed on Internet in a so-called media centre.
Specially produced news can be viewed and backstage
impressions or additional material to TV programmes
are also available. Here too, the concept
“online first” is growing in importance – a ZDF crime
series, for example, is offered in full length in the
media centre a day before it is broadcast on television.
Many articles and programmes can be filtered
and accessed according to topic and date. All added
value that the major broadcasting companies make
available to their viewers via the Internet.
Changes in the media landscape and the use of media
have consequences for associated commercial
branches such as the PR branch and media monitoring.
These must respond to trends and incorporate
them into their services if they are to operate efficiently
and in line with their target groups.
PR and media monitoring must keep pace with
On average 20 percent of the PR budget in German
companies is spent inefficiently. This was revea-
PROPR winter 2007.
led in a survey, which was carried out for the “PR-
Trend Monitor”, and in which more than 1,000 executives
and leading specialists were asked to answer
questions about themselves and their companies.
The reasons are many-sided: on the one hand PR
budgets suffer from historically based activities and
communication ideas of the management.
On the other hand press offices and PR agencies are
tapping around in the dark; they often do not even
know who reads their top media. They do not know
which PR activities lead to high-quality media resonance.
And there are only few people responsible
for PR that can actually tell you what corporate
benefit is achieved from the press relations. Those
who do not keep the latest trends in media use in
mind and do not make consistent use of the such information
channels as online media and blogs can
very quickly pass by their target group. The latest
media surveys provide tips for structuring PR work,
but intelligent media monitoring can also become
an important interface and help to provide proof of
return on investment.
Individual solutions using specific media programs,
consistent evaluation of the results of press relations
using an analysis team specialised in the branch
are methods for ensuring objective data about the
results of you PR work for the company. Applying
these consistently and internationally means that
the markets can learn from each other and can be
compared with each other. The data and facts needed
here can be provided by media monitoring services
that know their job and the customer’s brand,
that keep pace with the media and the speed of publications
and that offer tailor-made services. Media
monitoring and analysis can thus become an important
component in the chain “PR-Media-Media
users-Media monitoring/analysis-Modified PR
approaches” and can lend support for the changes
that are taking in media use.
by Gracia Krainer
Head of PR department
In September 2007, the prestigious international sailing
regatta ACI Match Race Cup took place in Split.
The Organising Authority (OA) was YACHT CLUB
CROATIA - OPATIJA (YCC) and ADRIATIC CROA-
TIA INTERNATIONAL CLUB d. d. OPATIJA (ACI)
This was the 21st staging of the ACI Match Race
Cup organised in locations along the Adriatic coast,
from Umag to Dubrovnik. Throughout the ye-
ars it has promoted Croatian nautical tourism, the
beauty of the Croatian coast and the ACI as a chain
The ACI Match Race Cup is one of the world’s
10 best regattas of its kind. Participation in these
events is exclusive to the world’s top-ranked professional
As in previous years, the ACI Match Race Cup boasted
a competitive field of the world’s best match
racing skippers, trophy winners and old friends of
the regatta. The Italian crew led by Paolo Cian claimed
victory at the 21st ACI Match Race Cup, but it
was a drawn out battle between the young Australian
Torvar Mirsky and the experienced Italian until
There was close competition for third place between
the two French sailors Philippe Presti and Damien
Iehl. In the first race Damien Iehl sailed better than
his countryman. In the next, Presti levelled the score.
Finally, in the third and decisive match, Presti
came away with flying colours....
Dario Kilba of the Croatian crew represented his country
at the ACI Match Race Cup for the third time.
The event in Sustipan was attended by many guests,
organisers, sponsors and spectators who have
done a great job in promoting Croatia and match
race sailing worldwide. The 21st staging of this
ACI Match Race Cup event is a recognition of the
efforts of the organisers and an expression of gratitude
2 PROPR winter 2007.
PROPR winter 2007.
International sailing regatta
ACI Match Race Cup
by Zlatan Jaganjac
Ruzicka’s house is situated in Vukovar, a city that
was completely wrecked during the war in Croatia
in the early nineties. Ruzicka’s house, one of
the most beautiful historic buildings in Vukovar,
was struck by the same fate. The House Ruzicka
Foundation, a non-profit association, had to raise
4,000,000 kuna, the amount necessary for complete
renovation. In order to introduce the public and
potential donors to this project they needed the services
of an agency specialised in public relations.
Apriori Communications, one of the leading public
relations agencies in Croatia, joined this project
and created the complete communication strategy
towards the general public, potential donors, political
circles and the media. I was appointed project
leader, a privilege of great importance to me.
I knew from the very beginning that the path to the
final realisation was going to be long and bumpy.
However, I felt deeply that the significant value of
This is the story of the rebuilding, reconstruction and renovation of the house of
Lavoslav Ruzicka, the first Croatian Nobel Prize laureate. The project was initiated
by a group of businessmen, mostly from civil engineering. They formed the House
Ruzicka Foundation in order to restore an important piece of Croatian history.
this project would contribute to the City of Vukovar,
Croatia, the House Ruzicka Foundation, the donors,
Apriori Communications and my own career. Money
could not buy this project. It needed one’s unselfish
hard work and extraordinary dedication.
In order to maintain both public interest and the interest
of the potential donors to this project, we had
to fight for its continuous presence in the Croatian
The Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts supported
this project right from the start. The House Ruzicka
Foundation had its first session, and the very
first donor contract was signed in their rooms. It had
a good response in the media, and first contacts with
potential donors scored a triumph.We published a
special brochure with details of the project: Foundation
members, project outlines and costs.
There was also an invitation to join us in this project
, and the official website was launched:
www.fundacijaruzickinakuca.hr . They have both
been used as essential sources of details in creating
a communication strategy during the entire renovation
process. The project was introduced on October
16, 2004, and the handing over to the City of Vukovar
ceremony took place on September 13, 2007.
For three years running we visited the place more
than ten times. In order to inform the public of
new donations and the stages of renovation, we kept
announcing directly from the spot. There were about
15 press conferences held and about 20 press releases
sent out. The Croatian President himself gave
us a warm reception in his office. His decision to take
over the sponsorship of this project certainly added
a new dimension to its value.
After the President, the Croatian Ministry of Culture
and the Croatian Ministry of Education, Science
and Sport joined us with their support. Over the
last three years, the agency has communicated wi-
PROPR winter 2007.
th about five hundred economy subjects, and 90 of
them gave their support and became official donors
within this project. About 1,500,000 kuna was raised
through soliciting tenders and invite applications
for donations. The Ruzicka House Foundation,
with the support of many donors, collected the
amount of 4,000,000 kuna and gave Lavoslav’s house
back to the City of Vukovar on the 120th anniversary
of his birth.
Apriori Communications, apart from the basic PR
activities, also created a print ad and radio commercial
that have been published in about 30 different
press and electronic media throughout the country.
Three brochures have been published altogether.
The last one was distributed on the day of the final
ceremony in one of the Croatian national daily papers.
The website has been continuously updated.
For the final ceremony we made large banners with
logos of all the donors, one with a logo of the House
PROPR winter 2007.
Ruzicka Foundation and, also, a Visitors book where
all guests could give their impressions.
The handing over ceremony was held in the house,
in the presence of more than 300 guests and about
30 media representatives. All those present could
attend an exhibition of photographs taken during
the renovation. This was organised in co-operation
between our agency and the Museum of Vukovar.
The ceremony ended in the evening with a performance
by the Zagreb Philharmonic Orchestra in
the Church of St. Filip and Jakov.
This project, from a PR point of view, was both
very challenging and comprehensive at the same time,
but thanks to PR and marketing activities carried
out along the way, it acquired publicity worth
6,000,000 kuna, ensured another 4,000,000 kuna
for the realisation of the project and introduced
the public to a Croatian historic and cultural inheritance.
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