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eA - eTheses Repository - University of Birmingham

eA - eTheses Repository - University of Birmingham

eA - eTheses Repository - University of

ACTIVE SCREEN PLASMA SURFACE ENGINEERING OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL FOR ENCHANCED TRIBOLOGICAL AND CORROSION PROPERTIES by SANTIAGO CORUJEIRA GALLO A thesis submitted to The University of Birmingham for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY School of Metallurgy and Materials College of Engineering and Physical Sciences The University of Birmingham January 2009

  • Page 2 and 3: University of Birmingham Research A
  • Page 4 and 5: Acknowledgements In first place, I
  • Page 6 and 7: 3.3. Structure of the glow discharg
  • Page 8 and 9: 7.2. Active screen plasma carburisi
  • Page 10 and 11: List of figures and illustrations F
  • Page 12 and 13: Figure 4.2-9: Electron diffraction
  • Page 14 and 15: Figure 4.5-15: AFM image of localis
  • Page 16 and 17: List of abbreviations and acronyms
  • Page 18 and 19: CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Austenitic
  • Page 20 and 21: 1. Stainless steel 1.1. Introductio
  • Page 22 and 23: strength, toughness, weldability, f
  • Page 24 and 25: possible temperature in order to ob
  • Page 26 and 27: 1.2.3. Ferritic stainless steels [5
  • Page 28 and 29: properties can be widely tailored b
  • Page 30 and 31: austenitic structure [4, 13]. This
  • Page 32 and 33: Figure 2.1.3-3 shows the strain ind
  • Page 34 and 35: 1.3.3. Intermetallics A number of i
  • Page 36 and 37: continuously, although under especi
  • Page 38 and 39: surrounding the precipitate, where
  • Page 40 and 41: difficult to completely avoid slidi
  • Page 42 and 43: leading to a high rate of fracture
  • Page 44 and 45: 2. Surface engineering 2.1. Introdu
  • Page 46 and 47: measure of its environmental friend
  • Page 48 and 49: thermochemical treatments produce s
  • Page 50 and 51: On the other hand, there has been a
  • Page 52 and 53:

    Summarising, the precipitation of n

  • Page 54 and 55:

    2.4. Common processes to produce ex

  • Page 56 and 57:

    It is custom to compare this plasma

  • Page 58 and 59:

    arcing, hollow cathode and edge eff

  • Page 60 and 61:

    sample but on the mesh, and the wor

  • Page 62 and 63:

    aspects of cold plasma and allows p

  • Page 64 and 65:

    the contribution ion bombardment ma

  • Page 66 and 67:

    esult of the accumulation of electr

  • Page 68 and 69:

    Δ = E − E = hv (2.3-6) E k i whe

  • Page 70 and 71:

    3.4.2. Electric probes In order to

  • Page 72 and 73:

    ody immersed in the plasma must dev

  • Page 74 and 75:

    1. Sample preparation 1.1. AISI 316

  • Page 76 and 77:

    ass tool and 6 μm diamond paste wi

  • Page 78 and 79:

    The chamber was then lowered and th

  • Page 80 and 81:

    3.2. Roughness Roughness measuremen

  • Page 82 and 83:

    The micrographs and electron diffra

  • Page 84 and 85:

    To reveal the corrosion resistance

  • Page 86 and 87:

    absorption by the input optics and

  • Page 88 and 89:

    mounted inside the chamber and conn

  • Page 90 and 91:

    1. Processing CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AI

  • Page 92 and 93:

    Therefore, it is within this region

  • Page 94 and 95:

    chromium carbides of composition Fe

  • Page 96 and 97:

    On the other hand, DC and AS treate

  • Page 98 and 99:

    In the case of the glass slides, th

  • Page 100 and 101:

    material transferred from the coupo

  • Page 102 and 103:

    On the other hand, the same study c

  • Page 104 and 105:

    size were formed in the subsurface

  • Page 106 and 107:

    The gravimetric tests conducted on

  • Page 108 and 109:

    The study of OES emission spectra u

  • Page 110 and 111:

    A similar type of analysis was cond

  • Page 112 and 113:

    The conductivity of the ionised gas

  • Page 114 and 115:

    In this regard, a comparison of the

  • Page 116 and 117:

    Other trapping mechanisms of inters

  • Page 118 and 119:

    where h is the height of the step,

  • Page 120 and 121:

    different causes which could be res

  • Page 122 and 123:

    Figure 5.2-11 shows hardness profil

  • Page 124 and 125:

    According to the theory of adhesive

  • Page 126 and 127:

    elastic modulus to hardness (table

  • Page 128 and 129:

    Therefore, the function of the laye

  • Page 130 and 131:

    5.4.2-2), in agreement with the lit

  • Page 132 and 133:

    precipitation of carbides (see next

  • Page 134 and 135:

    eduction in the connectivity of ran

  • Page 136 and 137:

    In the case of carburising, there i

  • Page 138 and 139:

    pressure could also account for the

  • Page 140 and 141:

    Considering that the same gas mixtu

  • Page 142 and 143:

    treatment conditions and the crysta

  • Page 144 and 145:

    elevance of the mesh as a source of

  • Page 146 and 147:

    TEM studies, was identified as Fe3C

  • Page 148 and 149:

    from the mesh onto the worktable wa

  • Page 150 and 151:

    7. The residual stresses developed

  • Page 152 and 153:

    electrons within the operative volu

  • Page 154 and 155:

    LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Ashby, M. F.:

  • Page 156 and 157:

    30. Handbook Committee, A. S. M.: T

  • Page 158 and 159:

    61. Smith, A. F.: The sliding wear

  • Page 160 and 161:

    95. Sun, Y. and Bell, T.: Plasma su

  • Page 162 and 163:

    125. Thaiwatthana, S., Li, X. Y., D

  • Page 164 and 165:

    154. Edenhofer, B.: Physical and me

  • Page 166 and 167:

    185. Spies, H.-J., Le Thien, H. and

  • Page 168 and 169:

    217. Booth, J. P., Braithwaite, N.

  • Page 170 and 171:

    246. Donadille, C., Valle, R., Derv

  • Page 172 and 173:

    276. Rigney, D. A. and Hirth, J. P.

  • Page 174 and 175:

    307. Kuczynska-Wydorska, M. and Fli

  • Page 176 and 177:

    334. Catherine, Y., Pastol, A., Ath

  • Page 178 and 179:

    363. Spielman, R. B., DeGroot, J. S

  • Page 180 and 181:

    TABLES Table 2.3-1: Typical commerc

  • Page 182 and 183:

    Table 3.2-3: ASPN assessed treatmen

  • Page 184 and 185:

    Table 3.3-5: SEM and EBSD camera se

  • Page 186 and 187:

    Table 3.6-2: Jobin Yvon Triax 180 m

  • Page 188 and 189:

    Table 4.1-4: Mean residual stresses

  • Page 190 and 191:

    Table 4.5-1: Corrosion factor for c

  • Page 192 and 193:

    FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 2.

  • Page 194 and 195:

    Figure 2.1.1-5: Strength - Relative

  • Page 196 and 197:

    A = austenite; M = martensite; δF

  • Page 198 and 199:

    Figure 2.1.3-4: Solubility of carbo

  • Page 200 and 201:

    Figure 2.1.4-2: Effect of alloying

  • Page 202 and 203:

    Interacting asperities Transferred

  • Page 204 and 205:

    Figure 2.2.2-1: Schematic represent

  • Page 206 and 207:

    Figure 2.2.3-2: Threshold Temperatu

  • Page 208 and 209:

    Figure 2.3.1-1: Maxwell electron en

  • Page 210 and 211:

    Figure 2.3.4-1: Diagram of electron

  • Page 212 and 213:

    Figure 2.3.4-5: Ion flux probe [215

  • Page 214 and 215:

    DC AS FP ASsh ASbh Figure 3.2.1-3:

  • Page 216 and 217:

    Figure 3.6-1: Experimental arrangem

  • Page 218 and 219:

    hollow cathode arcing edge Figure 4

  • Page 220 and 221:

    AISI 316 Untreated AISI 316 plasma

  • Page 222 and 223:

    Oxide layer Oxide layer Figure 4.2-

  • Page 224 and 225:

    Extrapolation function cosθ.cotθ

  • Page 226 and 227:

    Figure 4.2-15: Instrumented hardnes

  • Page 228 and 229:

    Figure 4.3-3: GDOES composition-dep

  • Page 230 and 231:

    Figure 4.3-5: Optical micrograph of

  • Page 232 and 233:

    Figure 4.3-9: XRD patterns of coppe

  • Page 234 and 235:

    AISI 304 mesh for AS experiments in

  • Page 236 and 237:

    AISI 316 UT AISI 316 UT AISI 316 PC

  • Page 238 and 239:

    O Figure 4.4-9: EDX mapping of the

  • Page 240 and 241:

    Figure 4.4-15: XRD pattern of the d

  • Page 242 and 243:

    Figure 4.4-20: Coefficients of fric

  • Page 244 and 245:

    Figure 4.5-4: Cross section of a PC

  • Page 246 and 247:

    Untested AISI 316 DCPC400 ASPC125 A

  • Page 248 and 249:

    EDX line scan for carbon Figure 4.5

  • Page 250 and 251:

    Carburising Nitrogen enhanced carbu

  • Page 252 and 253:

    Figure 4.6-6: Correlation between O

  • Page 254 and 255:

    Figure 4.7-4: Average FP measured w

  • Page 256 and 257:

    Figure 5.1-4: Worktable power for d

  • Page 258 and 259:

    Figure 5.2-3: Optical micrograph on

  • Page 260 and 261:

    Figure 5.2-7: Misorientation measur

  • Page 262 and 263:

    Figure 5.3.1-1: SE image of the cro

  • Page 264 and 265:

    1 2 3 4 Figure 5.3.2-3: Genesis of

  • Page 266 and 267:

    1- Nucleation of cracks perpendicul

  • Page 268 and 269:

    Figure 5.4.3-1: Schematics of the c

  • Page 270 and 271:

    Σ number Figure 5.4.4-2: Fraction

  • Page 272 and 273:

    Figure 5.7.1-3: Sputtering and rede

  • Page 274 and 275:

    Figure 5.7.2-1: TEM micrograph of t

  • Page 276 and 277:

    coating was found to protect the fi

  • Page 278 and 279:

    Figure A-3: Transmission spectra of

  • Page 280 and 281:

    Appendix B: Ion Flux Probe (IFP) co

  • Page 282 and 283:

    2 Central disc Ø25 27 19 4 Inner g

  • Page 284 and 285:

    Appendix C: Residual stresses formu

  • Page 286 and 287:

    The forces in the discs are balance

  • Page 288 and 289:

    Table C-1: Fault parameters and ela

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