Cheyenne: A Sesquicentennial History

An illustrated history of Cheyenne, Wyoming, paired with the histories of companies, institutions, and organizations that have made the city great.

An illustrated history of Cheyenne, Wyoming, paired with the histories of companies, institutions, and organizations that have made the city great.


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A <strong>Sesquicentennial</strong> <strong>History</strong><br />

by Rick Ewig<br />

A publication of the City of <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

HPNbooks<br />

A division of Lammert Incorporated<br />

San Antonio, Texas

First Edition<br />

Copyright © 2017 HPNbooks<br />

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without permission in writing<br />

from the publisher. All inquiries should be addressed to HPNbooks, 11535 Galm Road, Suite 101, San Antonio, Texas, 78254. Phone (800) 749-9790, www.hpnbooks.com.<br />

ISBN: 978-1-944891-31-2<br />

Library of Congress Card Catalog Number: 2017941157<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>: A <strong>Sesquicentennial</strong> <strong>History</strong><br />

author: Rick Ewig<br />

editor emeritus: Bill Dubois<br />

contributing writer for “Sharing the Heritage”: Scott Williams<br />

cover artwork: James Ehernberger Collection, American Heritage Center,<br />

University of Wyoming<br />

HPNbooks<br />

president: Ron Lammert<br />

project manager: Bart Barica<br />

administration: Donna M. Mata<br />

Melissa G. Quinn<br />

Lori K. Smith<br />

book sales: Joe Neely<br />

production: Colin Hart<br />

Evelyn Hart<br />

Glenda Tarazon Krouse<br />

Tim Lippard<br />

Tony Quinn<br />

Christopher D. Sturdevant<br />

2 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y





10 CHAPTER 1 <strong>Cheyenne</strong>: Converting the Desolate and Sterile Plains<br />

20 CHAPTER 2 A Complex and Cosmopolitan City<br />

34 CHAPTER 3 All Say It Is An Ideal Fort<br />

44 CHAPTER 4 Good Fun and Good Money<br />

54 CHAPTER 5 Now We Spin About in Fast Trains, Automobiles, and Airplanes<br />

64 CHAPTER 6 One of the Best Shaded and Most Attractive Towns in the West<br />

73 EPILOGUE<br />



162 SPONSORS<br />


C o n t e n t s ✦ 3

Legacy<br />

Sponsors<br />

These companies have made major contribution to the book as part of our Legacy Program.<br />

We could not have made this book possible without their leadership and participation.<br />

Blue Federal Credit Union<br />

114 East 7th Avenue<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, WY 82003<br />

800-368-9328<br />

www.bluefcu.com<br />

Capitol Roofing, Inc.<br />

805 East Fox Farm Road<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, WY 82007<br />

307-638-7724<br />

www.capitolroofinginc.com<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> LEADS<br />

One Depot Square<br />

121 West 15th Street, Suite 304<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, WY 82001<br />

307-638-6000<br />

www.cheyenneleads.org<br />

Downtown <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Downtown Development Authority<br />

1601 Capitol Avenue<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, WY 82001<br />

307-433-9730<br />

www.downtowncheyenne.com<br />

First <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Federal Credit Union<br />

3485 Converse Avenue<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, WY 82001<br />

307-632-8111<br />

www.firstcheyenne.com<br />

4 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Greater <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Chamber of Commerce<br />

121 West 15th Street, Suite 204<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, WY 82001<br />

307-638-3388<br />

www.cheyennechamber.org<br />

Laramie County<br />

Laramie County New Courthouse<br />

309 West 20th Street<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, WY 82001<br />

307-633-4260<br />

www.laramiecounty.com<br />

Reiman Corp.<br />

2400 West College Avenue<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, WY 82003<br />

307-632-8971<br />

www.reimancorp.com<br />

Visit <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

One Depot Square<br />

121 West 15th Street, Suite 202<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, WY 82001<br />

800-426-5009<br />

www.cheyenne.org<br />

Wyoming Lottery Corporation<br />

1620 Central Avenue<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, WY 82001<br />

855-995-6886<br />

www.wyolotto.com<br />

L e g a c y S p o n s o r s ✦ 5


When writing about <strong>Cheyenne</strong> history one must first acknowledge those who have come before. Robert Hanesworth and Dr. J. S. Palen need<br />

to be thanked for preserving the history of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days, such an important part of the city’s past and present. We are fortunate to<br />

have their papers preserved and accessible at the American Heritage Center (AHC) at the University of Wyoming. Also at the AHC are the papers<br />

of James Ehernberger. I have used his collection at the AHC and Jim has been extremely gracious in allowing me to use his private collection. Jim<br />

is still actively researching and collecting the history of railroads, <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, and Wyoming and I want to thank him for all he has done for the<br />

city’s history.<br />

I also want to express my appreciation to Bill Dubois. I think of Bill as the expert in the history of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. I cannot think of anyone who<br />

has contributed more to the study of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s history than Bill. One of Bill’s colleagues was Shirley Flynn, who also should be mentioned when<br />

discussing those who have actively written about <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s history.<br />

During my time researching this book I have been fortunate to work with great people and their wonderful institutions. Mike Kassel at the<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days Old West Museum spent time with me explaining many facets of the history of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days and provided<br />

some wonderful images for the book.<br />

I have known Paula Taylor for several decades and her work at the F. E. Warren Air Force Base Museum is impressive. She spent several<br />

afternoons with me answering my questions and directing me where else to look for information. Also helpful at the base was William<br />

McLaughlin, the historian for the 90th Missile Wing <strong>History</strong> Office. He provided some images which, perhaps, have not been seen by the general<br />

public before.<br />

The University Libraries and the American Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming have been especially helpful. Tamsen Hert of the<br />

Emmet Chisum Special Collections area in the UW Libraries received that 1867 map of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> which is the first image in the book. I am so<br />

thankful that she allowed the image to be used in this book about <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. I also need to thank many at the AHC for their professional<br />

assistance with this project. The reference area, led by the incomparable Ginny Kilander, is a wonder to behold. John Waggener and Hailey<br />

Woodall handled my large photo requests expertly and expeditiously. The other faculty who assisted my research were Leslie Waggener, Molly<br />

Marcusse, and Amanda Stow.<br />

I also want to thank the many staff of the Wyoming State Archives (WSA) who assisted me for months and were always willing to help. Carl<br />

Hallberg, Cindy Brown, Laura Blair, and Kathy Marquis all were so helpful and I also want to express my appreciation for all Mike Strom has<br />

done as the state archivist. Also at the WSA is Suzi Taylor. She went above and beyond the call of duty in helping me as when I told her a number<br />

of times I only need one more photograph.<br />

On a more personal note I want to thank Kristi Wallin, who read all of the chapters and offered suggestions how to improve my prose and better<br />

explain my points. She was a big supporter and advocate even when I would tell her “I am writing a book.” Of course, any errors in the book are<br />

strictly my own and I am grateful to the city administration for allowing me to write this book in honor of the Magic City’s 150th anniversary.<br />

- Rick Ewig<br />

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The Tivoli Building on West 16th<br />

Street, c. the mid-2000s.<br />


A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s ✦ 7

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Depot Plaza, c. the<br />

mid-2000s.<br />


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B Y M A Y O R M A R I A N O R R<br />

Dear reader:<br />

As mayor of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, I am honored to introduce you to a story that has long been in the<br />

making—150 years! In the pages that follow, you will learn of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s many “firsts,” and I am<br />

humbled to be one of those—having taken the oath of office as <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s first female mayor on<br />

January 3, 2017.<br />

My <strong>Cheyenne</strong> roots run deep. Our family ran one of the city’s earliest stores on the corner of<br />

Carey Avenue and 17th Street in the early 1920s, Kassis Dry Goods, and my great uncle John<br />

Murray served as mayor from 1901-1903.<br />

I was pleased when I learned Rick Ewig had been tapped to author this book. I’ve known Rick<br />

for many years, and first met him when while he was serving as associate director of the American<br />

Heritage Center at the University of Wyoming. I believe him to be one of our state’s best resources for all things history. You are in for a treat!<br />

And if you think you know <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, I’m willing to bet there will be some new gem you will treasure.<br />

A special thank you to all the individuals, families, and our business community for making this book possible. If you don’t know it already,<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> is best known for its community and volunteer spirit. Not unlike 150 years ago, we are a “get-er-done” kind of town. If there is an<br />

expressed need, it is met, and often by the numerous service and faith-based organizations in our community. Our military community has been<br />

with us from the beginning, and it is a special relationship.<br />

In the words of a resolution presented by the State of Wyoming Legislature in celebration of the city’s 150th anniversary: “That the members<br />

of the Wyoming Legislature recognize the 150th Anniversary of the City of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and hereby commend the efforts of those involved to<br />

strengthen local pride and ensure that <strong>Cheyenne</strong> continues to be a wonderful place to live where families can grow and prosper.”<br />

Indeed, may we grow and prosper, <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, for another 150 years.<br />

Cheers!<br />

Marian Orr<br />

Mayor, City of <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

P r e f a c e ✦ 9

This is probably the first map drawn<br />

of the future location of what would<br />

become <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. It shows the<br />

confluence of Crow Creek and Dry<br />

Creek in what then was Dakota<br />

Territory. It is not known who drew<br />

the map, although it may have been<br />

Grenville Dodge and probably<br />

sometime in 1867 before June. The<br />

“C.C.L. Co. D.T.” probably stands for<br />

Crow Creek, Laramie County, Dakota<br />

Territory. Plots of land are shown and<br />

most are owned by high-ranking<br />

employees of the Union Pacific<br />

Railroad. Some of them shown on the<br />

map are J. M. Eddy, F. M. Case,<br />

S. A. Seymour, P. T. Browne, Ja. A.<br />

Evans, S. B. Reed, W. Snyder, and J.<br />

E. House. The map is from the<br />

collection of Henry Harding, an<br />

Union Pacific engineer.<br />




1 0 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

CHAPTER 1<br />

C H E Y E N N E : C O N V E R T I N G T H E D E S O L A T E A N D S T E R I L E P L A I N S<br />

As the rails of the Union Pacific Railroad (UPRR) moved westward in the late 1860s, Grenville Dodge, a civil and military engineer and chief<br />

engineer of the UPRR, selected the site of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> in Dakota Territory along Crow Creek and where the railroad would soon begin to advance<br />

over the Rocky Mountains. Dodge and his associates, UPRR directors, surveyors, and civil engineers along with members of the military, arrived<br />

at the site of the future city on July 3. The following morning Dodge left the camp with a group of surveyors, but while they were away those<br />

remaining celebrated July 4 by naming the city <strong>Cheyenne</strong> in honor of the Native American tribe and they also made a toast to the “The Embryo<br />

City of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.” Embryo was an appropriate term since at that time there was nothing to indicate a city, “not a house, not a piece of lumber<br />

with which to construct one, to be found within fifty miles of the locality,” according to Col. Silas Seymour, a consulting engineer for the UPRR.<br />

As mentioned, Dodge missed the toast that day, although he did write to his wife about it that evening. “Their party with mine had a Fourth<br />

of July Celebration while I was out on line. Speeches, made toasts, drank &c. I learn it was quite a time. They named the town at the east base<br />

of the mountains <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.”<br />

The passage of the two Pacific Railroad acts of 1862 and 1864 by Congress and signed by President Abraham Lincoln led to the construction<br />

of the transcontinental railroad. The UPRR was to build from the east and eventually meet the Central Pacific Railroad building from the west.<br />

Both railroads received millions of dollars in government loans along with sections of government land for each mile of track laid. The construction<br />

of the UPRR across the southern part of what soon would become Wyoming Territory can be considered the most important event in<br />

Wyoming’s history, as it created settlements that led to the creation of Wyoming Territory and evetually statehood.<br />

The future city of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and the territory and state of Wyoming were not definite until the UPRR selected the route which would cross the<br />

southern part of what would become Wyoming territory. Routes through Denver, already an established city, and one following the Oregon Trail,<br />

which would have taken the railroad through South Pass, were also considered. The UP selected the route through Wyoming because of the better<br />

coal deposits (coal was an important fuel for the trains) and it was forty miles shorter.<br />

Shortly after the July christening of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, residents of Julesburg, Colorado, the most recent end-of-track town along the UPRR, soon began moving<br />

to the new town soon to be known as the “Magic City.” Dodge wrote to his wife saying “the people are already flocking here and like Julesburg, at<br />

first it will be a second hell. I have got Gen. Augur to throw his protecting Army over it to keep them from owning town and all.” At the same time this<br />

influx of businessmen and construction workers along with the many UPRR surveyors, graders, track layers, and bridge and train crews built <strong>Cheyenne</strong>,<br />

the military established Fort D.A. Russell, named for a general killed during the Civil War, to protect the railroad from attacks by Native Americans while<br />

also providing assistance maintaining law and order in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. The military also created Camp Carlin, a supply depot just outside of the city.<br />

One of the early <strong>Cheyenne</strong> settlers was construction worker J. Jordan, who during those first few months of fevered activity worked for the<br />

government supervising carpenters constructing barracks at the fort. In a letter to his sister in Erie, Pennsylvania, dated November 24, 1867, he<br />

described his arrival in the city: “One tent of canvas stood alone to warn us that we had reached the Magic City, the Chicago-of-the-West, the<br />

wonder of this progressive Age.” He also wondered at the progress provided by the railroads: “What an improvement are those Railroads.<br />

Converting the desolate and sterile plains into beautiful and commercial towns. Into the Garden of Eden.”<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> grew quickly. Dodge had supervised the survey of the area in July and soon wooden buildings replaced the many tents first set up<br />

in the city. The sounds of saws and hammers could be heard everywhere according to Louis L. Simonin from France, who spent a day in <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

C h a p t e r 1 ✦ 1 1

Above: This 1865 Johnson’s Nebraska,<br />

Dakota, and Montana map published<br />

by Johnson and Ward shows the route<br />

of the Union Pacific Railroad going to<br />

Denver instead of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and<br />

southern Wyoming.<br />



Right: Sixteenth Street in <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

in 1867.<br />




on November 1, 1867. He wrote “everywhere wooden houses are<br />

going up; everywhere streets are being laid out….” Simonin also<br />

described <strong>Cheyenne</strong> as “the magic city, the wonder of the desert, as<br />

the pioneers have already called it,” although he did remark that<br />

one person who was leaving the city used the term “windy” to<br />

describe <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

At first lots sold for $250 to $500, but the prices quickly escalated.<br />

M.E. Post, who had come to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> from Julesburg shortly after the<br />

town was founded, purchased two lots for $600. After he built a store<br />

on part of his property he sold the remaining lot for $5,600.<br />

Even with the hot pursuit of town lots and the construction of<br />

buildings, some still wondered about the long-term viability of<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>. However, the recently established <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Leader, the<br />

town’s first newspaper which began publishing in September 1867, had<br />

a more positive view. The newspaper reported that with the junction of<br />

a branch road to Denver and “the rich valleys to the south of us” and<br />

the necessity of “immense and growing trade” with Montana would<br />

greatly benefit <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. The Leader also stated: “Let any one attempt<br />

to secure a lot in the business centre of town: he will find them held at<br />

firm prices and steadily rising. Besides, men do not invest in buildings<br />

unless good cause for confidence exists. You who hesitate must march<br />

with the van or be left behind, with the poor satisfaction of seeing<br />

others win the prizes and make the money.”<br />

Great excitement built among the city residents as the Union Pacific<br />

tracks neared <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. The residents realized the importance the<br />

railroad would have to the future of the city. The first train in <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

arrived on November 13, 1867, the day “auspicious, cloudless and<br />

genial” according to the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Leader. The newspaper captured the<br />

event, stating the arrival of the UP “filled our city with rejoicing and<br />

enthusiasm.” The Leader went on to report: “Our citizens swarmed<br />

along the grade, and watched with most intense delight and<br />

enthusiasm, the magic work of track-laying. The hearty greeting we all<br />

gave this gigantic enterprise, so rapidly approaching, was too deep and<br />

full for expression. There was no shouting and cheering, but one full<br />

tide of joy that sprung from the deep and heartfelt appreciation of the<br />

grandeur of the occasion and the enterprise, and that bright future now<br />

dawning on the remote regions of the far west.”<br />

Besides commenting on the bright future of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> because of the<br />

coming of the UPRR, the Leader also noted some other changes<br />

resulting from the building of the iron tracks. “Farewell, ye roaming<br />

herds of bison and antelope, your green pastures are passing into the<br />

hands of tillage and husbandry.” J. Jordan, in his letter to his sister, also<br />

lamented the changes the railroad brought to the Native Americans:<br />

“Where the poor Indians wigwam stood unmolested three months<br />

since, now stands a city. The hostile war whoop of the Red Man is no<br />

longer heard. The Shrill whistle of the Locomotive has frightened him.<br />

1 2 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Left: Tents were first used in<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> until more stable wooden<br />

buildings were constructed.<br />


And like the deer he has fled. He has left his lands, his country. He takes<br />

nothing with him….” The various tribes, including the Sioux,<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, and Arapaho, who had roamed this area, were being<br />

replaced. Overall, the building of the railroad across Wyoming and the<br />

West had a dramatic effect upon the Native Americans in the region. It<br />

brought settlers who wanted their lands as well as soldiers to protect<br />

them. It divided the bison herds on which the Indians relied and<br />

quickened the slaughter of the herds.<br />

Besides his description of the effect of the UPRR on the lives of the<br />

many Native Americans who had lived in the area, J. Jordan also wrote<br />

about the growth of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. He described the burgeoning city: “Today<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> is nearly as large as Erie, and growing fast. It is a pleasant and<br />

beautiful City on the prairie 200 miles from any settlement. Lots are<br />

selling from $500 to $3000 each…. The Iron Horse reached here one<br />

week ago, and today is puffing the Mountain Air far west of here. And<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> is bound to her Sister Cities of the East, by an Iron band the<br />

Railroad.” He also mentioned he planned to stay in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> through the<br />

winter. “I will stay here this winter I think. It is the most healthy climate<br />

in the country here, no one ever known to die here. Some are talking of<br />

sending East for dead men, to start a grave yard, we have none here, we<br />

have everything else….” It is highly unlikely <strong>Cheyenne</strong> ever followed<br />

through with this idea of importing “dead men,” although this comment<br />

does make one wonder about the rough and tumble time in the early<br />

history of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

Despite Jordan’s comments, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> did experience a brief time of<br />

violence and vigilante justice, which was not uncommon in the UPRR’s<br />

end-of-track-towns, also known as hell-on-wheels towns. These<br />

Below: An A.C. Hull photograph of<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> in 1868. The Rocky<br />

Mountain Star Printing House<br />

claimed to have the largest circulation<br />

of any daily paper in the territory<br />

with the Rocky Mountain Star.<br />

The newspaper lasted a relatively<br />

short time.<br />



C h a p t e r 1 ✦ 1 3

Above: The original Union Pacific<br />

Depot and eating house in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>,<br />

1868-1869.<br />


Right: A sketch of several buildings in<br />

1868 <strong>Cheyenne</strong> on 17th Street<br />

between Eddy (Pioneer) and Ferguson<br />

(Carey) Streets.<br />


communities followed the construction of the UPRR. Some, like<br />

Benton and Bear River, did not survive long, while others such as<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Laramie, and Rawlins are still with us today, while others,<br />

like Carbon, although not an end-of-track town but a coal mining<br />

community created because of the need of coal for the UP, survived for<br />

a while and then disappeared.<br />

At first, the railroad and troops from the fort provided law and<br />

order, but there was a need for law enforcement. In August 1867,<br />

James R. Whitehead led the effort for civil rule. Interested citizens<br />

accepted a city charter drafted by a committee chaired by Whitehead<br />

that month which was followed by the election of city officers.<br />

Whitehead became the city attorney and H. M. Hook, an owner of a<br />

stable, was elected mayor. Civil and criminal laws of the Colorado<br />

Territory were first accepted as the laws for <strong>Cheyenne</strong> although<br />

Dakota’s laws later replaced them. After Dakota Territory created<br />

Laramie County and granted <strong>Cheyenne</strong> a charter, a legally constituted<br />

government was elected in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. The main focus of the new<br />

council was to maintain law and order.<br />

Efforts to maintain law and order took several forms. The first<br />

police force counted two policemen although the force later expanded<br />

to twelve policemen along with a city marshal and constable in each of<br />

the three precincts. A small force was reasonable at first when the town<br />

held about six hundred citizens, but was inadequate once all of the<br />

constructions workers and others entered <strong>Cheyenne</strong> during the fall of<br />

1867. The Leader provided two estimates of total population in 1868,<br />

one being 4,000 and the other 7,000. By early fall 1867, a special<br />

police force formed with fifty-five members deputized. This force later<br />

became a secret vigilance committee and was most active in January<br />

and March 1868.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, like other end-of-track towns, filled with a large male<br />

population and many saloons and houses of prostitution, had its share<br />

of thievery and violence. During early January 1868, two hundred<br />

vigilantes seized three thieves who reportedly stole nine hundred<br />

dollars. The vigilantes recovered five hundred dollars and bound the<br />

three and placed a sign on them which read “$900 stole/Thieves/$500<br />

Recovered. F. St. Clair, E. De Bronville, W. Crier. City authorities please<br />

do not interfere. Until 10 o’clock A. M. Next case goes up a tree. Beware<br />

of Vigilance Committee.” The following day the Leader warned against<br />

vigilante action and stated law enforcement in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> had mainly<br />

been effective and finally warned the vigilantes to “beware of<br />

yourselves.” The newly formed council also spoke against vigilante<br />

action and passed an ordinance against such “unlawful Combination of<br />

individuals” which has “for sometime past infested this City to the terror<br />

of all good Citizens and to the injury of the reputation of our City<br />

abroad.” However, the vigilantes were active again a few months later.<br />

The Chicago Tribune sent a reporter to the frontier town, who reported<br />

on the latest activity of the vigilantes in late March 1868. The<br />

1 4 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

newspaperman first described the activities of what he designated as “the<br />

floating population” of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. “Our amusements are varied and<br />

entertaining. We have a museum, theatre, dance houses, gambling halls,<br />

dog fights and man fights—the latter very prevalent, and I think closely<br />

allied to the former. Two hundred of the ‘fair, but frail,’ persuasion occupy<br />

quarters here. Take it all in all, it is a very gay place.” On March 20, the<br />

vigilantes hanged two men in the city and left them hanging for the<br />

authorities to find. The vigilantes apparently hanged others outside of<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>. The reporter mentioned the excitement, “not loud but deep,”<br />

running through the city the following day and wrote: “the roughs are<br />

visibly panic-stricken, not known how soon another blow may be struck.<br />

The respectable citizens are divided in opinion regarding the action of the<br />

Vigilance Committee, some commending it, (with a subdued kind of<br />

protest, of course, against mob law,) which others denounce the ‘Vigies’<br />

as midnight assassins.”<br />

Many in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> at that time had become disillusioned with the<br />

extra-legal activities of the vigilantes and as the “floating population”<br />

moved westward during the summer of 1868 to the next hell-onwheels<br />

town, Laramie, there was no longer justification for such<br />

activity. This time of such violence and thievery was relatively shortlived,<br />

but the image lived on and the residents of the Magic City found<br />

that image to be harmful to their efforts to bring more residents to<br />

their community. Reverend H. C. Waltz, a resident at the time,<br />

recognized that the hell-on-wheels time would continue to affect<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>: “However, when this great trans-continental railway took<br />

up its course toward the setting sun, this burdensome soubriquet,<br />

however applicable then, was put on iron wheels and rolled westward.<br />

Yet travelers will not stand upon our grand depot platform, and,<br />

prejudiced through the exaggerated reports of our past wickedness,<br />

will think and say nothing but evil of use, and that, too, in sight of the<br />

five noble church edifices which reverently greet their view.”<br />

Law and order was not the only problem facing the fledgling city.<br />

The streets were muddy and filthy and sometimes covered with dead<br />

animals lying around for days. The city did not have any sidewalks.<br />

Also, the buildings were constructed mainly of wood, which led to the<br />

possibility of fires. One fire did occur in early January 1870 which<br />

destroyed two city blocks. Apparently there also were a large number<br />

of hogs running free on the streets. This must have been a problem<br />

throughout the territory because the territorial legislature in 1877<br />

passed a law forbidding “swine” from running at large. Law<br />

Left: The original Union Depot hotel<br />

and eating house which was destroyed<br />

by fire in 1869.<br />


Right: The second hotel and eating<br />

house after the 1869 fire.<br />


C h a p t e r 1 ✦ 1 5

A bird’s-eye view of 1870 <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />


enforcement officials were to give written notices to the owners of<br />

swine running free in the cities, but if the owners were not known the<br />

officer could impound the hog(s). If the owners of the impounded<br />

hogs did not claim their animals the hogs were to be sold at public<br />

auctions with the proceeds going into the public school fund, certainly<br />

a creative way to fund schools.<br />

Even with these issues facing <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s residents, the city boomed.<br />

Frenchman Louis L. Simonin noticed during his short visit in early<br />

November 1867, that “Already stores are everywhere, especially of readymade<br />

clothing, restaurants, hotels, saloons.” <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s first business<br />

directory, published in early January 1868, listed nearly two hundred<br />

businesses, such as wholesale and retail grocers; clothing and gents<br />

furnishing goods; dry goods; news dealers and stationers; wholesale and<br />

retail druggists; jewelers, watchmakers, and diamond dealers; bankers:<br />

fruit dealers; boot and shoe dealers and manufacturers; attorneys at law;<br />

physicians and surgeon; soda fountain; tobacconists; blacksmiths; corrals<br />

and livery stables; hotels and restaurants.<br />

Entertainment in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> varied quite a bit. The city did have nearly<br />

seventy or so saloons, but the ratio to the number of residents was not that<br />

different in the large eastern cities. Besides the saloons, theatrical<br />

entertainment flourished in the city. Theaters such as the Theater<br />

Comique, the Concert hall, and the Gold Room drew substantial crowds.<br />

James McDaniel created the most innovative entertainment establishment.<br />

He called himself the “Barnum of the West” and “Professor McDaniel” and<br />

his business included a saloon, theater, and museum. The museum<br />

included animals from around the world, including a grizzly that once<br />

escaped, but was quickly recaptured. Nationally known speakers gave<br />

presentations at McDaniel’s theater. Ned Buntline gave a talk on<br />

“Mormonism” and “The Curse of Chinese Immigration.” Tom Thumb also<br />

appeared as did William Kelly, a gifted musician. McDaniel also brought<br />

in an acting troupe which performed in such plays as Othello and Lucrezia<br />

Borgia. Other theaters also presented a variety of plays.<br />

Even with the influence of that “floating population” and its inherent<br />

issues, the residents, including four hundred women and many children,<br />

formed a government along with establishing many businesses and the<br />

first churches and schools in the city. The Methodists were the first to<br />

form a congregation followed by the Roman Catholics in 1867, while the<br />

following January the Episcopalians organized. By October 1867, 125<br />

children lived in the Magic City and three months later the citizens<br />

dedicated the first school building. By early 1868, a Literary Association<br />

formed. The Leader on March 5, 1868, asked for the community to<br />

support this association: “To be consistent, our citizens, while crying<br />

down the allurements of gaming halls, dance houses and grog shops,<br />

should also encourage every enterprise having for its aim the elevation of<br />

the moral and intellectual status of the community.”<br />

During this boom time perhaps up to seven thousand people lived<br />

in the Magic City. However, as with all booms there is always an<br />

inevitable bust. As the UPRR entered Laramie in May 1868, many of<br />

the railroad workers and others, including some business owners, left<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>. One such businessman, I. A. Banker, believed that<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> would fail as Laramie grew. He wrote to his wife from<br />

Laramie on May 4, 1868: “<strong>Cheyenne</strong> people are here in numbers<br />

getting lots and building to move their businesses to this point. Many<br />

have already come[.] I think <strong>Cheyenne</strong> will be nearly depopulated in<br />

30 days time.” Banker was wrong, although by 1870 the city’s<br />

population had decreased to 1,450. The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Leader, as one might<br />

expect, believed in the longevity of the Magic City. In December 1869<br />

it wrote about the city’s future: “her future is founded on durable<br />

prospects.” The newspaper stated the city would remain the capital of<br />

1 6 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Wyoming, thereby drawing federal officials and expected farms would<br />

be cultivated in the area as well. The city would experience a few years<br />

of stagnation, but then were assisted by the gold boom in the Black<br />

Hills as well as by the growing cattle industry.<br />

The slowdown in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> did not affect the creation of Wyoming<br />

Territory and the much needed government. The Territory of Wyoming<br />

was created by the organic act signed by President Andrew Johnson on<br />

July 25, 1868. Not quite a year later, President Ulysses S. Grant<br />

appointed John A. Campbell of Ohio as governor, Edward M. Lee of<br />

Connecticut as secretary, and Joseph M. Carey of Pennsylvania as United<br />

States attorney. The elected legislative bodies consisted of a council with<br />

nine members and a house of representatives with thirteen members.<br />

Governor Campbell designated <strong>Cheyenne</strong> as the territory’s temporary<br />

capital. The first election was held September 2, 1869, with the council<br />

and house, made up entirely of Democrats, convening on October 12 in<br />

two separate buildings on 16th and 17th Streets. The legislature<br />

accomplished quite a bit during that first session, including providing<br />

for protection of miners, selecting Laramie as the location for a<br />

penitentiary, and increasing the pay for the three federal judges. The<br />

importance of education was also a topic discussed. Territorial Governor<br />

Campbell, on the second day of the legislative assembly, addressed the<br />

assembled lawmakers about the importance of schooling: “The subject<br />

of education will doubtless receive your early attention. In laying the<br />

foundation of a new State, this should be the corner stone, for without<br />

it no durable political fabric can be erected. It matters little how great<br />

our material prosperity may be, if our moral and intellectual growth<br />

does not keep pace with it….” Perhaps most surprising was the number<br />

of bills related to the rights of women. Not only did the all-male<br />

legislature pass bills such as “an act to protect Married Women in their<br />

separate property, and the enjoyment of the fruits of their labor,” but<br />

they also passed a bill for equal pay for teachers no matter if they are<br />

male or female. The most noted, of course, was the bill granting women<br />

full suffrage and the right to hold public office.<br />

This may have been somewhat unexpected, but woman suffrage had<br />

been discussed at various times in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. Already in November<br />

1867, city residents heard a speech about suffrage presented by George<br />

Francis Train, a wealthy suffragist. Edward M. Lee, the newly appointed<br />

territorial secretary, had advocated for woman suffrage in the House of<br />

the Connecticut legislature in 1867. He was the one who appointed<br />

Esther Morris as justice of the peace in South Pass City in February<br />

1870, a judicial position never before held by a woman. Morris fulfilled<br />

the duties of the office exceptionally well and because of her experience<br />

she later spoke at a national suffrage convention and today still holds a<br />

respected position in the history of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Wyoming. Lee also,<br />

apparently, arranged for Anna Dickinson, a well-known advocate for<br />

women’s rights, to speak in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> on September 24, 1869. Not<br />

everyone agreed with giving women the right to vote, including N. A.<br />

Baker, the editor of the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Leader. He wrote in the issue of<br />

September 24 that he did not much respect Dickinson’s cause: “As a<br />

lady we respect her, are proud of her as a genuine specimen of<br />

American womanhood. But when it comes to the absurd question of<br />

female suffrage, then Miss Dickinson, in common with her sister<br />

advocates of the preposterous hobby, must come in for her fair share of<br />

the ridicule. We will say this; Miss Annie is the most ladlylike, the best<br />

looking, and decidedly the most feminine of all the suffragers. Had she<br />

left the odious clique of Amazons alone, she might have been America’s<br />

literary queen. But as a gentleman she is not a success. We believe<br />

however, that she would make a good man a wife.” The Wyoming<br />

Tribune wrote that an “appreciative” audience heard Dickinson speak<br />

and that “Her arguments were unanswerable, except upon the basis of<br />

prejudice.” Baker’s condescension notwithstanding, the legislature did<br />

pass the bill late in the legislative session.<br />

Above: This image of women voting<br />

in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> voting appeared in<br />

Frank Leslie’s Illustrated on<br />

November 28, 1888, although one<br />

can picture a similar scene when<br />

women in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> voted for the first<br />

time in 1870.<br />


Left: The Thomas McCleland building<br />

in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> where the bill granting<br />

women suffrage and the right to hold<br />

public office was introduced in the<br />

first session of the Wyoming<br />

Territorial Council in 1869. The<br />

Council and House both approved the<br />

bill and Governor John A. Campbell<br />

signed it on December 10, now known<br />

as Wyoming Day.<br />



C h a p t e r 1 ✦ 1 7

The president of the legislative council, William Bright from South<br />

Pass City, introduced the bill granting women the right to vote and<br />

hold office a week after Redelia Bates spoke on woman suffrage in<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>. Both houses approved it and sent it to Governor Campbell<br />

on December 6, 1869. The governor signed the bill the evening of<br />

December 10, the last day of the session. Wyoming was the first<br />

territory to grant women full suffrage and the right to hold public<br />

office. To commemorate this historic event, the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> chapter of<br />

the Daughters of the American Revolution dedicated a plaque on July<br />

21, 1917, documenting the passage of the first woman suffrage bill.<br />

The plaque was placed at the location of the building where the bill<br />

was first introduced on 17th Street. The plaque can still be seen on the<br />

north side of the Downtown mall at 17th and Carey.<br />

Numerous reasons have been given for the passage of the suffrage<br />

bill. It is quite clear members of the house and council believed<br />

women should have more rights under the law, as can be seen by the<br />

several bills passed regarding women’s rights. Other reasons given<br />

were that such a bill would bring more women to Wyoming, that the<br />

bill was proposed as a joke, or that the Democratic members of the<br />

council and house passed it to embarrass the Republican governor.<br />

Nonetheless, the bill did pass and William Bright credited a <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

woman, Amalia Post, one of Wyoming’s suffragists and wife of M. E.<br />

Post, for her advocacy of suffrage. The first Wyoming woman to vote<br />

in the 1870 election was Louisa Swain in Laramie. However, the first<br />

woman to vote in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, according to the Leader, was Mrs. Howe,<br />

the wife of U.S. Marshall Howe.<br />

The passage of the suffrage law brought an unexpected development.<br />

During March 1870, a question arose in Laramie whether<br />

women should serve on juries. Two of the three territorial judges<br />

agreed they should and that year women served on both grand and<br />

petit juries in Laramie. Since women first served on juries in Laramie,<br />

that city is better known for the story, but in 1871, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> women<br />

also served as jurors.<br />

The first trial in March 1871 on which women served in the Magic<br />

City was Territory of Wyoming vs. John Boyer. According to the<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Leader, on the night of October 27, 1870, Boyer visited<br />

the “Six Mile Ranch” near Fort Laramie for a night of “frolic and<br />

dance.” He had some difficulty with two men that evening and as he<br />

was on his horse ready to leave, Boyer shot and killed both men. Four<br />

women served on the jury for the murder trial: Mrs. M. E. Post<br />

(Amalia), Mrs. Conklin, Mrs. M. H. Arnold, and Mrs. P. Pickett. The<br />

jury found Boyer guilty and he was sentenced to be executed. He was<br />

hanged on April 21 and according to the Leader he was the first person<br />

to be legally executed in the territory. The newspaper stated: “Let it be<br />

a warning to others who have not yet learned that the laws must be<br />

obeyed and criminals punished.” Amalia Post served as the foreman of<br />

the jury. Earlier that year, Post represented Wyoming at the National<br />

Woman Suffrage Convention held in Washington, D.C. There she<br />

addressed an audience of more than five thousand people.<br />

The inclusion of women on juries was short lived. One of the<br />

territorial judges who had ruled in favor of women jurors resigned and<br />

his replacement did not believe the suffrage bill provided for women<br />

to serve on juries. Public opinion had been split with those against the<br />

idea arguing it disrupted family life and was more expensive because<br />

of the need to have two overnight accommodations. However,<br />

Wyoming history professor T. A. Larson summarized the benefit of<br />

having female jurors: “The female jurors were more ready than the<br />

men to enforce the law requiring the closing of saloons on Sunday.” He<br />

added they were “more disposed than the men to convict and to<br />

impose heavy sentences. In particular, they were not quite so ready to<br />

1 8 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

accept at face value pleas of self-defense in murder cases.” Those<br />

women who served on the juries provided a civilizing influence just as<br />

women voters did. Several Wyoming newspaper editors agreed the<br />

women at the polling places reduced incidents of drunkenness and<br />

general rowdiness. Even though women lost the right to perform their<br />

civic duty by sitting on juries, women continued to vote in the<br />

territory. Even though Wyoming’s women had a lengthy voting record,<br />

it still took decades for women to serve on juries again. The Wyoming<br />

State Legislature finally passed a bill allowing women to serve on juries<br />

in 1949. The law took effect the following year.<br />

The first few years of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s history were quite exciting and<br />

eventful. The residents persevered through the early end-of-track times and<br />

city, county, and territorial governments were formed. Many businesses<br />

flourished while schools and churches were created. The passage of woman<br />

suffrage was an achievement for the entire territory, but <strong>Cheyenne</strong> is where<br />

many debates were held and the capitol city was the second community to<br />

allow women to serve on juries. The years immediately following 1870,<br />

however, were ones of stagnation, but it would not be long before<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> again flourished and residents of the Magic City believed once<br />

statehood was achieved <strong>Cheyenne</strong> would continue as the capital.<br />

Opposite, top: After Governor<br />

Campbell signed the suffrage bill, the<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Leader included this<br />

article about the event in its<br />

December 11, 1869, issue.<br />


Opposite, bottom: The <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Chapter of the Daughters of the<br />

American Revolution dedicated this<br />

plaque on July 21, 1917, in memory<br />

of the passage of the first woman<br />

suffrage bill in the country. W.B.D.<br />

Gray, who served as master of<br />

ceremonies for the dedication, also<br />

took this photograph of the plaque,<br />

which can still be seen on the<br />

Downtown Mall on 17th Street.<br />




Left: This 1872 image illustrates the<br />

businesses run by John Eames<br />

in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />


C h a p t e r 1 ✦ 1 9

2 0 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

CHAPTER 2<br />

A C O M P L E X A N D C O S M O P O L I T A N C I T Y<br />

As early as October 1867, nine months before the creation of Wyoming Territory, the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Leader supported the idea of the Magic City<br />

becoming the capital of the future territory. The first territorial legislature in 1869 did approve <strong>Cheyenne</strong> as the capital, although there would be<br />

attempts to remove that designation. Other early challenges to the young city were the fires that destroyed many of the recently built wooden<br />

structures and economic stagnation, but these were overcome and overall in the next twenty years <strong>Cheyenne</strong> progressed and proudly hosted the<br />

celebration of Wyoming’s statehood in 1890.<br />

In 1873, the territorial legislature considered a bill to remove <strong>Cheyenne</strong> as the capital. A House Bill passed by a vote of 7 to 6 designating<br />

Laramie (although the first draft of the bill had Evanston instead of Laramie) as the new capital. Hoping there would not be a quorum in the<br />

council, <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s members did not attend the session when the bill was considered. However, this allowed the remaining council members,<br />

after some political shenanigans, to pass the capital-removal bill. Governor Campbell did not approve of the bill and did not sign it so <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

remained as the territory’s capital.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> experienced many devastating fires during the early 1870s. One of the worst took place on January 11, 1870. The Wyoming Tribune<br />

in its issue four days later printed headlines “Terrific Conflagration in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>,” “Loss a Quarter of Million!” “One Block Completely Destroyed,”<br />

and “Another Square of Buildings Nearly Destroyed.” The fire started in the back of T. A. Kent’s liquor store and quickly spread, “confusion<br />

pervaded everywhere” according to the Tribune, and great concern was raised by the delay of the fire engines. Great effort was made to save the<br />

Ford House, but the wind picked up and that building was soon lost with many others with “fearful rapidity.” The fire destroyed the office of the<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Leader despite the efforts of Leader and Tribune staff. The newspaper also listed the businesses and their losses as well as whether the<br />

businesses had insurance or not. Cavalry from Fort D. A. Russell patrolled the streets that evening to ensure no looting occurred. The Tribune also<br />

editorialized the need for insurance and a fire department. “This calamity will serve to teach the people the economy of fire insurance, of erecting<br />

fire-proof instead of wooden buildings, and above all, the propriety and necessity of a thoroughly organized and united fire department, whose<br />

expenses shall be paid by the public….” Four fire companies organized as a result of the fire: Durant Fire Company, the Pioneer Hook and Ladder<br />

Company, the Clark Hose House, and the Alert Hose House.<br />

The day of July 4, 1875, began as a day to celebrate the country’s independence along with the eighth anniversary of the founding of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>,<br />

but a fire in the afternoon devastated a part of the city. The blaze began in McDaniel’s Theater. The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> fire companies responded as did<br />

assistance from Fort D. A. Russell and Camp Carlin, but the fire engulfed McDaniel’s buildings as well as surrounding buildings although the<br />

merchants were able to save much of their merchandise. The fire companies eventually were able to subdue the blaze. McDaniel took the greatest<br />

loss, estimated at $35,000. He then purchased other buildings and not long after opened McDaniel’s New Dramatic Theater with more seating<br />

(800 seats and a dozen private boxes) than his original theater. Fire continued to be a scourge in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, but the installation of a city water<br />

system in 1877 greatly assisted fire-fighting efforts.<br />

By 1875, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and its citizens “had become very complex and cosmopolitan” according to noted historian William Dubois III in his thesis<br />

“A Social <strong>History</strong> of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming, 1875-1885.” Six churches then called the Magic City their home. A German visitor in 1876 noticed the<br />

changes in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. Ernest von Hesse-Wartegg from Germany, one of that century’s great travelers, visited <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. He found it to be “the most<br />

interesting city on the plains. Its history is the greatest and most colorful. Years do not pass in monotonous single-file here; they cluster and glitter;<br />

After the devastating fire in January<br />

1870, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> businesses and city<br />

government realized fire departments<br />

were needed. One of the early<br />

departments was the Alert Hose Co.<br />

This photo with the men in front of<br />

the fire house was taken after 1890.<br />


C h a p t e r 2 ✦ 2 1

Right: After McDaniel’s Theater was<br />

destroyed in the July 4, 1875, fire, at<br />

a loss of $35,000, James McDaniel<br />

rebuilt and named the theater<br />

McDaniel’s New Theater. Later,<br />

during the boom of the Black Hills<br />

gold rush, he began a theater in<br />

Deadwood, South Dakota.<br />


Below: The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Opera House<br />

was located at 17th Street and Hill<br />

Street (now Capitol Avenue). The<br />

building was completed in 1882. To<br />

the left of the south entrance was the<br />

territorial library and to the right the<br />

room was at first rented for $900 by a<br />

millinery and dressmaking shop. The<br />

opera house was located in the<br />

northeast portion of the building on<br />

all three floors. The auditorium could<br />

seat 860 comfortably, but apparently<br />

could seat up to 1,000 when<br />

necessary. A fire on December 7,<br />

1902, destroyed the section of the<br />

building with the opera house.<br />



in one year <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s people live ten years.” Hesse-Wartegg went on to<br />

describe <strong>Cheyenne</strong> as “another American miracle…[we now] find the<br />

place a substantial, thriving city with wide, friendly streets, splendid<br />

hotels, roomy stores, banks, jail, insurance companies, opera house, and<br />

churches! I repeat: churches! Catholic, Methodist, Presbyterian,<br />

Congregationalist, Episcopalian, etc. Each faith has its own church in a<br />

city that, five years ago consisted of dugouts and moveable shacks.”<br />

Other changes in the city were also quite apparent. According to<br />

Dubois: “While one dance club had been sufficient in the earlier days, now<br />

there were many. Potato salad had once been considered a delicacy, but by<br />

1875, woodcocks and mushrooms were the rage for the more sensitive<br />

palates. The Fifth Calvary band from Fort Russell had brightened the taste<br />

for new music and symphonies and readied the people of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> for<br />

the most fabulous decade the city was ever to know, the eighties.” The<br />

railroad continued to influence <strong>Cheyenne</strong> greatly, bringing theater, news,<br />

visitors, and the current fashions of the day. The city’s status as the<br />

territorial capital brought legislators to the Magic City every two years and<br />

the residence of the governor and other territorial officers brought many<br />

parties and status to the growing community. Also, the growing cattle<br />

industry brought men of wealth, both from the East and abroad, who<br />

added to this era of “sophisticated culture.”<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s theater scene greatly improved during the early 1880s<br />

with the construction of the Opera House. As noted earlier, the city’s<br />

theater scene was vibrant since the beginning with a wide variety of<br />

entertainment, but many in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> wanted what some might call a<br />

more refined theater. During the spring of 1881, nearly forty of the<br />

city’s residents met and then formed a corporation that led the effort to<br />

construct the Opera House. Many of the prominent men of <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

supported this effort, including Joseph M. Carey who served as the<br />

corporation’s president. The corporation was titled “The <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Opera House and Library Company” with the purpose “to establish<br />

and maintain a public building and Hall for the promotion of<br />

Literature, Art, Science, Music and all kinds of useful knowledge<br />

including that class of scientific and dramatic representations which<br />

are of an elevating character.” There was a nine member board with a<br />

number of well-known businessmen besides Carey. These included<br />

Francis E. Warren, M. E. Post (husband of Amalia Post), William W.<br />

Corlett, Thomas Sturgis, and A. H. Reel.<br />

The signers of the Certificate of Incorporation raised $15,000 for<br />

the project and later sold bonds to the general public. The<br />

corporation’s board met in April and agreed to purchase a lot from<br />

Warren. When completed, the three-story building faced south on<br />

2 2 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

17th Street and the east side faced Hill Street, which later became<br />

Capitol Avenue. The theater occupied the northern most part of the<br />

building which also included the territorial library, a banquet hall, a<br />

ballroom, ladies and gentlemen’s dressing rooms, and there was even<br />

room to rent for a millinery and dressmaking shop. <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s<br />

telephone exchange occupied a large room on the third floor.<br />

The library opened first on February 28, 1882, with a ball. The<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Leader described it as “The Gayest Event for Many a<br />

Season.” The accompanying article began: “Had a resident of<br />

Washington visited <strong>Cheyenne</strong> last night and taken in the ball at the<br />

Library hall, he would have rubbed his eyes in astonishment, and<br />

wonder whether it was the right wing of an inauguration ball he was<br />

beholding….” The tickets for the event cost $10 and the proceeds were<br />

to be used to furnish the library. The music was provided by the full<br />

string band of the 3rd cavalry. The Leader went into great detail about<br />

the attendees’ dress: “The gentlemen were all clad in the regulation<br />

evening dress…but the ladies surpassed them, not only in beauty, but<br />

also in splendor of dress….” The paper described the ladies dress,<br />

including Mrs. F. E. Warren who wore a dress of “white silk and<br />

oriental cashmere trimmed with Spanish lace; diamond ornaments.”<br />

Overall, the event was a “singularly happy one.”<br />

The Opera House itself opened in late May 1882. “Thursday, May 25,<br />

1882, is a day that will long be remembered in the history of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>,<br />

it being the date of the formal dedication to the art of Thespis of one of<br />

the finest opera houses in the west….” according to the Leader. Compared<br />

to previous city theaters described as “barn-like halls that were forbidding<br />

in their lack of both comfort and conveniences,” this new theatre, which<br />

could seat up to 1000 people, “not only stands as a monument to the<br />

public spirit but is a lasting proof of the intelligence and refinement of this<br />

little city of less than 4,000 people so that ‘he who runs may read’ in that<br />

handsome block the story of our thrift, enterprise and culture.” The<br />

Comley-Barton opera company presented the French comic opera Olivette<br />

as the Opera House’s inaugural performance that evening.<br />

Many well-known theatrical troupes and personalities performed<br />

during the twenty years of the operation of the Opera House.<br />

Internationally famous actress Sarah Bernhardt performed in the<br />

theater during June 1887 and was followed by English singer-actress<br />

Lily Langtry a week later. Langtry appeared in the comedy A Wife’s<br />

Peril. Others who performed included Buffalo Bill Cody, P. T. Barnum,<br />

Edwin Booth who appeared in Hamlet, and the Lydia Thompson<br />

Burlesque Company.<br />

Edwin Booth, brother of John Wilkes<br />

Booth, was a nationally known actor<br />

and portrayed Hamlet at the<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Opera House on April 18,<br />

1887. Attendees were from <strong>Cheyenne</strong>,<br />

Fort Collins, Greeley, Pine Bluffs,<br />

Sidney, and Kimball. The weather was<br />

disagreeable, but according to the<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Sun, it “did not<br />

exercise a deterrent influence on the<br />

ladies who appeared in full force<br />

arrayed in their choicest fashions….”<br />


C h a p t e r 2 ✦ 2 3

Right: A bird’s-eye view of <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

in 1882, the year of the construction<br />

of the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Opera House.<br />


Below: The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Club was<br />

located at 17th Street and Warren<br />

Avenue. The basement had two wine<br />

vaults and a kitchen. On the top<br />

floor were sleeping rooms for<br />

members and their guests and the<br />

main floor had a dining room, billiard<br />

room, and library. Owen Wister,<br />

author of The Virginian called it “the<br />

pearl of the prairies.”<br />


The corporation sold the Opera House to Joseph Carey and his<br />

brother in 1891. The Careys refurbished the theater, but eleven years<br />

later, on December 7, 1902, a fire destroyed the section of the building<br />

with the theater. The Leader lamented the loss of the “Magnificent<br />

Opera House.” A firewall prevented the fire from destroying the<br />

southern portion of the building. Three years later an “annex was<br />

added to the remaining building with the main level serving as office<br />

and business space and the upper level as apartments for UPRR<br />

employees. The building was razed in 1961 and replaced by the J. C.<br />

Penney building completed in July 1963. Twenty years later J. C.<br />

Penney moved to Frontier Shopping Mall. Today the building is the<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Business Center. A plaque commemorating the Opera<br />

House can be seen on the east side of the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Business Center.<br />

Other buildings which represented the growing prosperity in<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> were related to the booming cattle industry of the early<br />

1880s. Already by 1870 there were eight thousand cattle in Wyoming.<br />

A few years later the Wyoming Stock Growers Association (WSGA)<br />

formed in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> to promote and protect the interests of the<br />

cattlemen. The cattle industry in Wyoming at this time prospered and<br />

by the mid-1880s the territory may have held as many as 1.5 million<br />

cattle which mainly grazed on the open range, public lands in the<br />

territory. Cattlemen from <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, the rest of the territory, and some<br />

from foreign countries ranched in Wyoming and were members of the<br />

WSGA. However, the devastating winter of 1886-1887 left thousands<br />

of cattle dead. Historian T. A. Larson estimated about 15 percent of the<br />

cattle in Wyoming may have perished that winter. Before that bad<br />

winter, the WSGA had up to four hundred members, but only 183<br />

remained in 1888. In 1884, cattle made up approximately three<br />

fourths of Wyoming’s wealth. Five years later it accounted for last than<br />

one half. The decline was precipitous, but it left a more stable industry.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> and the cattlemen prospered in the early 1880s. The<br />

wealthy cattlemen built about forty mansions in the city and Carey<br />

Avenue came to be known as “Millionaires Row,” although other large<br />

residences were built in other parts of the city. Probably the most wellknown<br />

structure of this cattle inspired boom was the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Club,<br />

which clearly epitomized the growing influence of the cattle industry<br />

in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and the territory.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> cattlemen organized the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Club during 1880 and<br />

in 1881 the club house was completed. Located at 17th Street and<br />

Warren Avenue, the building had a restaurant, bar, reading room,<br />

billiard room, and sleeping rooms upstairs. The club started with fifty<br />

members, but that later was increased. Members could be expelled for<br />

“offensive” drunkenness, cheating at cards, profanity, a criminal act, and<br />

2 4 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

dishonorable behavior for a gentleman. The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Sun, in November<br />

1882, commented about how important the building was to the city and<br />

attempted to correct some misimpressions: “The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> club house,<br />

too, is a great attraction to the city, one that is appreciated so thoroughly<br />

by the boys who are in this western country without homes…. It is<br />

popularly supposed that it is a place to have a hilarious time, and for no<br />

other purpose. The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> club house is a big home for the single<br />

gentlemen who have cast their lot in Wyoming. It is also the cattle man’s<br />

retreat and the headquarters for business men of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and the<br />

west, where they get together and talk up matters of trade.” After the<br />

terrible winter of 1886-1887, the cattlemen were not able to maintain<br />

the club house, which eventually went to the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Industrial Club,<br />

which later became the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Chamber of Commerce. The chamber<br />

razed the building in 1936.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s economy from the beginning was maintained by the<br />

railroad and government. During the city’s early years, the gold rush to<br />

the Sweetwater mines around South Pass City brought excitement and<br />

activity to the city, although this did not last long. However, by the mid-<br />

1870s, another gold rush, this time to the Black Hills, helped<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s economy greatly in the late 1870s and 1880s. An 1868<br />

treaty granted the Black Hills to the Sioux, but rumors of gold there led<br />

prospectors to defy the army troops and begin prospecting. The swift<br />

influx of so many looking for gold soon led to the removal of the Native<br />

Americans from northeastern Wyoming and Dakota’s Black Hills. The<br />

Leader, already in 1874, published eyewitness accounts that the area<br />

was rich in gold and in April 1875, the newspaper printed fifty<br />

thousand copies of a special Black Hills edition which was distributed<br />

nationally. The Leader also asserted “that the route from <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

northward is the safest, speediest, cheapest and best, to reach the Black<br />

Hills” and pictured the city as the outfitting point for those traveling to<br />

the Black Hills. The shortest route was “one by way of Fort Laramie,<br />

Raw Hide Buttes, Old Woman’s Fork and Beaver Creek” at 182 miles.<br />

Indeed, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> became the gateway to the Black Hills.<br />

By the mid-1870s there were more than one thousand men in the Black<br />

Hills successfully prospecting and <strong>Cheyenne</strong> experienced the benefits of<br />

being the jumping off point for travel to the region. Already in 1874 some<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> businesses reaped substantial profits such as grocer Erasmus<br />

Nagle who experienced $150,000 worth of business that year. In March<br />

1875, the Leader already acknowledged that “All branches of business<br />

have materially improved in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> within the past ten days.” In<br />

January 1876, the Leader noted <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s “streets are crowded, her<br />

merchants are doing an immense business, her hotels for full to<br />

overflowing, magnificent new buildings of all descriptions are going up in<br />

all directions, and the ‘Magic City’ is making long and rapid strides in the<br />

path of prosperity.” Some <strong>Cheyenne</strong> businesses expanded into the Black<br />

Hills. Even James McDaniel, who entertained many in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> with his<br />

variety theater from the city’s beginning, began a variety theater in<br />

Deadwood. Others who started branch stores in the booming Black Hills<br />

communities included Francis E. Warren and M. E. Post.<br />

By 1876, <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s population totaled about three thousand,<br />

more than twice the number when the UPRR moved over to Laramie<br />

and farther west, and in February of that year, the first stagecoach of<br />

The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Black Hills Stage, Mail and Express Line left from<br />

the front of the recently constructed Inter Ocean Hotel for the trip to<br />

Custer City. During the next ten years thousands of travelers traveled<br />

on the company’s stagecoaches to and from the Black Hills. Quite a few<br />

firms also begin transporting freight from <strong>Cheyenne</strong> to the Black Hills.<br />

All of this travel along the route did lead to robberies and attempted<br />

robberies of the stagecoaches. To provide more security for the gold<br />

shipments by the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Black Hills Stage Company, three<br />

“treasure coaches” were used. These were iron clad coaches with an<br />

iron safe bolted to the floor of the coach. <strong>Cheyenne</strong> continued to enjoy<br />

Built in 1875 on the corner of 16th<br />

Street and Hill Street (Capitol<br />

Avenue), the Inter-Ocean Hotel<br />

became the jumping off point for<br />

stagecoaches leaving for the Black<br />

Hills during the gold rush. Owned by<br />

former slave Barney Ford, although<br />

he sold it after a few years of<br />

ownership, the hotel was one of the<br />

finest in the West. However the<br />

building was destroyed by fire on<br />

December 17, 1916. A family of six,<br />

who had just checked into the hotel,<br />

died in the fire. The Hynds Building<br />

now is in that location.<br />




C h a p t e r 2 ✦ 2 5

Construction on the new Union<br />

Pacific Depot began in March 1886.<br />

A ceremony for the laying of the<br />

building’s cornerstone was held on<br />

July 19, 1886. When completed, the<br />

building included waiting rooms for<br />

ladies and men on the first floor along<br />

with the ticket office. On the second<br />

floor were offices for various Union<br />

Pacific employees.<br />


the fruits of the trade brought by serving as the gateway to the Black<br />

Hills, but when a railroad reached the area in 1886 from the east the<br />

good times were bound to end. The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Black Hills Stage<br />

Line stopped operating in 1887. However, this terrific boom time in<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> of the early and mid-1880s brought about by the gold rush<br />

to the Dakota Territory and by the growth of the cattle industry, led to<br />

great prosperity for the Capital City. According to Dubois, by the<br />

summer of 1884, “Laramie County was considered to be the wealthiest<br />

county in the entire United States.”<br />

Besides the economic strength of the 1880s, there were other signs<br />

that the Magic City was a progressive community. Such progress was<br />

seen by the city’s citizens on January 15, 1883, when “…the electric<br />

light was started up throughout the city in earnest.” Not quite a year<br />

earlier the Brush-Swan Electric Light Company formed leading to that<br />

light-filled night the following January.<br />

Joseph Swan, an English physicist, and Charles Brush, an American<br />

electric pioneer, were at the forefront of electrifying city lights. Swan<br />

patented an incandescent light bulb in Britain in 1876 and his house was<br />

the first to be lit by a light bulb. In 1882, Swan sold his patent rights in<br />

the United States to the Brush Electric Company. The success of Brush’s<br />

company was because of his design of an electric generator. Already by<br />

the late 1870s, Brush’s firm was installing lamp street-lighting in various<br />

eastern cities. By 1881, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, San Francisco,<br />

and other cities had installed Brush’s electric lamps. <strong>Cheyenne</strong> soon<br />

followed led by a number of the city’s businessmen.<br />

The Brush-Swan Electric Company incorporated in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> with a<br />

capitalization of $100,000. The company’s trustees were Francis E.<br />

Warren, Joseph M. Carey, M. E. Post, Thomas Sturgis, and William C.<br />

Irvine. A representative of the businessmen had investigated different<br />

lighting systems in various cities around the country which led to the<br />

selection of the Brush-Swan system. The intent of the company was “to<br />

establish and maintain a system of electric lighting.” <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

contracted with the company for twenty-two electric arc lamps at a cost<br />

of $5,000 a year. Upon the incorporation of the company, the <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Weekly Leader expressed optimism that “in the near future, <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s<br />

dark, unlighted streets will be no more the terror of moonless nights, and<br />

the fragrant kerosene not a necessary evil.” The Leader had hoped the<br />

lighting system would be operational by Christmas 1882, but the lights<br />

were not tested until early January. According to the January 14, 1883,<br />

issue of the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Sun, the “electric apparatus intended for lighting the<br />

business houses, hotels, and other establishments of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> has been<br />

carefully tested and found entirely satisfactory. The apparatus consists of<br />

two dynamo machines, each capable of running forty lights of 2,000<br />

candle-power, some of which are double and other single….”<br />

The lights brightened <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s streets on January 15. The Leader<br />

reported: “<strong>Cheyenne</strong> stores and hotels were metamorphosed by the<br />

brilliancy of the arc lights, one of which in some instances illuminated<br />

rooms that had before been lighted by a dozen or twenty oil lamps.<br />

Groups of citizens assembled wherever a light was burning and passed<br />

judgment upon the new light. The comments were in general most<br />

favorable and prophecies were freely made that the day of oil or gas<br />

had gone by in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.” The newspaper was quite correct. The<br />

company continued to contract with the city and in 1890, the<br />

company merged with the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> City Gas Company which led to<br />

the creation of the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Light, Fuel, and Power Company. Not<br />

only was Warren a trustee of the Brush-Swan Electric Company at the<br />

time, he was also the president of the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> City Gas Company.<br />

After the merger of the two companies he became the first president of<br />

2 6 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Light, Fuel and Power Company. The advent of electric<br />

lights in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> in the 1880s came at an opportune time as two<br />

significant buildings were about to anchor opposite ends of Hill Street,<br />

now Capitol Avenue.<br />

The two buildings most significant to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Wyoming, the<br />

Union Pacific Railroad Depot and Wyoming’s Capitol, were built from<br />

1886 to 1888. Both are National Historic Landmarks. The UPRR quickly<br />

built a depot, a wooden structure, in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> once the tracks had<br />

reached the city in 1867. However, by the 1880s, the building was<br />

woefully inadequate. On June 14, 1885, the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Sun<br />

commented: “The present rookery is away behind the city and the<br />

people. It gives a black eye to the place, creating a bad impression at the<br />

outset with strangers.” The commentary continued: “In a business sense,<br />

the railroad has no depot.” The newspaper also encouraged the<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Merchants’ Association to contact UP President Charles<br />

Adams and lobby for a new depot, believing that a “new depot would<br />

encourage many gentlemen who own cattle and have other interests in<br />

the territory to build substantial and handsome residences.” Fortunately,<br />

the UP had been planning a new <strong>Cheyenne</strong> depot and in December<br />

1885, Wyoming Territorial Governor Francis E. Warren heard, and the<br />

Sun reported, that the UP had approved a “large and handsome” new<br />

passenger depot for <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. To design the building, the railroad<br />

selected the New England architectural firm of Van Brunt and Howe and<br />

J. F. Coots of Kansas City to construct the building. Henry Van Brunt<br />

designed the building in the Romanesque style. He was a close friend of<br />

Henry Hobson Richardson, considered one of the greatest American<br />

architects, who had developed a distinctive architectural style which has<br />

been called Richardsonian Romanesque. Richardson died in 1886, but a<br />

few years earlier he designed the Ames Monument west of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

Construction began on the depot on March 15, 1886. Workers<br />

preparing the trenches went on strike three days earlier, but this<br />

delayed the construction only briefly. Coots and his crew resumed this<br />

work in May. The UP selected red and buff colored sandstone from a<br />

quarry near Fort Collins, Colorado, for the depot’s foundations and<br />

exterior walls. On July 19, the ceremony for the laying of the<br />

cornerstone was held. The next day’s issue of the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Sun<br />

had the headlines “<strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s Natal Day,” “An Event Which<br />

Appropriately Celebrated It,” and “Cornerstone of the Union Pacific<br />

Depot Laid.” Governor Warren presided over the ceremony and J. B.<br />

Adams, Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and<br />

Accepted Mason Society of Wyoming Territory, served as master of<br />

ceremonies. Judge W. Ware Peck gave the main speech of the day, in<br />

which he discussed the rise and progress of the “Magic City.” The event<br />

was held on the nineteenth anniversary of the surveying of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

A hoped for completion date of May 1887 was not met and UP<br />

employees did not move into their offices until September. That month<br />

a reporter from the Sun toured the building and described the interior<br />

as “palace-like” and continued “one would almost forget himself and<br />

think that he was in the Crystal Palace of old, that formerly adorned<br />

the city of London, while taking a stroll up and down its ample halls<br />

and corridors.” The article also mentioned two reasons for why a new<br />

building was constructed. “First, that such a building as this proves to<br />

be was needed by the Union Pacific at this point; and second, the<br />

company desired to advance and promote the material interests of the<br />

City of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.” As the completion of the UP Depot was being<br />

celebrated, the construction of the Capitol building was ongoing<br />

several blocks north of the depot.<br />

Discussion of a Capitol began during the legislative session in early<br />

1886 when Governor Warren spoke for a need of a public building which<br />

The Union Pacific Depot was<br />

completed in 1887. This photograph<br />

shows a horse-drawn trolley<br />

leaving the depot so it can be dated<br />

around 1890.<br />


C h a p t e r 2 ✦ 2 7

Construction began on the Capitol<br />

in September 1886 and work<br />

continued rapidly.<br />


would bring together “various territorial offices.” The legislature agreed<br />

and passed a bill authorizing the construction of a Capitol not to exceed<br />

$150,000. Warren signed the bill on March 4 and then appointed a fiveman<br />

Capitol Building Commission. The commission selected two blocks<br />

on Hill Street (now Capitol Avenue) for the location and selected the<br />

style: “the front to be treated on the French Renaissance class of<br />

architecture, the rear to correspond, but not to be treated so expensively.”<br />

The commission also selected the architect and contractor, both<br />

from Ohio. David W. Gibbs of Toledo was the chosen architect and the<br />

firm of Adam Feick & Bro. of Sandusky was the contractor. Feick’s<br />

winning bid was $131,275.13. The contractor broke ground on<br />

September 9, 1886, and the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Democratic Leader indicated<br />

Feick “had men and teams busily engaged in making the dirt fly.”<br />

Feick & Bro. subcontracted with Robert C. Greenlee of Denver, but<br />

it was still necessary to have someone from Ohio on site. The company<br />

selected twenty-four year old John Feick, Adam’s son, to oversee<br />

construction. John had not been to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> or the West before and<br />

was surprised by what he found. He wrote many letters to his wife. On<br />

February 5, 1887, he wrote: “There are very wealthy people living in<br />

this town but they all look to me like Cow-boys.” On February 13, he<br />

commented on the weather: “We have had very cold weather heare<br />

[sic] 12 below zero, and the next day it would be so hot that I could<br />

not stand it with my under clothes on. We have some terrible winds<br />

heare.” Four days later he again mentions the wind: “We had a fire here<br />

last night and the wind blew at the rate of 75 miles an hour and now<br />

are having a terrible snow storm but very little of the snow stays on<br />

account of the wind….” Feick quickly adjusted and began to enjoy his<br />

time in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> supervising the construction of the Capitol,<br />

commenting on the “clear and pure” air and wished that his wife<br />

would be able to join him for the laying of the cornerstone. He wrote:<br />

2 8 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Top, left: The laying of the Capitol<br />

cornerstone was held on May 18,<br />

1887. People from around the area<br />

attended the events.<br />


Bottom, left: One of the events was a<br />

barbecue just west of the Capitol.<br />


Top, right: The Capitol was completed<br />

in March 1888. The width, east to<br />

west, was 230 feet and 144 feet in<br />

width, north to south. The dome at<br />

that time was copper. Gold leaf was<br />

added for the first time in 1900.<br />


Bottom, right: The first addition to<br />

the Capitol was completed by the<br />

spring of 1890. David Gibbs, seen<br />

here in the buggy, was the architect<br />

for the original building and the<br />

first addition.<br />


“…people here are going crazy over the corner stone they have<br />

collected $1800 to lay it with, that are going to have a Barber Cue, that<br />

is something that you or I never saw in the East….”<br />

Many of those in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> on May 18, 1887, witnessed what the<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Sun said was “the occasion of the greatest military and<br />

civic demonstration ever witnessed in this history of the city,” that being<br />

the laying of the Capitol cornerstone and the “Barber Cue.” People from<br />

around the territory as well as Nebraska and Colorado attended the<br />

festivities. That day businesses closed at noon and a parade began at<br />

1:30. Included in the parade were troops from Fort D.A. Russell,<br />

bicyclists, bands, firemen, territorial and city officials, and various<br />

Masonic bodies. The cornerstone was of Rawlins sandstone and placed<br />

into the cornerstone was a copper box filled with the laws and seal of<br />

Wyoming, various newspapers, UP timetables, and several photographs.<br />

C h a p t e r 2 ✦ 2 9

Right: The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Leader<br />

included this article in its March 28,<br />

1890, issue after the U.S. House of<br />

Representatives approved the<br />

Wyoming statehood bill.<br />



Opposite, left: The Wyoming Girl<br />

Guard was organized in November<br />

1889. Company K was photographed<br />

on the steps of the Capitol on July 22,<br />

1890, the day before the statehood<br />

celebration. They participated in the<br />

parade the following day and served<br />

as Guard of Honor for the float<br />

carrying the forty-two women<br />

representing the older states. The<br />

Girl Guard had a few appearances<br />

after statehood bill, but was<br />

then disbanded.<br />


Opposite, right: After the U.S. Senate<br />

passed the statehood bill the<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Sun ran this article<br />

in its June 28, 1890, issue.<br />



After the Masonic ceremonies, Joseph M. Carey gave a speech on the<br />

early history of the territory and remarked that the Capitol should be<br />

“devoted to those of wisdom, good government and righteous law,<br />

which hereafter shall be enacted within it.” Governor Thomas Moonlight<br />

also spoke. After the ceremony the barbecue was held west of the<br />

building with pork, mutton, break lemonade, and “cornerstone pickles.”<br />

That evening the Irish Benevolent Society hosted a grand ball.<br />

The modern Capitol was completed in March 1888. It was wired<br />

and plumbed for electric light, gas, and water and included a heating<br />

and ventilating system. Like the UP Depot, some of the sandstone<br />

came from a Fort Collins quarry while the stone in the superstructure<br />

was from a Rawlins quarry. By the time of its completion, the<br />

legislature had already passed a bill providing funding to add wings to<br />

the Capitol. <strong>Cheyenne</strong> contractor Moses P. Keefe won the bid for the<br />

construction of the wings with a bid of $117,504. The wings were<br />

completed by April 1890. More wings were added in 1917. William<br />

Dubois of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> was the architect for that project. The completion<br />

of the building in 1888 and the addition of the two wings in 1890<br />

could not have been more appropriate and timely because this<br />

coincided with the drive for Wyoming statehood.<br />

Discussion of the possibility of Wyoming statehood had been<br />

ongoing for many years, but 1888 is when this movement became<br />

reality. That year the legislature sent to Washington, D.C. a petition for<br />

statehood. Then, Wyoming Territorial Delegate to the U.S. House of<br />

Representatives, Joseph M. Carey, presented the petition to Congress<br />

and an enabling act was introduced in both houses. Congress took no<br />

action on the enabling act so Governor Warren and others decided to<br />

move ahead as if the enabling act had passed. Warren then was able to<br />

arrange for an election of delegates to a constitutional convention,<br />

which was held on July 8, 1889. Fifty-five men were selected as<br />

delegates although only forty-nine attended the convention held in<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> in the still new Capitol building.<br />

The constitutional convention began in the Capitol on September 2,<br />

1889, and work on the constitution was completed by the end of the<br />

month. To create such a document which would determine the general<br />

structure of Wyoming’s governmental system and specify the rights of<br />

citizens in such a short time, the convention delegates reviewed other<br />

state constitutions and wisely selected sections appropriate for Wyoming.<br />

There were a few original parts of the constitution such as water law,<br />

which determined that all water belonged to the state. One item that<br />

failed to be included in the constitution was a tonnage tax on coal. M. C.<br />

Brown of Laramie thought coal would be the state’s major source of<br />

wealth and since two-thirds of the coal at that time was shipped outside<br />

of Wyoming he thought those who benefitted from Wyoming’s coal<br />

should help support the government. Brown called this the greatest<br />

omission in the constitution. Another original item discussed during the<br />

convention, and one that passed, was woman suffrage.<br />

3 0 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

On the fourteenth day of the convention, woman suffrage became a<br />

major issue when A. C. Campbell of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> said it should not be<br />

included in the constitution, but that it should be voted on by Wyoming<br />

citizens. Campbell, even though he said he supported woman suffrage,<br />

made the point that the people in the territory had never voted on it and<br />

they should have that opportunity. He also suggested that such a measure<br />

should need a two-thirds majority to be approved. The members of the<br />

convention voted this down by a vote of 20 to 8. Section 1 of Article VI<br />

states: “The rights of the citizens of the State of Wyoming to vote and<br />

hold office shall not be denied or abridged on account of sex. Both male<br />

and female citizens of this State shall equally enjoy all civil, political and<br />

religious rights and privileges.” This issue, however, would lead to debate<br />

in Congress when the Wyoming statehood bill was discussed.<br />

One section of the constitution must have greatly pleased the citizens<br />

of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. It stated; “The seat of government shall be located at the<br />

City of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, the County of Laramie.” The capital appeared to be<br />

secure in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> although this was not always a sure thing.<br />

Joseph M. Carey led the effort for statehood in Washington, D.C. As<br />

Wyoming’s delegate to the U.S. House, he gave a speech on the floor of<br />

the House on March 26, 1890. He said Wyoming had much irrigable<br />

land and was “rich in agricultural possibilities” and claimed that<br />

Wyoming was “one of nature’s great storehouses” of minerals. When the<br />

statehood bill was being considered in the House, suffrage was an issue.<br />

William C. Oates of Alabama spoke against the provision of woman<br />

suffrage in the constitution. He did not see the right to vote as a natural<br />

right, but one that should be exercised by “mere municipal regulation.”<br />

He continued: “I do not like a man-woman. She may be intelligent and<br />

full of learning, but when she assumes the performance of rough duties<br />

and functions assigned by nature to man she becomes rough and tough<br />

and can no longer be the object of affection.” Oates concluded his<br />

remarks by stating “should we ever reach universal suffrage this<br />

Government will become practically a pure democracy, and then the days<br />

of its existence are numbered.” The House passed the statehood bill 139-<br />

127 the same day Carey spoke so passionately about Wyoming<br />

statehood. Once the statehood bill was signed by the president,<br />

Wyoming became the first state to grant women full suffrage.<br />

Upon hearing of the House vote, many in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> celebrated.<br />

According to the Sun: “People began rushing around the streets shouting<br />

the glad tidings and congratulating every person within reach.” Soon all<br />

of the flags in the city had been sold so everyone could fly one from their<br />

home or business. One person created a sign which said: “Uncle Sam’s<br />

New Daughter.” That evening a bonfire was set at the intersection of 17th<br />

Street and Ferguson (Carey Avenue). An event was also held at the Opera<br />

House, where George W. Baxter said, “It means the dawning of a brighter<br />

day, the beginning of an era of unparalleled prosperity…. A tide of<br />

immigration will set in. Capital will come.” The U.S. Senate passed the<br />

statehood bill on June 27 by a vote of 29 to 18. Two weeks later, President<br />

Benjamin Harrison signed Wyoming’s statehood bill on July 10, which<br />

led to another celebration. But the official, statewide celebration took<br />

place in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> on July 23.<br />

Planning had been ongoing for some time for the event which the<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Sun described as “A Great Day.” A parade, led by the<br />

Fort D.A. Russell’s 17th Infantry Band, began the celebration. The twomile<br />

parade also included other troops from the fort, a Union Pacific<br />

band, and a large float carrying forty-two young women representing<br />

the older states. Following this float was a carriage with three girls,<br />

Grace Cowhick, Frankie Warren the ten-year-old daughter of<br />

Governor Warren, and Miss Elliot, representing the Goddess of Liberty,<br />

the new state of Idaho, and the new state of Wyoming. Idaho became<br />

a state a week before Wyoming on July 3. The parade ended at the<br />

Capitol where the celebration continued.<br />

C h a p t e r 2 ✦ 3 1

At the Capitol the thousands attending the events of the day heard a<br />

number of speakers well known to the Wyoming community. After an<br />

invocation by Reverend J. Y. Cowhick, Theresa Jenkins gave what some<br />

considered to be the best speech of the day. According to the Sun, after an<br />

introduction she proceeded “to the front of the platform, the lady in clear,<br />

forceful tones which penetrated to the very outskirts of the crowd, began<br />

and delivered without notes or manuscript an address which in ability,<br />

logic and eloquence has rarely if ever been equaled by any woman of the<br />

land. She was grandly equal to the occasion.” Esther Morris then presented<br />

the new flag with forty-four stars to Governor Warren and she said “May it<br />

always remain the emblem of our liberties ‘and the flag of the union<br />

forever.’” Warren graciously accepted the flag and spoke briefly about the<br />

future of woman suffrage: “Wyoming, in her progress has not forgotten the<br />

hands and hearts that have helped advance her to her high position; and,<br />

in the adoption of her constitution, equal suffrage is intrenched so securely<br />

that, it is believed, it will stand forever….” A forty-four gun salute followed<br />

the singing of the Star Spangled Banner. Mrs. I.S. Bartlett, the “Poet of the<br />

Day,” then read her original poem “True Republic,” which ended “For we<br />

tread enchanted ground today, we’re glorious, proud and great; Our<br />

Independence day has come—Wyoming is a State!”<br />

A few more speeches were heard that day and they again spoke to<br />

equal rights. Judge Melville C. Brown, who served as president of the<br />

constitutional convention, said “it was ordained by the people of<br />

Wyoming that each citizen of the state should enjoy the same right<br />

guaranteed to every other citizen, whether high or low, black or white,<br />

male or female.” Brown then presented to Amalia Post a copy of the<br />

Wyoming Constitution. She accepted the document in the “name of<br />

the women of Wyoming—in the name of women of the civilized<br />

world—in the name of human progress—in the name of Christian<br />

civilization….” C. D. Clark of Evanston gave the final oration of the<br />

day and again spoke to the accomplishment of Wyoming granting<br />

suffrage to all as an “inalienable right.” Clark’s speech was to have been<br />

followed by a manned balloon launch, but that failed, although it did<br />

not end the festivities. Fireworks soon brightened the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> sky<br />

and a ball was held with everyone welcomed. The day, filled with<br />

many wonderful events and speeches, ended about midnight.<br />

The spectacular celebration on July 23 wonderfully christened<br />

Wyoming as the forty-fourth state of the country and the first to grant<br />

women full suffrage as well as <strong>Cheyenne</strong> as the capital of the newly<br />

formed state. However, the state constitution included in Article No. VII,<br />

Section 23, a way for the permanent location of the state capital to<br />

change. It stated that the legislature could not change the location of the<br />

capital or the other state institutions, but ten years after the acceptance of<br />

the constitution, the legislature could enact a law submitting the<br />

permanent location of the capital to a vote of the “qualified electors” at a<br />

general election, which is just what happened a few years later.<br />

The 1901 legislature passed a bill allowing for the 1904 general<br />

election during which the electorate could determine the permanent<br />

locations of “the seat of government, the state university, the insane<br />

asylum, and the state penitentiary.” The vote took place on November<br />

3 2 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

8, but before Wyoming citizens voted on the permanent locations of<br />

these four institutions some surprises were in store.<br />

A number of established, and yet to be established, cities made an<br />

effort to bring the capital to their communities. One such city, which<br />

existed only in the mind of Willis George Emerson, a successful<br />

Wyoming businessman, was to be located in Fremont County and was<br />

to be named, not surprisingly, Emerson. This city was to be a gift to the<br />

citizens of the state and would cost them nothing as it would be funded<br />

by Emerson and eastern capitalists and would be the new home of all<br />

the state institutions, including the capital. <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s Wyoming Tribune<br />

on October 19, 1903, carried a front-page story of this “most daring,<br />

audacious and astounding proposition” which was backed by<br />

“practically unlimited capital” to transform barren prairie into the “new<br />

Magic City.” The [Lander] Clipper carried the story eleven days later. The<br />

explanation for the new city, besides the “fabulous” funding, was that<br />

Emerson would be centrally located and near rich oil fields and good<br />

farmland. Even with the expectation that Emerson would become the<br />

largest city in the state in five years after the institutions moved there,<br />

the “bold” plan as the Tribune described it, never came to fruition.<br />

Emerson was not one of the four cities on the 1904 general election<br />

ballot vying to become the state’s permanent capital.<br />

The four cities on the ballot were <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Casper, Rock Springs, and<br />

Lander. Like <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Rock Springs was created in the late 1860s because<br />

of the construction of the UPRR. Casper and Lander both came about in<br />

the 1880s. The day before the election the Wyoming Tribune encouraged all<br />

those in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> to maintain the capital in the Magic City and warned of<br />

dire consequences for the city and state if the capital moved. The results<br />

took days to come in and on November 17, the Natrona County Tribune<br />

included a story headlined “Lander Claims the Capital.” The article said<br />

many of the 700 or so residents in Lander were excited about this result,<br />

but the story later stated <strong>Cheyenne</strong> had the highest vote total. <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

did receive the most votes with 11,781, Lander second with 8,667, Casper<br />

third with 3,610, and Rock Springs fourth with 429 votes. However,<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> did not receive the majority of all the votes cast so it did not<br />

become the permanent capital. Other towns and cities received write-in<br />

votes with Sheridan receiving 117, Moorcroft 4, Beulah 3, and Douglas 8,<br />

and many others tallied one or two votes. The three other institutions won<br />

overwhelmingly victories with the majority of votes. Emerson did not<br />

receive any votes. Twenty years later, in the 1923 legislative session, Casper<br />

legislators again attempted to bring the capital to their city. This effort also<br />

failed so, as of now, the capital remains in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

It is clear the Union Pacific Railroad, the cattle industry, the Black<br />

Hills gold rush, and the commitment many <strong>Cheyenne</strong> citizens made to<br />

the city’s prosperity led to <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s success. However, the military’s<br />

presence at Fort D.A. Russell and Camp Carlin also were quite<br />

important to the Magic City’s good fortunes.<br />

Opposite, left: A day after the<br />

statehood celebration the <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Daily Sun’s illustrated edition carried<br />

this article.<br />



Opposite, right: One of the original<br />

invitations to the Wyoming Statehood<br />

Celebration held on July 23, 1890.<br />



Left: The town of Bessemer also had<br />

plans to wrest the capital from<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, although this was near the<br />

end of the territorial period. The<br />

creators of this plan had high hopes<br />

for “The Future Metropolis, Great<br />

Manufacturing City and Capital of<br />

Wyoming.” The description<br />

continued: “The present capital of<br />

Wyoming, only six miles from the<br />

Colorado line and less than fifty miles<br />

from the extreme southeast corner of<br />

the Territory can not hope to retain<br />

for any great length of time the seat of<br />

government.”<br />


Right: A postcard image of the<br />

Wyoming Capitol after the second<br />

addition was completed in 1917.<br />




C h a p t e r 2 ✦ 3 3

3 4 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

CHAPTER 3<br />

A L L S A Y I T I S A N I D E A L F O R T<br />

One may speculate whether <strong>Cheyenne</strong> or Wyoming would exist today if not for the coming of the Union Pacific Railroad, but it is clear<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> would not be the city it is now without Fort D. A. Russell being established so near the future city. Different terms and phrases have<br />

been used to describe the relationship between the fort and the city. One word that can be used is that they are intertwined or another description<br />

is that they have formed a vital link with each other. Historian Gerald M. Adams, who wrote the book The Post Near <strong>Cheyenne</strong>: A <strong>History</strong> of Fort<br />

D.A. Russell, 1867-1930, described it as a “friendly and mutually rewarding relationship.” He also wrote the survival of the fort, now air force base,<br />

“owes much to its close proximity to <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.” Certainly, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> owes much to the military base as well.<br />

Not only did Grenville Dodge select the location for <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, he also chose the site for Fort D. A. Russell, named for Brigadier General David<br />

A. Russell, who died at the Civil War battle of Winchester. The Army had ordered Major General C. C. Augur, Commander of the Department of<br />

the Platte, to build a fort along the UPRR in order to protect the construction crews from attacks by Native Americans. He planned to build the<br />

installation about sixteen miles west of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, but Dodge persuaded him to choose a site about three miles from the fledgling city. The site<br />

selection not only provided for the protection of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> but also greatly assisted its economy. Not long after, the Army decided to locate a<br />

supply depot, officially named <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Depot, but better known as Camp Carlin or Camp Carling, on Crow Creek between the city and the<br />

fort. This decision also greatly benefited <strong>Cheyenne</strong> in many ways.<br />

The first troops to man Fort Russell, the Thirtieth Infantry, soon to be joined by the Second Cavalry, arrived in July and in mid-August 1867.<br />

The troops moved to the permanent location of the fort soon after and began to construct the wooden buildings as well as beginning social events.<br />

One visitor to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> in early November 1867, Frenchman Louis L. Simonin, whom we met in Chapter One, stayed one night at Fort Russell:<br />

“Fort Russell under the tent, 1 November. The most cordial hospitality awaited us here…. General Stevenson, who commands the fort, the major,<br />

the quartermaster, the officers, all have received us as friends. We have sat at their mess, we have toasted one another, and drunk the sacramental<br />

glass of whiskey without which no good acquaintance is made in the United States. We have been received with all possible honors. A sentinel<br />

watches our tent, in the evening we answer his call to return to our quarters.” The fort’s hospitality did not only apply to those born in France<br />

as the citizens of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> were often invited to the fort. During February 1868, Colonel Stevenson, the commander of the Thirtieth Infantry,<br />

invited many in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> to several social affairs at the fort. One was held on February 28 and the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Leader reported that everyone<br />

“enjoyed the hospitalities” shown to those attending and that “Long will the occasion be remembered by many who had the good fortune to be<br />

present.” These events were preceded by a month by the arrival of a band assigned to the Thirtieth. With such hospitality shown by the<br />

commander of the fort along with the many concerts by the band at the fort and in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, the strong social bond between the two<br />

communities was cemented.<br />

In early 1870, Fort D. A. Russell’s surgeon, C. H. Alden, wrote a report about the post, which provides some interesting information about life<br />

at the post, and not just about medical issues. Alden described the most common animals at the fort, “coyote, prairie dog, and striped gopher,”<br />

although antelope and “common deer” are seen at some distance from the fort. He also mentioned seeing many buffalo skulls, but he surmised<br />

live buffalo had not been in the area for “eight or ten years.” Alden did not seem too pleased with the weather: “The weather is at all times subject<br />

to sudden and great changes, and the wind blows often with much violence, particularly during the spring and fall.” He explained why the early<br />

fort was designed in a diamond pattern: “The diamond form of the parade was adopted not only for the sake of appearance, but to avoid the<br />

A bird’s-eye view of Fort Russell in<br />

1870 looking east which shows the<br />

diamond shape of the early fort.<br />


C h a p t e r 3 ✦ 3 5

Above: Fort D. A. Russell was named<br />

in honor of Brigadier General David<br />

A. Russell who fought for the Union<br />

Army during the Civil War. He was<br />

killed in the Third Battle of<br />

Winchester. General William<br />

Sherman, who had served under<br />

Russell, named the western forts and<br />

he named this new fort in Dakota<br />

Territory after Russell.<br />



Right: The quartermaster depot and<br />

commissary at Camp Carlin. J.F.<br />

Jenkins, the husband of Theresa<br />

Jenkins, worked in the commissary<br />

department and the couple lived at<br />

the camp.<br />




inconvenience of the very large enclosed space, which would have<br />

resulted from the ordinary rectangular or square space, owing to the<br />

great number of buildings required.” Alden also lamented the bad<br />

condition of the poorly constructed buildings including the hospital,<br />

which allowed snow to blow in because of warped shingles. He does<br />

end his report on a positive note, writing that mail from the post can<br />

reach Washington, D.C., in four days, that the fort has very good<br />

sanitary conditions, and a soldiers’ theater and officers’ theater brought<br />

much needed entertainment to the soldiers.<br />

Another description of the fort was written by Theresa Jenkins, who<br />

lived with her husband at Camp Carlin during the 1870s. Her<br />

husband, J. F. Jenkins, was the chief clerk in the commissary<br />

department at the supply depot. In her reminiscence from 1927,<br />

Jenkins talked about first seeing Fort Russell in 1877 describing the<br />

social life at the fort, which “was first class; we always had the military<br />

band, the best in the United States, to play for the dancing; tallow<br />

candles by the dozen set in tin reflectors, illuminated the old post<br />

ball.” She also wrote: “All have a good word to speak for it; all say it is<br />

an ideal fort; all are happy in its boundaries.”<br />

By the early 1880s, the government was closing a number of western<br />

forts, but Fort D.A. Russell did not meet that fate. By late 1882, the War<br />

Department determined that Russell would remain open. Resulting<br />

from this decision was the plan to tear down the hastily constructed<br />

wooden buildings and build brick buildings befitting a permanent post.<br />

This construction plan lasted into the 1890s. However, the permanent<br />

designation for the fort did not relate to Camp Carlin.<br />

A month after the establishment of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Fort Russell, the<br />

army established the quartermaster depot officially named <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Depot, but better known as Camp Carlin. Colonel Elias B. Carling<br />

selected the site along Crow Creek between <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and the fort and<br />

he served as the depot’s first commander. Because of the<br />

transcontinental railroad, supplies to western forts did not need to be<br />

transported entirely by wagon. They could be sent by rail to one point<br />

and then by wagon to the western forts. The army chose Camp Carlin<br />

because of its location adjacent to the Union Pacific, as a major<br />

distribution point. A spur line connected the depot to the main UPRR<br />

line once the tracks reached <strong>Cheyenne</strong> in November. During its time<br />

as the second largest quartermaster depot in the country, the camp<br />

supplied forts and field detachments in Wyoming, Nebraska, Idaho,<br />

Utah, and Colorado. The camp also furnished annuity goods to<br />

various Indian agencies.<br />

Nothing remains today of the once thriving camp, which employed<br />

approximately five hundred to one thousand civilians as teamsters,<br />

packers, laborers, blacksmiths, carpenters, and others. Among the<br />

many brown wooden buildings of the camp, sixteen warehouses held<br />

the many supplies while stables and corrals held the thousands of<br />

animals necessary for such an operation. Besides the warehouses, other<br />

buildings contained carpenter shops, blacksmith shops, saddle and<br />

harness shops, cook and bunk houses, among other activities. The<br />

location of the camp was a boon to <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s economy. The Army<br />

purchased items such as cattle, horses, coal, wood, vegetables, grain,<br />

and hay from local businesses.<br />

By 1890, the need for such a depot had disappeared. The railroads<br />

expanded, supplanting the need for mules, oxen, and wagons, and<br />

many of the western forts had closed because of the lessening conflict<br />

on the frontier. The army abandoned the camp in May 1890. The<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Sun provided an obituary for the camp in its July 1,<br />

1890, issue: “Camp Carlin, situated about a mile from the city will<br />

soon be effaced from its present site and its past activity forgotten.”<br />

The article continued: “The camp has a doleful, deserted appearance<br />

all of the buildings being empty and one or two buildings occupied.”<br />

The Army moved some of the buildings to Fort Russell, demolished<br />

some, and sold others for $50, some of which were moved to<br />

3 6 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Left: Camp Carlin before 1880.<br />




Below: Camp Carlin’s commanding<br />

officer’s quarters.<br />




<strong>Cheyenne</strong>. According to the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Leader issue of October 22,<br />

1890, “the abandonment of Camp Carlin gave <strong>Cheyenne</strong> a lot of ready<br />

made houses.” However, activity at Camp Carlin did not cease entirely.<br />

After the closure of Camp Carlin the army used the site for its mule<br />

pack service providing a holding area and training ground. Thomas<br />

Moore, better known as Colonel Moore, was given the title of chief<br />

packmaster of the Army during the late 1870s. He carried that title<br />

until his death on May 14, 1896, in his home at Camp Carlin. For<br />

years he was put in charge of the government pack trains and when the<br />

depot closed he was attached to Fort Russell. According to historian<br />

Gerald M. Adams, Moore was one of two iconic figures of the camp,<br />

the other being Steamboat (no, not that well-known bucking horse),<br />

but Steamboat the mule. Russell Tracy, who worked at the camp<br />

during the 1880s related the story about the not so famous Steamboat.<br />

“All who recall anything of Camp Carlin in those early days will<br />

remember ‘Steamboat’, the white mule who, without a driver brought<br />

the buckboard from the stable to the Quartermaster’s quarters or office<br />

every morning and stood waiting patiently hour after hour to be used,<br />

but when the 5 o’clock bell rang, he turned around and with head up<br />

and tail rising, would gallop to the barn and his oats.”<br />

As stated above, the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Sun worried the<br />

accomplishments of Camp Carlin would be forgotten, but the <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) took steps<br />

to ensure that did not happen. On September 30, 1928, the DAR and<br />

hundreds of people from <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Fort Russell, dedicated a<br />

“beautiful granite shaft” that stated: “Camp Carlin 1867-1890 Erected by<br />

C h a p t e r 3 ✦ 3 7

Right: Members of Wyoming National<br />

Guard leaving <strong>Cheyenne</strong> for the<br />

Philippines in May 1898. The<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Sun-Leader<br />

reported on May 11 that “Wyoming is<br />

at the head of the list, along with<br />

Montana. They were the first states to<br />

report their quota of volunteer troops<br />

duly mustered into the service of the<br />

United States…. The governor<br />

received a telegram asking how soon<br />

our battalion could start for San<br />

Francisco and he replied to Secretary<br />

Alger that they could go in 10 hours.<br />


Below: Colonel Jay L. Torrey at Fort<br />

D. A. Russell before the ill-fated<br />

journey to Florida.<br />


the DAR.” Warren Richardson donated the marker and the War<br />

Department and Brigadier General F. C. Bolles, commander of the fort,<br />

approved the location of the monument. The dedication program<br />

included music by the First Infantry Band and various speeches.<br />

Governor Frank Emerson spoke as did General Bolles, who thanked the<br />

DAR for their efforts to record and preserve history and he also said “a<br />

nation which fails to record its achievements and aspirations will soon<br />

pass away.” Elizabeth Ann Walton and Ruth Jenkins unveiled the<br />

monument. A history of the camp written by Theresa Jenkins was read<br />

during the ceremony. Jenkins was the state chairman of the committee<br />

on preservation of historic spots. Today, a different marker, put in place<br />

in 1957 by the Wyoming Historical Landmark Commission just off<br />

Happy Jack Road (WY 210) south of the base, explains the mission of<br />

the depot and where it was located.<br />

Camp Carlin provided many supplies to the various western forts<br />

involved with the conflicts with the Native Americans and Fort Russell’s<br />

troops also played a role in various conflicts in the West and beyond.<br />

From the beginning the fort’s troops guarded the railroad, escorted<br />

supply wagon trains, and participated in campaigns against the Native<br />

Americans. In May 1877, the Fifth Cavalry from the fort went north to<br />

Fort Fetterman to escort General Phil Sheridan to Montana. Part of the<br />

unit went to the Big Horn Basin in the territory looking for alleged<br />

“hostile” Indians, but found none. After the riot in Rock Springs on<br />

September 2, 1885, which resulted in the killing of twenty-eight Chinese<br />

by white miners, which has become known as the “Chinese Massacre,”<br />

companies of the Ninth Infantry from Russell went to the city to restore<br />

order. For the next thirteen years troops from the post served tours at<br />

Camp Pilot Butte set up to maintain peace in the area. That camp closed<br />

in 1898 with the onset of the Spanish-American War.<br />

Fort Russell quickly sent troops in April 1898 to join in the invasion<br />

of Cuba during the Spanish-American War and also trained troops for<br />

that conflict. The Eighth Infantry left on April 20 and the next month<br />

four companies of Wyoming National Guard assembled at the post in<br />

May and they took part in the Battle of Manila on August 13, 1898, the<br />

day after the armistice had been signed ending the war. Also in May, the<br />

Wyoming unit, the Second United States Volunteer Cavalry Regiment,<br />

mustered in at the post and the following month, led by Colonel Jay L.<br />

Torrey, a state legislator and Wyoming rancher, left for Florida with<br />

intentions to join troops in Cuba. Most of the 934 soldiers were from<br />

Wyoming. However, on their way to Florida, their train wrecked in<br />

Mississippi and the crash resulted in the deaths of five troopers and<br />

fourteen were injured, including Torrey. Once in Florida some in the<br />

3 8 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

egiment came down with serious fevers and the volunteer unit never<br />

reached Cuba. Shortly after the trouble with Cuba, Fort Russell troops<br />

went to the Philippines to deal with an insurgency. The 11th Infantry<br />

returned from the area in 1904.<br />

Another fortunate event for Fort Russell happened in 1902, when a<br />

military report recommended the fort be designated a permanent post.<br />

The Army also announced more buildings would be constructed at<br />

Russell, including family quarters, barracks, and a new home for the<br />

post commandant. Newspapers of the time gave full credit for the<br />

permanent designation and the new buildings to Senator Francis E.<br />

Warren, who was a senior member of the Senate Military Affairs<br />

Committee. Warren’s long-term support for the fort led to President<br />

Herbert Hoover changing the name of the fort to Fort Francis E.<br />

Warren on January 1, 1930, shortly after Warren’s death.<br />

During the 1910s, troops from the fort went south to the Mexican<br />

border and then to Europe. With the outbreak of the Mexican Revolution<br />

in 1911 troops from Fort Russell patrolled the border from 1912 to the<br />

outbreak of World War I. Beginning in 1917, troops from the post were<br />

dispatched to the European battlefront and Fort Russell also became a<br />

mobilization center and training facility for cavalry and field artillery<br />

units. After the war, routine duty returned and continued through the<br />

1930s, although during the Thirties extensive summer maneuvers were<br />

held at Pole Mountain thirty miles west of the fort. However, post<br />

activities quickly changed with the onset of World War II.<br />

Even before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7,<br />

1941, Fort Warren underwent substantial changes. In October 1940,<br />

General George C. Marshall announced the need for new construction<br />

at the fort, which had been selected as a Quartermaster Replacement<br />

Center. Construction quickly began on close to three hundred<br />

buildings to be located south of Crow Creek. The center was activated<br />

on February 1, 1941, and two months later its name was changed to<br />

the Quartermaster Replacement Training Center. The replacement<br />

center included three regiments, two with White troops and one for<br />

Black troops. The Army deactivated the training center on July 1,<br />

1943, only slightly more than two years after it began. However, three<br />

months later plans changed and the quartermaster training center<br />

continued and at this time more African American troops were added.<br />

The graduation of more than 122,000 quartermaster specialists at Fort<br />

Warren can be viewed as the most important contribution to the war<br />

effort by the post.<br />

Besides the Quartermaster Training Replacement Center, Fort<br />

Warren also officially became a Prisoner of War Camp on February 1,<br />

1945, although German and Italian prisoners had already been at the<br />

fort. Several hundred German prisoners had arrived at the fort in late<br />

1943 and in May 1944 Italian prisoners also were at the fort receiving<br />

non-combat training.<br />

Such an influx of soldiers at Fort Warren during the war years had<br />

a tremendous impact on <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. According to Wyoming historian<br />

T. A. Larson, the “economic consequences were tremendous. The<br />

soldiers and their dependents who came to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> to live or to visit<br />

spent uncounted millions of dollars in the city. The monthly Post<br />

payroll exceeded any industrial payroll in the state. Moreover, Post<br />

authorities expended vast sums in the city for food, coal, road and<br />

Above: Military maneuvers at the<br />

Pole Mountain Military Reservation<br />

in 1921.<br />




Below: A postcard showing the<br />

Quartermaster Replacement Training<br />

Center at Fort F. E. Warren during<br />

World War II.<br />




C h a p t e r 3 ✦ 3 9

Above: A postcard of the gymnasium<br />

at Fort F. E. Warren illustrating a<br />

boxing match.<br />



Below: Frontier Villa in 1944.<br />


building repairs, gasoline, oil, and other items. Undoubtedly booming<br />

Fort Warren spelled prosperity for <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and the state.”<br />

The economic impact of the fort’s activity was great for <strong>Cheyenne</strong>,<br />

but there also were other issues the city had to deal with during that<br />

time. The influx of thousands of workers to construct the<br />

Quartermaster Training Replacement Center stretched the available<br />

housing. Motels, trailer camps, and all available rentals were filled. The<br />

addition of other national defense workers for the Frontier Refinery,<br />

Union Pacific Railroad, United Airlines, and other industries led the<br />

federal public housing authority to construct three government<br />

housing projects starting in 1943. The three were Frontier Villa<br />

Estates, Careyville Acres, and Van Tassell Terrace. The expectation was<br />

the housing areas would only be needed until the end of the war, but<br />

the need for the housing continued.<br />

The January 14, 1945, issue of the Wyoming State Tribune described<br />

the three small temporary housing areas. The newspaper described<br />

them as small cities and they all scheduled recreational activities for<br />

the residents as well as child care for the mothers who worked in the<br />

defense industries. The units were described as “rentable temporary<br />

homes equipped with modern conveniences.” Frontier Villa served as<br />

the main office for the three projects. Army personnel as well as<br />

civilian employees at Fort Warren were able to rent units as were<br />

workers in the defense industries. The number of children in the area<br />

led each one to start their own kindergartens because of overcrowding<br />

in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s schools. Van Tassell Terrace also had a first grade. The<br />

communities organized Cub Scout, Girl Scout, and Boy Scout groups.<br />

“Each project has a diamond and a playground for the children…[and]<br />

the projects can also request the showing of films at their community<br />

halls.” The three projects also had their own newspapers, the Villa<br />

News, Careyville Comments, and Terrace Telenews. Careyville Acres had<br />

180 units and was located on east Pershing and the buildings were<br />

demolished in 1955. Frontier Villa was located to the north and east<br />

of the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days arena and was vacated during the<br />

spring of 1955. The housing project of Van Tassell Terrace was<br />

renamed <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Terrace in 1957, and changed and now operates as<br />

Pinewood Village Apartments. Robert F. Gish published the book<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming, 1940-1955: <strong>History</strong>—WWII Industries—Schools and<br />

Living in Government Housing Projects in 2016. The book includes<br />

interesting information about the three federal building projects and<br />

other topics during the war years and beyond.<br />

Several times during its long history Fort Russell and Fort Warren<br />

faced an uncertain future. This certainly was true after World War II.<br />

Just as Senator Francis E. Warren worked to keep the post open, in the<br />

postwar period Senators Joseph O’Mahoney and E. V. Robertson<br />

worked with the Secretaries of the Army and Air Force to ensure the<br />

fort would remain a part of the country’s defense. However, many in<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> felt the closure of Fort Warren was imminent so the<br />

Chamber of Commerce sent a seven-man delegation to Washington to<br />

4 0 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

“fight for the fort.” These efforts provided positive results and after a<br />

visit to the fort by President Harry Truman in June 1948, it was<br />

announced Warren would remain an active post and would become an<br />

Air Force base. The base’s mission was to serve as a technical training<br />

facility. Various training was instituted at the base, including the<br />

Aviation Engineer School in which “courses in engineering,<br />

construction utilities, and allied skills were taught.” Soon there were<br />

about twelve thousand airmen training on the base. Although the fort<br />

became an Air Force base in 1948, it took until 1949 for the<br />

Department of Defense to change the base’s name to Francis E. Warren<br />

Air Force Base. Ten years later the mission for the base changed<br />

dramatically, from a training base to one that held intercontinental<br />

ballistic missiles.<br />

On November 22, 1957, the Wyoming State Tribune carried an article<br />

stating Warren Air Force Base would soon become the headquarters of<br />

the Atlas ICBM missile headquarters under the Strategic Air Command<br />

(SAC). The Atlas missiles would be placed in various locations in the<br />

countryside. The base had the distinction of being the first<br />

transcontinental ballistic missile base in the country. The Wyoming Eagle<br />

on February 1, 1958, carried the story “Warren Becomes America’s First<br />

Long-Range Launching Base.” That day SAC assumed control of the<br />

base at 12:01 a.m. Major General David Wade, commander of the SAC<br />

1st Missile Division, spoke to a group of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> leaders and Air<br />

Force officials at the base. He said: “I don’t know who selected Warren<br />

for the missile site, but he should be decorated. The facilities are<br />

perfect.” <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Mayor Worth Story told Wade “<strong>Cheyenne</strong> is proud<br />

to have the first missile base in the country and proud to be the nation’s<br />

No. 1 target for enemy missiles.” The first Atlas missile arrived in<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> on October 4, 1959. In the following years the Air Force<br />

installed twenty-four Atlas missiles around Warren in northern<br />

Colorado, western Nebraska, and southeastern Wyoming.<br />

The designation of Warren as a missile base brought significant<br />

changes to the installation. The Air Force renovated airmen’s barracks,<br />

family housing, and many of the administrative buildings. The Air<br />

Force also purchased in 1958 from its civilian owners the Wherry<br />

Housing, which was constructed in 1951-1952. It was then used for<br />

military housing. One victim of the changes was the Warren Bowl, a<br />

sports complex constructed in 1930 with much help from <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

citizens. The military did not use it much after 1940, but <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

schools used it for sporting events until 1959.<br />

By 1961, the Air Force was ready to deploy the solid-fuel<br />

Minuteman missile. Hoping to bring the missile to Warren, Mayor<br />

Story and a delegation of members from the Chamber of Commerce<br />

traveled to Washington, D.C., to campaign for the new missiles. In<br />

March 1962, the Air Force announced Warren Air Force Base had been<br />

selected to be the support base for the missiles. Then Mayor Bill<br />

Nation was pleased the $158-million project would soon come to the<br />

Magic City. The Air Force activated the new Ninetieth Strategic Missile<br />

F. E. Warren Air Force Base became a<br />

Strategic Air Command Base in<br />

February 1958 because it was<br />

selected as the “Home of the Atlas.”<br />



C h a p t e r 3 ✦ 4 1

Above: The first Atlas missile, seen<br />

here on entering the front gate,<br />

arrived at F. E. Warren Air Force<br />

Base on October 2, 1959.<br />



Below: Wherry Housing, built during<br />

the early 1950s, was a civilian<br />

housing project until the Air Force<br />

purchased it in 1958.<br />



Wing on July 1, 1963. Two hundred of the missiles were located<br />

within a hundred miles of the base again in Wyoming, Colorado, and<br />

Nebraska. The Minuteman I missiles were replaced beginning in 1973<br />

with Minuteman III missiles. Another significant change to the<br />

country’s ICBM force occurred in the fall of 1986 when the Air Force<br />

began replacing fifty of the Minuteman missiles with the ten-warhead<br />

Peacekeeper missiles. While the Peacekeepers are no longer deployed<br />

today, the 150 remaining Minuteman III missiles are still active.<br />

Besides the deployment of the Minuteman missiles, the decade of<br />

the 1970s is also important in this history of the base for a quite<br />

different reason. In 1977, the National Park Service designated the<br />

base a National Historical Landmark. A large plaque designating the<br />

installation as a landmark was installed at the original entrance to Fort<br />

D.A. Russell near the base chapel. It still can be found just to the west<br />

of the chapel. Recognizing the historical significance of the base began<br />

already in the late 1960s when staff of the Wyoming Recreation<br />

Commission and the Wyoming State Archives and Historical<br />

Department undertook efforts to have the base listed on the National<br />

Register of Historic Places in 1969. Wyoming Senator Gale McGee at<br />

the time said: “The base highly merits this recognition for its long<br />

history and its progress from a frontier outpost to its position today as<br />

one of the foremost sentinels in our strategic defense systems.”<br />

The positive impact Fort D. A Russell, Fort Francis E. Warren, and<br />

F. E. Warren Air Force Base have had on <strong>Cheyenne</strong> is incalculable. For<br />

fiscal year 1976, Warren Air Force Base officials estimated the economic<br />

impact of the base on <strong>Cheyenne</strong> was $55,471,469, including a military<br />

payroll of $36,998,648. Six years later, for fiscal year 1982, Air Force<br />

officials estimated the economic impact at $156,095,269. That figure<br />

included the salaries for the military and civilian personnel assigned to<br />

the base as well as housing, clothing, food, medical needs, and taxes.<br />

The base accounted for approximately thirteen percent of Laramie<br />

County’s workforce. Of course, the longtime military installation had<br />

more than just economic impact on <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

4 2 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Left: The Quartermaster Corps from<br />

Fort Warren marching in <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Frontier Day’s Grand Entry in 1946.<br />



Below: One of the Atlas missiles<br />

entering Wyoming during the 1960s.<br />



As we have seen, the military helped maintain law and order in the<br />

newly constructed Magic City and helped fight fires as well, and certainly<br />

played an important role in the social activities of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, but one role<br />

not mentioned is the long-serving assistance the many military members<br />

stationed at the fort, now base, provided to <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s tourism industry.<br />

Right from the beginning of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days in 1897, the military<br />

personnel were integral to the success and growth of that most important<br />

local event. During the twentieth century <strong>Cheyenne</strong> advertised Warren Air<br />

Force Base as a place to see and visit. And just in the past few years the Air<br />

Force and the state of Wyoming have begun work to convert one of the<br />

remaining Peacekeeper sites as an historic site. All of these efforts have<br />

contributed to another of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s important industries, tourism.<br />

C h a p t e r 3 ✦ 4 3

4 4 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

CHAPTER 4<br />

G O O D F U N A N D G O O D M O N E Y<br />

The phrase, “Good Fun and Good Money,” seems to be the perfect description of a successful effort to bring tourists to a community. The event<br />

would have been entertaining to the tourists and would have provided an economic benefit to the city. This phrase was coined by Col. E.A. Slack,<br />

one of the originators of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days (CFD), describing the positive effects the first Frontier Day had on <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. The now longtime<br />

western celebration was first held on September 23, 1897.<br />

The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Sun-Leader described that first Frontier Day as “The Grandest and Most Successful Occasion Ever Celebrated in the West.”<br />

Thousands from <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, other Wyoming cities, along with residents of Nebraska and Colorado enjoyed the western festivities that day in late<br />

September. The Frontier Day Program described the “Reasons for Commemorating the Events and Struggles of Our Early Settlers.”<br />

Few comprehend the marvelous and rapid transformation of the Mountain State from the rude life and privations of pioneer days to the brighter phases<br />

of modern civilization. The story, graphically and truthfully told, would read like a tale of the Arabian Night. It is the romance of history….<br />

Let us be thankful that even now some of the old pioneers are with us, and can tell stories “stranger than fiction.” Let us be duly thankful we still have<br />

the scenery and atmosphere, if not the life of “the old days”….<br />

Let us treasure the old days in our memories, and, as far as possible, revive the thrilling incidents and pictures of life that my still be reproduced in form<br />

by those who were once actors in that period. Hence, let us make our “FRONTIER DAY” Wyoming’s great festival day, and every year will add to its pleasures<br />

and its historic value to coming generations.<br />

Members of the first Frontier Day<br />

Committee in 1897.<br />



As one can see, even during the planning for the first Frontier Day, the hope was the event would continue far into the future. However, one<br />

important question still remains, although it is highly unlikely it can ever be completely determined, and that is whose idea was it that brought<br />

Frontier Days into existence.<br />

The two contenders for the title of “originator” of the idea which led to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days are E. A. Slack, publisher of the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Sun<br />

Leader and the son of Esther Morris, and F. W. Angier, a Union Pacific Railroad passenger agent in 1897. Warren Richardson, the chairman of the first<br />

Frontier Days committee, wrote a three-page manuscript (unfortunately not dated) in which he clearly stated Slack “was the father of Frontier Days, who<br />

originated the idea.” He also wrote that Slack “for the first few years of its infancy stood by it through thick and thin, when it was attacked as a ‘rough<br />

neck show that should not be permitted’” and that he “was the greatest power behind the show, both with his mighty intellect, through the columns of<br />

his newspaper, and with his money when it was necessary….” According to Richardson, the idea came to Slack on the train between Greeley, Colorado,<br />

and <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. He had just attended Greeley’s celebration Potato Day along with Richardson. On the ride back to <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Slack said to Richardson:<br />

“Why cannot <strong>Cheyenne</strong> have some such a celebration once a year?” At that point Slack came up with the idea of “Frontier Day.” A few days later in his<br />

newspaper on August 27, 1897, Slack promoted the idea. He asked why shouldn’t <strong>Cheyenne</strong> have a celebration called Frontier Day.<br />

As Frontier Days approached every year it was not uncommon for a newspaper to write about how the idea of the event came about and the<br />

summer of 1911 was no exception. The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> State Leader on August 20, 1911, included the story, “Origin and Significance of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s<br />

Celebration,” which gave credit to Slack as the originator. However, nine days later, the Sun Leader published a letter from Angier, who at that<br />

time lived in California. He claimed, upon seeing Greeley’s Potato Day and Loveland’s Corn Roast, that he believed <strong>Cheyenne</strong> “ought to have a<br />

C h a p t e r 4 ✦ 4 5

Right: Shortly before the first Frontier<br />

Day took place, the Frontier Day<br />

Committee wrote to <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s<br />

mayor and city council asking if the<br />

city would “appropriate the sum of<br />

$250. In aid of the event.”<br />



Below: As can be seen on the back of<br />

the letter requesting for $250, the city<br />

“Rejected” the request.<br />



Pioneer or Frontier Day” and he approached Slack who quickly<br />

jumped on the bandwagon. Angier certainly thought people from<br />

Denver would attend by riding the Union Pacific thereby increasing<br />

traffic on the railroad. The following day, Slack’s newspaper carried<br />

that August 27 story mentioned earlier. Angier did give much credit to<br />

Slack, saying “but it is to his [Slack’s] efforts that the Frontier Days<br />

were put through and made a success. From the moment the idea of<br />

holding a celebration in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> was laid before Col. Slack, he<br />

become interested and had it not been for his enthusiasm and work,<br />

there never would have been a celebration in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.”<br />

Curiously, in the same issue of the Leader with the letter by Angier,<br />

there is a column titled “Father of the Idea,” which acknowledged the<br />

article in the paper on August 20 was erroneous when it claimed Slack<br />

had the idea for Frontier Days, that in fact it was Angier who<br />

“originated” the idea. Since the Leader was Slack’s paper, one historian<br />

assumed the column was written by Slack who finally acknowledged<br />

Angier’s role. However, Slack died four years earlier as an article in the<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Leader confirmed on March 24, 1907. Perhaps this<br />

question about the “originator” is not that important since Slack,<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s Mayor William Schnitger, Warren Richardson, and others,<br />

including Angier, in less than a month from the promotional article in<br />

the August 27, 1897, Leader, organized the first Frontier Day.<br />

That first Frontier Day was a success and laid the foundation for<br />

future western celebrations, even though the city council did not<br />

provide any money for the event. Before September 23, the Frontier<br />

Day Committee wrote to the city council requesting $250 for the first<br />

Frontier Day. The council rejected the appeal for funding. Even without<br />

the city funding the event was held at Pioneer Park and lasted six hours,<br />

during which the several thousand attendees who paid 15 cents for<br />

bleacher seats and 35 cents for grandstand seats enjoyed horse races,<br />

bucking broncos, steer roping, and a drill and tactics display enacted by<br />

soldiers from Fort D. A. Russell. After the event, the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Sun<br />

Leader commented that “vast numbers of visitors were so well satisfied<br />

with their visit” and the newspaper also stated: “An annual state festival<br />

has been successfully inaugurated.” The Leader even looked ahead to<br />

the following year, hoping for a two to three day event and one that<br />

would include Native Americans. However, the Wyoming Tribune,<br />

perhaps playing the role of contrarian, had a slightly different view of<br />

the first Frontier Day. “There are some features of such a program that<br />

do not meet with approbation of all, and yet it must be remembered<br />

that the celebration was intended, in great part at least, to reproduce<br />

scenes of a time which <strong>Cheyenne</strong> has long since outgrown. Our visitors<br />

know that the stage holdup, the vigilantes and the ox team departed<br />

our boundaries a generation ago….” The Tribune continued: “The<br />

influence of Frontier Day is not elevating in character,” but the<br />

newspaper did ask is Frontier Day “harmful to any extent?” One other<br />

concern the newspaper had was for the safety of the viewers,<br />

commenting about the danger of the “dozens of ladies” on the race<br />

4 6 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

track. Fortunately they were able to “grab their petticoats and safely get<br />

away from the deadly feet of wild and crazy bronchos….” Despite the<br />

modest protestations of the Tribune, the celebration continued and in<br />

1898 featured Native Americans and a noted western celebrity.<br />

The second Frontier Days took place on September 5 and 6, 1898.<br />

Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show joined the events that year, which started<br />

with a parade in downtown <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and then an audience of six<br />

thousand watched Buffalo Bill and his troupe. The rodeo began at one<br />

o’clock and everyone watched horse races, steer roping, and even a<br />

pioneer wedding of a Denver couple. Members of the Shoshone tribe<br />

from the Wind River Reservation exhibited war dances and took part<br />

in simulated attacks upon a wagon train. The participation of Native<br />

Americans has remained a constant in the celebration.<br />

As Frontier Days continued in its infancy, as CFD historian Robert<br />

Hanesworth titled these formative years, the celebration expanded and<br />

began to include entertainment in the evenings after the rodeo. Visitors<br />

enjoyed street dances, masquerade parties, and an opera was<br />

performed in the Opera House in 1902. Bill Barlow of the Douglas<br />

Budget attended the 1902 events and wrote about his experiences,<br />

which were quoted in the Leader: “Buffalo Bill may roam the world<br />

over with a beer bottle imitation of erstwhile life on the frontier, and<br />

rival towns may steal our cow pinch talent and make a play for first<br />

place; but <strong>Cheyenne</strong> can simply sit back in her saddle and smile—she’s<br />

it!” The following year, however, the question of who would lead the<br />

effort arose.<br />

The Wyoming Tribune, which a few years earlier had questioned some<br />

parts of the first Frontier Day, in April 1903 surveyed <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

businessmen about whether the event should continue. The newspaper<br />

found overwhelming support from the business community. The survey<br />

came about because “little has been done toward definitely outlining the<br />

plans for the conduct and management of this year’s show.” George<br />

Thompson related in his interview that “Frontier is one of the best things<br />

that Wyoming has in its history as an advertisement for <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and its<br />

people and it ought to be continued in some way for the benefit of the<br />

city.” Sam Bergman gave an enthusiastic “I want it.” The Bon Shoe and<br />

Clothing Company stated it has “helped every merchant.” J. F. Jenkins said<br />

“The money left here [during] Frontier days is being distributed among<br />

our merchants all the following winter.” F. A Roedel said Frontier Days “is<br />

the best thing that <strong>Cheyenne</strong> can have to advertise and bring people here.”<br />

“Frontier days’ celebration has done more to bring <strong>Cheyenne</strong> to the front<br />

ranks of western cities than anything that has ever been undertaken in the<br />

country” stated L. Manewal. The survey only identified one “knocker,” as<br />

described by the Tribune. “I don’t want to see another Frontier in<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>. I have to work overtime, hire additional men and my business<br />

is all upset as long as the rush lasts. I do make money out of the visitors<br />

who come here but I don’t like the extra rush of work.” The newspaper<br />

did not list the person’s name, but commented: “He actually said it. We’ll<br />

tell you his name if you call at the office.”<br />

Even with the positive comments from <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s businessmen, there<br />

was a rumor that 1903 would be the last celebration, although the<br />

success that year of Frontier Days put an end to that. The Laramie County<br />

Times of Wheatland wrote that there “has been some talk that this would<br />

be the last Frontier celebration at <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, but the unqualified success<br />

of the celebration just ended makes it possible to continue the carnival<br />

for an indefinite period.” To no one’s surprise, Frontier Days continued<br />

and to ensure its longevity a corporation was formed to produce and<br />

manage the event. Three years later, however, the Board of Trade in<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> agreed to run the show. The board soon became the Industrial<br />

Club which then became the Chamber of Commerce. In 1990, <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Frontier Days finally became an independent corporation.<br />

As Frontier Days continued it became a national attraction. One<br />

Illinois resident, Carl Palasca, enjoyed the celebration in August1910<br />

and wrote about the experience. He took the train to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and his<br />

Left: An envelope from the Executive<br />

Committee of Wyoming Frontier Day<br />

which included an invitation to the<br />

first celebration.<br />




Below: Ribbon from the first<br />

Frontier Day.<br />




C h a p t e r 4 ✦ 4 7

Above: A photograph titled “Watching<br />

the Show” included in a souvenir<br />

booklet about Frontier Days published<br />

by J. E. Stimson.<br />



Below: Another photograph from the<br />

Stimson souvenir booklet of the<br />

“Cowgirls’ Race.”<br />



first comment about the city was: “The blue, blue sky and the<br />

Wyoming breezes which seemed to burn my face to a crisp.” He was<br />

able to find a place to stay at “2020 Evans St.” and felt fortunate to find<br />

a place and he commented that the city was “simply over-run with<br />

typhoid fever cases, due, I was informed, to the city water.” He arrived<br />

the day before Frontier Days began and he described the city as when<br />

“all Wyoming puts on ‘chaps’ to give its visitors a glimpse of the West<br />

as it used to be, and old <strong>Cheyenne</strong> drops back twenty years in one<br />

night and forgets that street cars and automobiles are running in its<br />

streets. The Frontier Days Celebration has ceased to be Wyoming’s—it<br />

belongs to the whole great West.” He said <strong>Cheyenne</strong> is known as the<br />

“Short Grass State.” That year former president Theodore Roosevelt<br />

attended as he had in 1903 and according to Palasca there were signs<br />

around the city saying “Wyoming’s Choice 1912.” Palasca sat through<br />

the seven hours of exciting events and he concluded his reminiscence<br />

this way. “As I stepped from off the bleachers that night I couldn’t help<br />

but feel with a slight tinge of regret that I wasn’t part of this glorious<br />

West. I turned to that ever lovin’ plan of mine and said, ‘I’ve seen<br />

enough Wild West for today but I’m coming out here again to see this,<br />

if I have to walk. Finis.’”<br />

It was not until after World War I that, according to Robert<br />

Hanesworth, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days finally reached manhood and<br />

then in 1926, maturity. By 1920, the celebration claimed to be “the<br />

Greatest Frontier Celebration on Earth.” It has the “Biggest Show, more<br />

Indians, Better Program,” and was the show which “made the Cowboy<br />

Famous.” Two years later CFD in its advertising stated “More Cowboys,<br />

Cow Girls, Indians, Wild Horses, Steers and Thrilling Feats of<br />

Horsemanship Than Seen In All Other Shows.” The 1922 show also was<br />

filmed for advertising purposes. The promotion for the film said that “If<br />

you have not seen ‘Frontier Days’ you have not seen Wyoming.” The film<br />

presented CFD “as a revivification of the old days with the veterans of<br />

the plains in the grandstand and their grandchildren in the arena.”<br />

4 8 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

As <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days continued, it expanded on the western<br />

image in its advertising. The 1924 program stated: “Frontier Days is the<br />

oldest, the biggest, the best of ‘wild west’ festivals. If you haven’t seen it,<br />

you haven’t seen America…. <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days—at <strong>Cheyenne</strong>—<br />

presents your only opportunity to see the West as it was, and the West<br />

as it was, was sure worth seeing.” A year later, mentions of the “virile”<br />

character of the Western frontier were added to the advertisements. By<br />

this time some described Frontier Days as “a Wyoming institution, a<br />

powerful influence in making men mindful of the meaning of ‘Winning<br />

the West,’ in keeping alive the spirit and traditions of this country.”<br />

During the 1930s, a typical show contained not only all of the roping<br />

and dogging one could handle, but also “Cowgirls Relay Race, Indian<br />

Buck Race, Cowgirls Cowpony Race, Indian Squaw Race, and Indian<br />

War Dances.”<br />

CFD added another showpiece, the parade, in 1926. Parades had<br />

been part of several Frontier Days earlier, but this was the first parade<br />

that became the foundation for the parades continuing today. This<br />

spectacle in 1926 was described as a “pageant of western transportation”<br />

and was, and still is, a popular event. It had “an appeal more romantic<br />

than that of the wild west sports.”<br />

Western rodeos during this time were numerous and the<br />

competition for the tourist dollar intense. During the mid-1920s,<br />

when Chicago also presented “a revival of the early Western days,” a<br />

Wyoming newspaper chided the Midwestern city: “and here you come<br />

along and ‘tout’ yourself as ‘the roundup and rodeo capital of the<br />

country.’ Naturally the query, ‘How do you get that way!” Many<br />

Wyoming towns also held rodeos, some even called Frontier Days, but<br />

the supporters of CFD declared “some fairly good, others miserably<br />

bad,” but, of course, the others could not compare to <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s.<br />

According to a Frontier Days program: “Some of these imitations are<br />

called Wild West shows, Roundups, Rodeos, Stampedes and the like,<br />

but not one of them compares with <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s Frontier Days, ‘The<br />

Daddy of Them All.’”<br />

During the early 1930s, because of the country being in the throes of<br />

the Great Depression, it became apparent to the Frontier Committee that<br />

expenses needed to be cut. In 1932, the event lost slightly more than<br />

seven thousand dollars and the Frontier Committee realized it would<br />

take quite a bit of funding to maintain and operate the park in the coming<br />

Top: Former President “Teddy”<br />

Roosevelt attended the 1910 Frontier<br />

Days celebration and can be seen here<br />

enjoying the rodeo although he is<br />

difficult to distinguish in the stand.<br />

Carl Palasca from Illinois tried to get<br />

as close to Roosevelt as he could<br />

during the morning parade and he<br />

commented in his description of<br />

attending Frontier Days: “Here, with<br />

Governor Brooks and Senator Warren<br />

of Wyoming and Senator Borah of<br />

Idaho, Colonel Roosevelt reviewed the<br />

greatest Wild West parade of history.”<br />




Middle: A Frontier Days event held at<br />

the state Capitol, c. 1910.<br />




Bottom: Native Americans preparing<br />

to participate in a Frontier Days<br />

parade, ca. 1910.<br />




C h a p t e r 4 ✦ 4 9

Left: Helena Bonham in 1920 traveled<br />

east as a goodwill ambassador at the<br />

behest of Governor Robert Carey to<br />

deliver invitations to that year’s<br />

Frontier Days. She visited<br />

Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., and<br />

New York among others. In New<br />

York she commented on riding on<br />

Fifth Avenue: “Fifth avenue reminds<br />

of the time I was caught in a cattle<br />

stampede on my horse…. I had to<br />

ride with them for miles before I<br />

could work my out of the herd, and<br />

bucking the traffic on the avenue<br />

looks just as hard.”<br />



thousands of soldiers would train at Fort Warren and thought the event<br />

would be a welcome change from their training. The Frontier<br />

Committee admitted every soldier in at no charge to one of the rodeos.<br />

As Hanesworth wrote in his book about the history of Frontier Days:<br />

“With the war successfully concluded, the committee was proud of their<br />

part in keeping the men at the base happy and contented. Thus ‘The<br />

Daddy of ‘Em All’ survived its third war without missing a performance.”<br />

During its long history, Frontier Days had attracted many celebrities.<br />

Besides Buffalo Bill and Theodore Roosevelt, these included presidential<br />

Right: The song “Frontier Days in Old<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>” by Joe Eicker and Glenn<br />

Wells promoted Frontier Days.<br />



year. That year Ed Storey had been the general chairman, having served<br />

earlier as the treasurer for the Frontier Committee. He proposed a<br />

reduced budget and that Frontier Days institute a bond sale to secure<br />

financing for future celebrations. Storey even pledged to buy the first<br />

$100 bond. His efforts restored confidence in the future of Frontier Days.<br />

Another boost to Frontier Days occurred in 1935 when the Frontier<br />

Committee brought in Sally Rand, a burlesque dancer and actress and<br />

perhaps best known for her fan dance. The year before she performed at<br />

the Chicago World’s Fair. Frontier Committeeman John Pickett saw Rand<br />

perform her fan dance in Chicago and since some on the committee had<br />

heard complaints about the lack of evening entertainment he thought<br />

Rand’s act might be popular. Of course, such entertainment did bring<br />

some criticism, but William Fairchild, a Night Show Committeeman, put<br />

her act into appropriate context when he said even though Rand was not<br />

western her act was typical of old West entertainment.<br />

With the onset of World War II there was some concern about<br />

whether Frontier Days should continue during the war years. However,<br />

after Robert Hanesworth contacted the War Department and asked if the<br />

celebration should continue, the answer was yes, that Frontier Days<br />

could even assist the war effort. The War Department knew that tens of<br />

5 0 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

candidate Wendell Wilkie, Lawrence Welk, Fred MacMurray, Tim McCoy,<br />

Lorne Greene, Arthur Godfrey, Bruce Cabot, known for his role in the<br />

1930s film King Kong, and Guy Madison, who played Wild Bill Hickok<br />

on television, among many others. Another well-known western<br />

character who attended Frontier Days in 1948 was the Lone Ranger.<br />

The Lone Ranger’s visit to Frontier Days was, in fact, his second trip<br />

to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> during the summer of 1948. He first visited the Capitol<br />

City at the end of June. However, this was not the Lone Ranger played<br />

by Clayton Moore on television beginning in 1949. This was the actor<br />

who was the last radio voice for the character, Brace Beemer. The<br />

Ranger was in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> to celebrate the fifteenth anniversary of the<br />

radio show. For the day, June 30, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> was renamed Lone Ranger<br />

Frontier Town and the Ranger led an impromptu parade followed by<br />

children in downtown where some business owners put log fronts on<br />

their buildings in honor of the occasion. Governor Lester Hunt<br />

welcomed the Lone Ranger on the Capitol steps where ABC radio<br />

network broadcast a Lone Ranger show. Then, the following month,<br />

the opening day of Frontier Days was dedicated to the Lone Ranger.<br />

Also celebrated during the western celebration was fifteen-year-old<br />

Kenneth Friendly of Cleveland, who won the Lone Ranger Frontier<br />

Town contest. His prizes were a complete western outfit from Western<br />

Ranchman Outfitters and an all-expense paid trip to Frontier Days.<br />

Frontier Days continues to uphold the idea of “Good Fun and Good<br />

Money.” An integral part of the celebration is the many volunteers who do<br />

whatever is necessary to ensure the event goes on every year. About<br />

twenty-five hundred volunteers actively participate every year. As in 1903,<br />

when <strong>Cheyenne</strong> businesses made it clear Frontier Days was so important<br />

to the success of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, today businesses and their employees donate<br />

hundreds of hours of volunteer time. Shirley Flynn described the<br />

volunteers as the “glue” that makes the annual event possible.<br />

Other western-themed events could also be considered as positive<br />

events for <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. In July 1947, the Warner Brothers movie<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> premiered in the Magic City at the Lincoln Theater. Planning<br />

for the event took six weeks. The stars of the film, Janis Paige and<br />

Dennis Morgan, were welcomed by Governor Lester Hunt. A parade<br />

with the stars in the lead left the Union Pacific Depot and went up<br />

Capitol Avenue. The Chamber of Commerce had decorated the streets<br />

with flags. The thousands of spectators were feted with buffalo burgers<br />

and many enjoyed square dancing. Another such event took place in<br />

1964, when the movie <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Autumn premiered, again at the<br />

Lincoln Theater. The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Eagle covered the arrival of the film’s<br />

stars on Friday, October 1. They took a Union Pacific train from<br />

Denver and arrived at the UP Depot. <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Mayor Bill Nation and<br />

the East High School Band welcomed Carroll Baker, Karl Malden,<br />

Ricardo Montalban, and Pat Wayne at the depot. Jimmy Stewart<br />

arrived the following day by plane. On Saturday a parade started at<br />

2:30 led by Stewart and Baker followed by the East High School Band<br />

Left: An undated Frontier Days<br />

parade in downtown <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />




Right: Frontier Days participants<br />

riding a <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Deadwood<br />

Stage with the former <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Club<br />

in the background, c. 1910.<br />




C h a p t e r 4 ✦ 5 1

Left: A promotional photograph of<br />

Sally Rand.<br />


Top, right: A sign believed to be from<br />

pre-1941 Frontier Days.<br />



Bottom, right: A Miss Frontier outfit<br />

belonging to Louise Holmes. This is<br />

the only black Miss Frontier Outfit in<br />

Frontier Days history.<br />



and a Union Pacific float and a Fort Laramie band. The film premiered<br />

that evening.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> had other tourist attractions to promote besides Frontier<br />

Days and movie premieres. During the 1950s, the Chamber of<br />

Commerce published a brochure which included a tour of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

Tourists could visit Warren Air Force Base (this was when the base was<br />

still a training base, not a missile base) then go to Frontier Park to see<br />

the Jim Baker Cabin. Baker was a mountain man and in 1917 the state<br />

of Wyoming relocated the cabin in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> “to be maintained as a<br />

memorial to Wyoming’s frontiersmen and pioneers.” The cabin today<br />

is near its original location at the Little Snake River Museum in Savery,<br />

Wyoming. The route would then take tourists past the airport, the<br />

Capitol, the public library, St. Mary’s Cathedral to the Union Pacific<br />

Depot, where a Deadwood stagecoach was on display. The route then<br />

went over the Viaduct and eventually to the Wyoming Hereford Ranch<br />

and then back to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> to Holliday Park and finally to the<br />

Chamber of Commerce Building. With stops, the tour would take<br />

about three hours and thirty minutes. The brochure also described<br />

Jackalopes as “elusive, small creatures found only in Wyoming. This<br />

animal resembles a large hare or rabbit—except for its horns.” It could<br />

also be mistaken for a small antelope except for its rabbit-like ears.<br />

“Live specimens are almost impossible to obtain, but with luck you<br />

may be able to find in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> a mounted jackalope head—an ideal<br />

trophy for the small den that will not accommodate moose and elk!”<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> certainly is fortunate to have <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days<br />

and the many other attractions for tourists. In 1957, the <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Chamber of Commerce listened to a California industrial expert<br />

discuss how to improve the downtown. Stuart P. Walsh of Industrial<br />

5 2 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Top, left: The Lone Ranger on June<br />

30, 1948, celebrating the designation<br />

of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> as the “Lone Ranger<br />

Frontier Town.” In the photograph the<br />

Lone Ranger is broadcasting one of his<br />

shows. Unfortunately, the microphone<br />

hides the face of Brace Beemer as did<br />

the mask.<br />



Top, right: <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s trophy for<br />

being named a “Lone Ranger Frontier<br />

Town” in 1948 is held by the Old<br />

West Museum.<br />



Bottom, left: Carroll Baker and<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Mayor Bill Nation at the<br />

premiere of the movie <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Autumn on October 2, 1964, at the<br />

Lincoln Theater.<br />




Bottom, right: A postcard image of<br />

the Wyoming Hereford Ranch, one of<br />

the stops on tourist tours during<br />

the 1950s.<br />




Planning Associates said “the names of Wyoming and <strong>Cheyenne</strong> are<br />

‘magic words’ to many tourists and that they expect to see ‘something<br />

different’ when they get here from other states.” That certainly holds<br />

true today and besides the many attractions <strong>Cheyenne</strong> is also fortunate<br />

to be at the crossroads of a vibrant transportation system, which has<br />

been a major contributor to <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s long-term success.<br />

C h a p t e r 4 ✦ 5 3

5 4 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

CHAPTER 5<br />

N O W W E S P I N A B O U T I N F A S T T R A I N S , A U T O M O B I L E S , A N D A I R P L A N E S<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> has been fortunate to be at the crossroads of a number of transportation systems. We have already seen the importance of the Union<br />

Pacific Railroad to the city and the state, but other railroads have also been beneficial to the Magic City and its economy by fostering the area’s<br />

ranching, farming, and mining communities. The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> & Northern Railroad which began in 1886 followed the Black Hills Stage Route and<br />

in 1893 was reorganized as the Colorado & Southern Railway company in 1899. In 1908, the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad (CB&Q)<br />

purchased the railroad. Also purchased by the CB&Q that year was the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Burlington Railroad which reached <strong>Cheyenne</strong> late in 1887.<br />

Besides the railroads, also instrumental to the Magic City have been the highway systems, and, for a time, being part of the transcontinental air<br />

route. Not only have these systems played important roles in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, but so have the local transportation systems which started with wagons<br />

and stagecoaches and then followed by trolleys and buses.<br />

Perhaps the first indication of the coming wave of automobile travelers was the 1908 New York to Paris race. Sponsored by the New York Times<br />

and the Paris newspaper Le Matin, the race’s organizers selected a route that went through <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and southern Wyoming. Six cars, three from<br />

France and one each from Germany, Italy, and the United States, competed in the 22,000-mile race across three continents. The race began in<br />

New York City at Times Square on February 12. On March 8, the Thomas Flyer, known as the “American Car,” entered Wyoming and the city of<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> was ready to give the car and its driving team a warm welcome.<br />

The banner on page one of the Monday, March 9, issue of the Wyoming Tribune read: “When It Comes to Boosting a Good Thing, the <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

People, Like the American Car, Lead the Race.” A “well dressed, good humored crowd” greeted the American Car. The “travelers were extended<br />

every courtesy and welcome that a hospitable western town could devise….” That evening the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Industrial Club held a reception and<br />

dinner for the American Car’s racing team. The driver, Montague Roberts, spoke at the banquet and mentioned seeing his first cowboy with “those<br />

fussy pants” and he commented about the roads and the western welcomes, “as we get west the roads get worse, but the hearts get bigger.” Already<br />

the American Car was far ahead of its adversaries and it went on to win the race, arriving in Paris on July 30. This automobile race made it clear<br />

to many that a good road system was certainly needed in the country.<br />

Five years later, on July 1, 1913, the Lincoln Highway Association formed with the goal of a transcontinental highway “from the Atlantic to the Pacific.”<br />

The association also wanted the highway to serve as a memorial to President Abraham Lincoln. The route for the highway was designated and announced<br />

in September that it would run through <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and other southern Wyoming towns. By October 1913, the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> State Leader, understanding the<br />

value of such a road to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and the rest of the state, commented that the association was an “effective force for good roads.” That same month the<br />

Lincoln Highway Association encouraged the cities and towns along the route to celebrate their selection to be included in the highway’s route. Wyoming<br />

Governor Joseph M. Carey issued a proclamation and encouraged the affected communities to engage in an “old-time jollification” which would include<br />

bonfires and other forms of rejoicing on October 31. The November 1 issue of the Wyoming Tribune described the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> celebration: “As clocks in<br />

the city struck eight there burst forth a shrieking, roaring chorus of steam whistles,” and the article continued that the sky was ablaze with a “monster<br />

bonfire” near the Plains Hotel. That Halloween night there were four hundred miles of bonfires across southern Wyoming. The association also requested<br />

state capitals along the highway to rename the major street Lincoln Way or Lincolnway. <strong>Cheyenne</strong> was the first to do so.<br />

Two years later, in 1915, a well-known author traveled the Lincoln Highway as far as <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. Emily Post, probably best known for her<br />

writing about etiquette, also wrote novels and articles for various magazines. She wrote a series of stories about her trip from New York to San<br />

When the “American Car” in the New<br />

York to Paris Race entered <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

in early March 1908 hundreds of the<br />

city’s citizens greeted the driver and<br />

his crew. The Capitol Garage<br />

serviced the car during its short stay<br />

in the city.<br />



C h a p t e r 5 ✦ 5 5

Left: A postcard view of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s<br />

Transportation Center with the Union<br />

Pacific Depot in the background and<br />

the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy<br />

Railroad Station on the left. The<br />

Albany Hotel is on the right.<br />




Right: Colorado and Southern<br />

Railroad Station and Burlington Bus<br />

Depot, <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />




Below: J. E. Stimson photographed the<br />

just opened <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Municipal<br />

Campground in 1920. Tens of<br />

thousands of travelers stayed at the<br />

campground that year.<br />



Francisco for Colliers Magazine. Upon arrival in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Post’s<br />

companions apparently were disappointed not to find a wild west<br />

cowtown they believed <strong>Cheyenne</strong> to be. According to Post: “If you<br />

think <strong>Cheyenne</strong> is a Buffalo Bill Wild West town, as we did, you will<br />

be much disappointed, though it may be well not to show the<br />

progressive citizens of that up-to-date city that you hoped they were<br />

still galloping along wooden sidewalks howling like coyotes.” Upon<br />

leaving <strong>Cheyenne</strong> the disappointed group left the Lincoln Highway<br />

and traveled south to complete their journey to San Francisco.<br />

Wyoming continued to support the Lincoln Highway and by 1920<br />

the Lincoln Highway Association noted in a report that the state “was<br />

one of the most thoroughly interested” in the highway and “desirous<br />

of bringing about its prompt improvement.” The state expected to<br />

spend around five million dollars on road construction in 1920<br />

according to the association’s report. “Twenty-two miles of new gravel<br />

work was accomplished on the Lincoln Highway between <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

and Laramie in 1919.” It was not until 1931 that the entire highway<br />

was completely paved.<br />

The improvements completed on the highway led to increased<br />

traffic to and through Wyoming. Many communities, including<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, built municipal camping grounds for the new automobile<br />

5 6 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

travelers. <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s campground, near Sloan’s Lake, was completed<br />

in 1920 and according to the May 28 issue of the Wyoming Tribune, the<br />

campground was ready for use. Apparently a reporter from the Tribune<br />

visited the campground in late July as Frontier Days approached and<br />

the July 28 issue included an article titled “’Roamerville’ Is Name of<br />

New Suburb on North of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.” The story indicated there were<br />

763 tents in the camp at that time. The “inhabitants” of the tent city<br />

decided after their evening meal to engage in “their usual evening of<br />

jollification” to choose a mayor, to conduct a census, and select what<br />

they considered a “suitable name” for the transient community. E. B.<br />

Summers of Oklahoma was chosen to be the mayor of the city which<br />

that evening held 2,544 citizens. The name chosen was “Roamerville,”<br />

perhaps an obvious choice. However, the name “Nowood” came in<br />

second “because although the city is supposed to furnish wood for the<br />

campers there is a great scarcity of this article and campers are tearing<br />

their hair at times in an effort to locate one small stick.” The article<br />

continued that because of the lack of wood there were no bonfires that<br />

night and the campers used the headlights of their cars to light their<br />

tents. E. L. Emery of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and a member of the Wyoming Good<br />

Roads Association served as the campground’s “information bureau”<br />

and commented “that Henry Ford has made a nation of gypsies out of<br />

the American people.” By early September, Emery estimated that since<br />

May 15 approximately sixty thousand tourists briefly stayed in<br />

Roamerville. As the years went by travel along the Lincoln Highway<br />

continued to increase and motor hotels sprung up to meet the<br />

needs of the motoring public. At the same time that tourists stopping<br />

in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s municipal campground were desperate to find enough<br />

wood for a campfire, the city was preparing for a different form of<br />

transportation to invade the Magic City, that being the up and coming<br />

airplane.<br />

Although a few airplanes had landed in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> before 1920, it<br />

was airmail service which brought the first organized air service to the<br />

capital city. The first Post Office Department’s airmail service began on<br />

May 15, 1918, with a route between New York and Washington, D.C.<br />

It quickly expanded to Chicago and other cities and in October 1919<br />

it was announced <strong>Cheyenne</strong> would be on the transcontinental airmail<br />

route. On October 6, Senator Francis E. Warren wrote to Wyoming<br />

Governor Robert D. Carey: “I want to offer through this means my<br />

congratulations upon the selection of Wyoming as one of the States<br />

through which the main route of the transcontinental aerial post is to<br />

pass.” Warren was pleased <strong>Cheyenne</strong> already was located on the “main<br />

line” of the Lincoln Highway, but saw the air route as being important<br />

to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> as well. Wyoming Congressman Frank Mondell also<br />

wrote the governor about the good news and realized the national air<br />

route “emphasizes the increasing importance and utilization of the<br />

ships of the air.” He also hoped that aircraft development eventually<br />

would allow members of Congress to “get home more frequently.”<br />

For the airmail service to go through the capital city, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> first<br />

had to provide an airport. The Army offered to enlarge and improve a<br />

landing area on the eastern edge of Fort Russell that would meet the<br />

Air Mail Service standards, but the War Department did not allow the<br />

Top: The Indian Village Motel was<br />

one of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s many motels. This<br />

postcard stated the nightly rate was<br />

$4.00 per night for two persons and<br />

also remarked that this was “one of<br />

America’s finest, newest and most<br />

unique motor courts, catering to the<br />

discriminating guests—all<br />

accommodations are steam heated<br />

and insulated and have showers or<br />

tubs and showers. Also telephones,<br />

circulating hot water.” The hotel was<br />

recommended by Duncan Hines, who<br />

in 1940 published a book Lodging<br />

for a Night. A few years earlier he<br />

published a book recommending<br />

restaurants across the country.<br />


Bottom: Lincoln Court was described<br />

as Wyoming’s finest motel and only<br />

nine blocks from downtown <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />


C h a p t e r 5 ✦ 5 7

Left: Wyoming Trading Post located<br />

on South Greeley Highway.<br />




Right: Andy Roedel’s drugstore where<br />

many of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s pilots gathered to<br />

discuss their exploits.<br />


Army to make it a city air field. But the city owned two hundred acres<br />

of land about a mile north of downtown and that became the location.<br />

The city quickly began work on the field so <strong>Cheyenne</strong> would be ready<br />

for the first transcontinental air service on September 8, 1920.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> had a number of advantages in being selected as part of<br />

the air route. It was the state capital, had level terrain, was midway<br />

between Omaha and Salt Lake City, and was on the route of the Union<br />

Pacific Railroad. Being near a railroad was important because until<br />

night flights became part of the air route across Wyoming in 1924 the<br />

mail was transferred to railroads to be transported at night.<br />

Airmail service to and from <strong>Cheyenne</strong> began on September 8 at<br />

5:30 a.m. At that time two open cockpit DeHaviland Four (DH-4)<br />

airplanes took off from <strong>Cheyenne</strong> for Omaha and Salt Lake City. The<br />

DH-4 could fly at 110 miles per hour and up to 10,000 feet while<br />

carrying up to 500 pounds of mail 300 miles. <strong>Cheyenne</strong> became the<br />

most important point along Wyoming’s route and was named a<br />

division point. The Air Mail Service had six planes in the city and six<br />

pilots, two for service between <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Salt Lake City, two for<br />

the run to Omaha, and two in reserve. These early pilots were aviation<br />

pioneers and they risked their lives every day.<br />

From the beginning it was clear the air travel would be difficult across<br />

Wyoming because of the cold weather, snowstorms, and extreme wind.<br />

Westbound planes between <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Laramie faced the most<br />

difficult weather and wind. Airmail officials worked with the weather<br />

bureau to plan schedules when the wind would be at its lowest, but, of<br />

course, the weather cannot always be predetermined. Jack Knight, one<br />

of the airmail pilots, had an interesting experience as he left <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

headed west one day. He took off with winds from the west registered at<br />

around eighty miles per hour on the ground. “He headed west, the wind<br />

directly on his nose, flew for an hour and forty minutes, and was still not<br />

out of sight of the field: He turned to come back and the wind blew him<br />

past the field before he could get headed west again, and it took another<br />

half hour to work his way into a landing.” Some pilots had more<br />

dangerous adventures than just fighting the Wyoming wind.<br />

A number of the pilots crashed as they delivered the mail. James P.<br />

Murray, who was the first pilot to reach <strong>Cheyenne</strong> from Omaha on<br />

September 9, crashed into Elk Mountain a month later. Murray was<br />

flying east to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> on October 20 and as night approached he lost<br />

his bearing in a snowstorm and crashed into Elk Mountain. Even<br />

though his plane was demolished, he was uninjured, although quite a<br />

ways from the nearest town, Arlington. He stayed by his plane and the<br />

mail during the night and part of the next day, but realizing help might<br />

not be on the way he walked, according to the story in the <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

State Leader, “seventeen weary miles” to Arlington where he found a<br />

ride to Rock River where he telegraphed the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> airmail office.<br />

The response to Murray informed him his father had just died in<br />

5 8 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Connecticut so he boarded a train and headed east. Others, such as<br />

James F. (Dinty) Moore, were not as fortunate. On December 24, 1923,<br />

Moore left North Platte, Nebraska, at 7:30 a.m. heading for <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

Just over an hour later he crashed into a hill two miles west of Egbert,<br />

Wyoming. A Union Pacific crew witnessed the crash and went to the<br />

site and extracted the pilot from the plane and took him to the UP<br />

depot in Burns and then to the Burns hospital. Moore died that day. He<br />

apparently was flying low to avoid strong headwinds and when he<br />

came to the hill he was not able to clear it. He was the fourth pilot in<br />

the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> division who died up to that time.<br />

During the second half of the 1920s, Congress decided to turn the<br />

airmail service over to private carriers when it passed the Airmail<br />

(Kelly) Act of 1925. By mid-1927, all of the flights by the Air Mail<br />

Service were discontinued. The passage of the Air Commerce Act by<br />

Congress in 1926 allowed subsidies to assist in the commercial airlines<br />

operational costs. The Boeing Airplane Company of Seattle was<br />

granted the Chicago to San Francisco route and began operations in<br />

July 1927 with the name Boeing Air Transport Company. The company<br />

changed its name in 1929 to the United Aircraft and Transport<br />

Company and established its main overhaul base in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

Originally employing seventy-five people, the work force grew to five<br />

hundred. In 1929, the company introduced the new Boeing B-9 trimotor<br />

plane on the Chicago to San Francisco route. The new plane<br />

could hold the mail and fourteen passengers and the company was<br />

committed to commercial airline travel. The new planes could fly over<br />

most mountain ranges, but because the compartments were not<br />

pressurized, the airline continued to fly across southern Wyoming<br />

rather than over the higher mountain ranges west of Denver.<br />

A <strong>Cheyenne</strong> businessman who took a great interest at the time in<br />

the city’s aviation activity was Andy Roedel II. He operated the Roedel<br />

Drugstore then on 17th Street. According to a history of the Air Mail<br />

Service written by Roedel in 1945 (and published in the Wyoming State<br />

Tribune in April 1968), many of the pilots during the heyday of<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> aviation would gather at the drugstore and swap stories.<br />

One story in Roedel’s account concerned a pilot who had become<br />

acquainted with a woman who lived in the second story of a house on<br />

Evans Street: “It was his custom to fly up this thoroughfare at a level<br />

permitting him to wave at her through the window as he passed. This<br />

bit of diversion caused great consternation, not only amongst the other<br />

residents of the street, but also to the superintendent who expressed<br />

the hope that the girl never moved downstairs.”<br />

One <strong>Cheyenne</strong> pilot who often visited Roedel’s was Ralph Johnson.<br />

After graduating from Purdue University in 1930, he became an Army<br />

pilot and then in 1933 began flying out of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> for National Air<br />

Transport (later absorbed by United Air Lines) as a “mate,” another<br />

word for co-pilot of the planes carrying mail and passengers.<br />

According to Johnson, the mate had to transfer the mail from trucks to<br />

the Tri-Motor plane and then before the plane took off he had to go<br />

“through the cabin and strap everybody in” and once airborne “the<br />

Above: A postcard of the Air<br />

Mail Service Station at the<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Airport.<br />


Below: In the early years of the<br />

airmail service in Wyoming, before<br />

the advent of night flying, the mail<br />

was transferred to wagons so that<br />

the mail could be delivered to the<br />

Union Pacific Railroad for<br />

nighttime transport.<br />


C h a p t e r 5 ✦ 5 9

Above: A postcard image of<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s airport, c. the 1930s. The<br />

back of the card described the airport<br />

as “one of the highest rated and most<br />

important air stations in America.<br />

Constantly being enlarged and<br />

improved it handles great numbers of<br />

mail and passenger planes daily.”<br />


Right: The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Modification<br />

Center celebrated the 3500th plane<br />

modified.<br />


next matter of duty, after a little while was to go back and pacify the<br />

passengers and pass out box lunches. This went on for a year or two<br />

and then stewardesses started to appear.” Johnson then went on to<br />

become the airline’s chief test pilot and during World War II he<br />

developed and tested many air safety programs.<br />

During the 1930s, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> became one of the major aviation<br />

centers in the country, seemingly leading the nation into the air age.<br />

Airmail contracts and subsidies from the federal government<br />

stimulated the growth of airline companies. Beside United, other<br />

airlines began flying in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> during the late 1920s and early<br />

1930s. Western Air Express (Western Air Lines) won the contract for<br />

the airmail route from <strong>Cheyenne</strong> to Denver. By 1935, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> had<br />

twelve United arrivals and departures every twenty-four hours, as well<br />

as many flights from Western and other airlines. Just as <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s<br />

future as a major air center seemed secure, new airplanes came on the<br />

scene in the late 1930s. Planes such as the DC-4, with pressurized<br />

cabins and the ability to fly at 18,000 feet, spelled the end for<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> as a commercial air center. The airlines began to move from<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> to the larger air travel market at Denver. World War II,<br />

however, brought new activity to <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s airport and temporarily<br />

delayed <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s abandonment as a major air center.<br />

World War II brought new life to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> as an aviation center.<br />

Flying restrictions along the Pacific coast led United Airlines to move<br />

its pilot training school to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> in 1942. Already operating a<br />

repair base for its commercial airliners in the capital city, United<br />

expanded on this by opening a modification facility for bombers. Done<br />

under contract for the Army, the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Modification Center<br />

installed new guns and instruments on B-17s and B-24s. Working on<br />

more than 5,000 bombers during the war years, the center employed<br />

6 0 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

upwards of 1,600 workers, half of them women. Combining these<br />

employees with United’s other personnel in the city, its total work force<br />

numbered nearly twenty-three hundred. Adding United’s people with<br />

those working for the Civil Aeronautics Authority, Inland Air Lines,<br />

and Plains Airways, the payroll generated through aviation in<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> was well into the millions.<br />

The end of the war brought dramatic change to the air industry in<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>. The modification center closed and United Airlines began<br />

relocating its facilities to other cities. The flight training school moved<br />

to Denver, and the overhaul base went to San Francisco. In 1947,<br />

however, United did open a stewardess training school in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

Ultimately relocated to Chicago in 1961, this school trained more than<br />

83,000 women during its 14-year tenure in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

Besides the trains, highways, and airplanes that allowed people to<br />

travel through <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and the rest of the state, the capital city also<br />

had several local modes of transportation. On April 24, 1887, the city<br />

granted the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Street Railroad Company a franchise to operate<br />

a trolley. A month earlier the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Sun recommended that<br />

the streetcars be powered by electricity. The newspaper wrote: “It is a<br />

clear case that the car-horse must soon be an obsolete animal.”<br />

Some Eastern cities had used this electrical method in their trolley<br />

systems, but the car-horse would still be around for several more years<br />

in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

Construction of the trolley system began on August 9, 1887, and at<br />

that time thirty men were constructing the track from the UP Depot.<br />

The route started at the UP Depot to Capitol Avenue and then from<br />

Capitol Avenue westward to Ferguson (Carey) Street, north to<br />

19th Street, east to Capitol Avenue, and then north to the Capitol and<br />

the cemetery. Later more routes were added which were color coded<br />

red, yellow, and green running in separate parts of the city.<br />

Unfortunately, after four years it was clear the company was not<br />

profitable and the streetcar company closed. This was not the end of<br />

streetcars in the city, however, and the next time there was no need for<br />

the car-horse combination.<br />

In June 1908, the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> City Council granted to Thomas<br />

Cosgriff a twenty-five-year contract to provide an electric street railway<br />

as well as granting him the electric light and power franchise. The<br />

agreement stated that the one-way fare would be five cents and not<br />

more than ten cents to Fort D. A. Russell and that the interval between<br />

cars would be no longer than one-half hour. In July, the <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Electric Railway Company accepted the franchise granted to Cosgriff.<br />

Then in August, the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Leader reported the four new<br />

Above: A sketch by Grace Schaedel of<br />

an advertisement for the Warren<br />

Mercantile Co. (on left) showing the<br />

UP Depot in the background with one<br />

of the horse-drawn trolleys in the<br />

center. The sketch is from an old<br />

aluminum tray.<br />


Left: The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Electric Railway<br />

Company began operating on August<br />

19, 1908. Here is one of the first<br />

trolleys traveling down Ferguson<br />

Street (Carey Avenue) that day.<br />


C h a p t e r 5 ✦ 6 1

streetcars would be operational by August 19, just in time for Frontier<br />

Days. Electric wire known as “the feeder,” which had been strung from<br />

the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Light & Fuel’s company’s plant, powered the cars. The<br />

streetcars reached the fort a few weeks later. Like the car-horse version<br />

of the streetcar system, the electric version was not long lasting and<br />

only stayed in business until 1924 when the Dineen family purchased<br />

the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Street Railway Company and began the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Motor<br />

Bus Company headquartered at 415 West 16th Street. During World<br />

War II, the company used 41 buses and employed 76 drivers, but the<br />

company ended service in 1957.<br />

Besides the public means of transportation, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> also boasted<br />

more singular means. The city had both bicycle and motorcycle clubs.<br />

The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Bicycle Club held a reception in November 1897<br />

Above: Lower Capitol Avenue showing<br />

one of the electric trolleys.<br />




Right: A bus of the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Motor<br />

Bus Company parked on Carey<br />

Avenue during the 1930s. Note the<br />

bucking bronco symbol on the bus.<br />



6 2 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

during which they celebrated the fifteenth anniversary of the club.<br />

Attending the event were three “wheelman” who were charter<br />

member of the club, Frank Bond, James Gross, and Frank Clark. Bond<br />

spoke about the early travails about riding a bicycle in the city. The<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Sun-Leader reported on his talk: “The trials and<br />

vicissitudes that the wheel enthusiasts suffered in the early days were<br />

mentioned. When wheeling first commenced, the rider with his high<br />

bicycle was considered a nuisance and there seemed to be a universal<br />

sentiment against him. The most generous considered it a great<br />

sacrifice to give a wheelman a part of the road. And hence going on the<br />

principle that ‘in union there is strength’ the riders of <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

organized for self-protection.” Apparently bicycling had improved<br />

greatly by 1897 as the club had one hundred members and was seen<br />

as the “most successful and best known [bicycling club] in the state.”<br />

The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Motorcycle Club was quite active by 1910. During<br />

March of that year the club sponsored a race from <strong>Cheyenne</strong> to Pine<br />

Bluffs and back and about twenty members participated on their<br />

“gasoline bicycles.” The club featured another race reported by the<br />

Wyoming Tribune in September. The only problem during the race was<br />

the number of automobiles who got in the way of the riders. The<br />

newspaper did report that the motorcycle club “is composed of some<br />

of the best persons in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and is growing fast.”<br />

All of these forms of transportation have assisted in helping<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> become a thriving and prosperous community. However,<br />

there are many other aspects to a community which have assisted in<br />

making Wyoming’s capital an attractive and interesting place to live for<br />

its many citizens.<br />

Top, left: The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Bicycle Club<br />

posed for this undated photograph.<br />


Top, right: The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Motorcycle<br />

Club in front of the Wilson and Lee<br />

Bicycle Shop in 1910.<br />



Below: The interior of a <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

motorcycle shop, c. 1910.<br />



C h a p t e r 5 ✦ 6 3

6 4 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

CHAPTER 6<br />

O N E O F T H E B E S T S H A D E D A N D M O S T A T T R A C T I V E T O W N S I N T H E W E S T<br />

Robert Hanesworth, the intrepid chronicler of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days, discussed the community of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> in a 1929 article titled<br />

“<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Where the West Begins, Enterprising City” in the Wyoming Labor Journal. He wrote: “Founded at a location devoid of trees, <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

today is one of the best shaded and most attractive towns in the west, it broad avenues and streets being lined with rows of cottonwoods and<br />

bordered by well groomed parkings and lawns.” He went on to describe the “paved” streets, the city’s school system, its “pure mountain water,”<br />

healthy climate, the local farming and ranching activities, its aviation prowess, recreational facilities, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days, Fort D. A. Russell,<br />

and various sidetrips to such places as Fort Laramie and Rocky Mountain National Park. Such was Hanesworth’s description of the <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

community and certainly, all of these items did describe the community, but other things could also be included like local businesses, parks,<br />

museums, hospitals, and perhaps even some unusual goings on in the Magic City.<br />

Local parks certainly help define any community and <strong>Cheyenne</strong> today has many wonderful parks as the city did in the past. The Union Pacific<br />

donated the land for the first city park in 1867, but the four square blocks stood mostly treeless until 1882. The park was located between what<br />

is today Capitol and Warren avenues and 22nd and 24th Streets, where the Supreme Court Building and the Barrett Building now stand. A water<br />

system was developed in 1882 which brought water to the area so on Arbor Day that year, May 6, hundreds of trees were planted. According to<br />

the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Daily Leader, the city purchased 250 trees for planting, but the newspaper stated “it will be a long while before the park will become<br />

a shady spot unless more than 250 trees are planted.” So the Leader, understanding the city provided the water system and could not afford to<br />

buy more trees, encouraged <strong>Cheyenne</strong> citizens contribute a tree and “set it in place” or purchase a tree and have someone plant it. The paper<br />

hoped “the park will thereafter become a fine leafy retreat in the warm summer days, and it will become indeed, a place of beauty.” The Leader<br />

also included a list of names of leading citizens who would take part in the May 6 planting. Included on the list were F. E. Warren, F. A. Meanea,<br />

W. C. Irvine, and Mrs. Gaylord Ball. Some of the other <strong>Cheyenne</strong> parks are Brimmer Park, Frontier Park, Holliday Park (formerly Minnehaha<br />

Park), and American Legion Park, although the city in 1975 gave this land to the state of Wyoming for the second governor’s mansion. There are<br />

many others and one of the most well-known is Lions Park.<br />

Located north of 8th Avenue and east of Carey Avenue, as early as 1880 the park was known as a “driving park.” Various activities took place<br />

at the park, including a trotter race in early September 1880. Four horses had been registered including J. J. Cook, Clytie, and Lady Sweetzer. A<br />

more recent occupant of the park and better known to many <strong>Cheyenne</strong>ites, although no longer there, was Kiddieland.<br />

What became known as Kiddieland began in 1950, although an earlier attempt at adding an amusement park took place in 1942. In August<br />

of that year, Sydney A. Schwartz submitted to the city council a plan converting Lion’s Park into a public amusement park with five percent of<br />

the gross receipts to go to the city of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. The rides would be south of Sloan’s lake and Schwartz asked for a five-year lease. The businessman<br />

said he would also construct a dance hall and amusement center, but asked that the city install the lights and the water and sewer connections.<br />

Schwartz stated that “as a permanent resident of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and a member of the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Chamber of Commerce he is eager to furnish<br />

Cheyennites and men at Ft. Warren with entertainment and amusement ‘equal’ to those furnished in cities many times the size of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.”<br />

However, Schwartz’ plan brought out protests from nearby homeowners and the Lion’s Club, which earlier had taken on the responsibility for<br />

beautification of the area around the lake. The civic organization responded that Lions Park “has been and will be a civic enterprise and the<br />

placing of commercial ventures at the location would not be in accord with the Lions’ idea of how it should be operated.” The city council quickly<br />

Photographer C. D. Kirkland in 1890<br />

published a booklet titled <strong>Cheyenne</strong>,<br />

the Magic City. He included<br />

photographs of many different views<br />

of the capital city, including this image<br />

of six churches. He went on to<br />

describe the Magic City stating that<br />

“the city has street railways, gas and<br />

electric light, complete sewerage and<br />

water systems, free mail delivery, free<br />

State and county libraries, public<br />

parks, a fine opera house and all of<br />

the conveniences of a modern city.<br />


C h a p t e r 6 ✦ 6 5

Top, left: <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s High School<br />

shown on a postcard. The building<br />

behind the school is the Carnegie<br />

Library on Capitol Avenue.<br />




Top, right: A postcard of Johnson<br />

School which was built in 1923 and<br />

used as an elementary school. It<br />

became a Junior High School in 1947<br />

when 7th grade was added, and 8th<br />

and 9th grades were added shortly<br />

thereafter.<br />




Bottom, left: Nurses in front of St.<br />

John’s Hospital (not dated). The<br />

hospital was founded just at the turn<br />

of the century after a typhoid<br />

epidemic. The first matron and<br />

superintendent was Sarah Jane<br />

McKenzie. Shortly after she arrived in<br />

1901 she organized a training school<br />

for nurses which became the School of<br />

Nursing that year.<br />


Bottom, right: A postcard of<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s Memorial Hospital.<br />




and unanimously voted down the proposal. A few years later, however,<br />

a much smaller amusement area was approved.<br />

In 1949, the city installed a miniature train ride in Lions Park just to<br />

the east of Sloan’s Lake and a local business saw an opportunity for<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>. According to the Wyoming State Tribune, the following year,<br />

the Lions Park Amusements, Inc. took over the “midget train” and added<br />

other amusements to the area. The new recreational facilities opened on<br />

May 30 with a kiddie boat ride, a kiddie auto ride, and merry go round<br />

along with the train and twelve Shetland ponies. The company also<br />

opened an $8,000 “beautifully decorated with knotty-pine” pavilion,<br />

which offered coffee, sandwiches, and other items. C. C. Miller managed<br />

the facility, which paid five percent of the gross of the concession stand<br />

and rides to the city. The contract stated once the rides were paid off the<br />

city would receive twenty-five percent of the gross. The money received<br />

by the city went to financing other improvements in the city’s park<br />

system. At its beginning, the recreational facility was not known as<br />

6 6 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Top: The Mexican Athletic Club,<br />

c. 1950.<br />


Bottom, left: Capitol Pay Less Drug<br />

Store used this postcard to advertise<br />

the business.<br />




Bottom, right: This is a color postcard<br />

image of a <strong>Cheyenne</strong> candy store.<br />

J. E. Stimson took this photo of the<br />

Ellis Candy Store in 1897. The Ellis<br />

family operated the store from 1869<br />

to 1921 although the store was in<br />

business until the 1930s. The Ellis<br />

family also ran an oyster parlor for<br />

a time.<br />




C h a p t e r 6 ✦ 6 7

Right: Francis Brammar<br />

photographed these two young ladies<br />

enjoying the boat ride at Kiddieland.<br />


Below: Toonerville Trolley lunch car<br />

photographed, c. 1944. The diner was<br />

located at 1906 East Lincolnway.. The<br />

large building in the back was the<br />

roller skating rink.<br />


Kiddieland. It was also known as Playland. The amusement area no<br />

longer exists and the Kiwanis Community House now stands where<br />

once kids rode ponies, a train, and boats.<br />

In every community there are some unforeseen happenings. Who<br />

could have guessed that in December 1957 <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Mayor Val<br />

Christensen would appear on the Groucho Marx television game show<br />

You Bet Your Life. This surprise appearance provided him an<br />

opportunity to promote the Magic City. The mayor, who described<br />

himself as a milkman not a politician (he was the owner of the Plains<br />

Dairy System on East 21st Street), competed with a bathing suit clad<br />

Miss Ohio, and when Marx finally gave a little time to Christensen he<br />

described <strong>Cheyenne</strong> as “the finest city in the United States” and also<br />

said “our parks are beautiful.”<br />

Another interesting episode happened twenty years earlier in<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>. During August 1939, a young <strong>Cheyenne</strong> woman, Wilma<br />

Jacobson, was determined to show “that modern men and women are<br />

not ‘just softies’ as so many people think.” She wanted to prove young<br />

women could dress and live like Tarzan in the wild. Jacobson wore a<br />

burlap sack and went into the Horse Creek country northwest of<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> with a knife and bow and arrow for three days and nights.<br />

The Wyoming Eagle documented her exploits. Dubbed “Tarzana,” she<br />

returned to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> after seventy-five hours of living like the famed<br />

fictional character. Jacobsen was “bronzed, but suffering no ill effects<br />

from her ‘exile’….” Tarzana commented “I don’t think I’ll do a thing<br />

like that again, but I wouldn’t be afraid to if it were ever necessary.”<br />

Her adventure was documented by the Eagle and by long-time<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> newspaper photographer Francis Brammar.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> has been fortunate to have had community newspapers<br />

dating to the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Leader in September 1867. All of the city’s<br />

newspapers have been important gatherers of the news and they have<br />

been ably accompanied by a number of wonderful photographers who<br />

have preserved much of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s visual history. Francis Brammar is<br />

one of that distinguished group as are Joseph E. Stimson, Joseph<br />

Shimitz, and LeClercq Jones.<br />

For fifty years, beginning in the 1920s, Brammar photographed<br />

Frontier Days, local celebrities, events such as the Blizzard of ’49 and<br />

6 8 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Top, left: The long-standing Plains<br />

Hotel. Designed by William Dubois,<br />

the hotel, which cost $200,000 to<br />

construct, opened on March 11, 1911.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> journalist Dazee Bristol<br />

described it as “grand and imposing in<br />

appearance, magnificent in its<br />

appointment and furnishings….<br />

Nearly all rooms have baths and ALL<br />

have telephones.”<br />


Top, right: The Kitchen Orchestra, the<br />

Ladies Auxiliary to the UP Old<br />

Timers Club.<br />



Bottom, left: Mack Fishback<br />

photographed the Wayne Daniel<br />

Service station c. 1937. The station<br />

was at 2000 Carey Avenue.<br />


a protest against the staging of missiles at Francis E. Warren Air Force<br />

Base as well as daily goings on of the city. He also captured on film<br />

many of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s children and many local women, taking what<br />

some would consider “cheesecake” photos.<br />

Bottom, right: Wilma Jacobson<br />

(Tarzana) spoke to <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s Fire<br />

Chief Edward P. Taylor before heading<br />

into the wilderness for seventy-five<br />

hours. After she returned she began<br />

work at Wyoming’s Game and Fish<br />

Department. At the same time as<br />

Tarzana’s adventure, John B. Schaeffer<br />

planned the same feat, but went to the<br />

Pole Mountain area. He wore a burlap<br />

breech cloth during his time in the<br />

wild. Upon his return to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> he<br />

said: “Nuts to the Wild Life.”<br />



C h a p t e r 6 ✦ 6 9

Right: After fire destroyed the Inter-<br />

Ocean Hotel, Harry Hynds built the<br />

Hynds Building in that location at 16th<br />

Street and Capitol Avenue. He realized<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> needed more office space.<br />




Below: The Kassis Dry Goods Store at<br />

17th Street and Carey Avenue carried<br />

ladies and children’s clothing and<br />

household furnishings.<br />



Stimson, born in Virginia in 1870, arrived in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> in 1889 and<br />

began taking portraits in his studio. In 1901, the Union Pacific hired<br />

him as a photographer and Stimson was able to travel and photograph<br />

anything and everything along the UP corridor. The state of Wyoming<br />

also recognized his talents and his skill as a scenic photographer<br />

and hired him to produce five hundred images of the state to exhibit<br />

at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in 1904. Fortunately, because he<br />

was based in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> he documented many views of the city through<br />

the 1940s.<br />

Born in Iowa, Joseph Shimitz moved to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> in the early<br />

1900s. While here he bought some photography equipment and<br />

started his photography business. Many of the early photos of<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> were taken by Shimitz. Many of his images appeared in the<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Trade Review, a promotional publication produced from 1910<br />

to 1915. Shimitz’ career only lasted until the late 1920s when he died<br />

from cancer. The photographs of Brammar, Stimson, and Shimitz are<br />

all held by the Wyoming State Archives. Of course, there are many<br />

other photographers who captured the history of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, such as<br />

C. D. Kirkland, W. G. Walker, Mack Fishback, and more recently,<br />

LeClercq Jones.<br />

Le Jones, a Wyoming native and owner of Frontier Printing,<br />

photographically documented downtown <strong>Cheyenne</strong> for several<br />

decades. He compiled a forty-volume library that included his many<br />

photographs, sketches, and many clippings of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s history. He<br />

was always willing to share his knowledge with classes at Laramie<br />

County Community College as well as with many of the city’s service<br />

clubs and he also produced many calendars which featured the city’s<br />

historic buildings. His wonderful collection is located at the Laramie<br />

County Public Library.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> is extremely fortunate to have had so many newspapers,<br />

photographers, and other chroniclers of the city’s history as well as<br />

institutions which have actively preserved the history such as the<br />

Wyoming State Archives, the Wyoming State Museum, the Old West<br />

Museum, the Laramie County Public Library, the American Heritage<br />

Center at the University of Wyoming, and others. Without all of these<br />

entities books such as this one would not be possible and the Magic<br />

City would be poorer for it.<br />

7 0 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

A map of Laramie County from 1916.<br />


C h a p t e r 6 ✦ 7 1

Looking north toward the state capitol<br />

from the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Depot Museum,<br />

c. the mid-2000s.<br />


7 2 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y


It has been 150 years since the Union Pacific Railroad founded <strong>Cheyenne</strong> on what was described as the desolate plains. There was no<br />

guarantee the city would become a permanent city as a railroad end-of track town. Some of those town lasted only a few months, but <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

had several advantages.<br />

The UP made a commitment to the Magic City as did the military with the establishment of Camp Carlin and Fort D. A. Russell and now<br />

F. E. Warren Air Force Base. Also important were the citizens who saw a future in the community and quickly began starting businesses and<br />

creating schools and churches. We know some of the pioneers such as Joseph Carey, Francis E. Warren, M. E. and Amalia Post, J.F. and Theresa<br />

Jenkins, and E. A. Slack, but, of course, there are so many more. <strong>Cheyenne</strong> also had a fortuitous location and became an important part of a<br />

transcontinental transportation corridor.<br />

The Magic City also played a significant role in the granting of rights to women. <strong>Cheyenne</strong> was the location for the passage of the 1869 woman’s<br />

suffrage law which made Wyoming the first territory to grant full suffrage to women and allow them to hold public office. The city also allowed<br />

women to serve on juries in 1871, albeit only briefly. In 1889, Wyoming’s Constitution, crafted by members of the Constitutional Convention<br />

held in the Capitol, guaranteed women in the new state would continue to be able to exercise the vote. More than three decades later, Nellie<br />

Tayloe Ross from <strong>Cheyenne</strong> became the country’s first female governor. However, one can argue that even with these impressive firsts as far as<br />

women’s rights are concerned, that the city has been behind the times and not followed through with the idea of the “Equality State” because it<br />

took until 2017 for there to be a woman mayor. That may be true, but it certainly seems appropriate that during this 150th anniversary of the<br />

founding of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> that city now has a woman mayor, Marian Orr, and that she will lead us into the beginning of the next 150 years.<br />

E p i l o g u e ✦ 7 3


Adams, Col. Gerald M., USAF (Ret.). “The Air Age Comes to Wyoming.” Annals of Wyoming, 52, No. 2: 18-29.<br />

Adams, Col. Gerald M., USAF (Ret.). The Post Near <strong>Cheyenne</strong>: A <strong>History</strong> of Fort D. A. Russell, 1867-1930. Boulder, Colorado: Pruett Publishing<br />

Company, 1989.<br />

Adams, Col. Gerald M., USAF (Ret.). Fort Francis E. Warren and the Quartermaster Corps in World War II, 1940-1946. Fort Collins, Colorado: Citizen<br />

Printing, Inc, 1994.<br />

Arnold, Bess and James L. Ehernberger. Union Pacific Depot: An Elegant Legacy to <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. <strong>Cheyenne</strong>: Challenger Press, 2001.<br />

Castenada, Sue. One-Shot Brammar: The Photography of Francis S. Brammar, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Newspaper Photographer 1930s-1980. Wyoming State<br />

Historical Society, 2010.<br />

Centennial Historical Committee. <strong>Cheyenne</strong>: The Magic City of the Plains. <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Centennial Committee, 1967.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>. Wyoming State Archives. Ilma Mund Papers, J. Jordan Letter.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>. Wyoming State Archives. Carl Palasca Papers.<br />

Dubois III, William Robert. “A Social <strong>History</strong> of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming, 1875-1885.” Master’s thesis, University of Wyoming, 1963.<br />

Dubois III, William and Shirley Flynn. The Plains Hotel. <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming: Unicover Corporation, 2002.<br />

Ewig, Rick, ed. “Behind the Capitol Scenes: The Letters of John A. Feick.” Annals of Wyoming 59: 2-14.<br />

Ewig, Rick, Linda G. Rollins, and Betty Giffin. Wyoming’s Capitol. <strong>Cheyenne</strong>: Wyoming State Press, 1987.<br />

Fleming, Sidney Howell. “Solving the Jigsaw Puzzle: One Suffrage Story at a Time.” Annals of Wyoming 62: 23-72.<br />

Flynn, Shirley. <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days. Library of Congress Bicentennial Project, 1999.<br />

Flynn, Shirley. <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s Historic Parks from Untamed Prairie to a City of Trees. <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming: <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Historic Preservation Board, 2001.<br />

Flynn, Shirley E. Let’s Go! Let’s Show! Let’s Rodeo! The <strong>History</strong> of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days. <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming: Wigwam Publishing Company,<br />

LLC, 1996.<br />

Hanesworth, Robert D. (Bob). Daddy of ‘Em All: The Story of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days. <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming: Flintlock Publishing Company, 1967.<br />

Ivie, Thomas. “A Great Day: The Official Wyoming Statehood Celebration.” Annals of Wyoming 87, No. 3: 29-36.<br />

Kassel, Michael E.. “Thunder on High: <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Denver and Aviation Supremacy on the Rocky Mountain Front Range.” Master’s thesis,<br />

University of Wyoming, 2007.<br />

Kassel, Mike. “The United Airlines Stewardess School in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.” Annals of Wyoming 75, No. 4: 11-18<br />

Laramie. American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming. Mark Chapman Papers.<br />

Laramie. American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming. James Ehernberger Papers.<br />

Laramie. American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming. Robert Hanesworth Papers.<br />

Laramie. American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming. J.S. Palen Papers.<br />

Larson, T. A. Wyoming’s War Years, 1941-1945. <strong>Cheyenne</strong>: Wyoming Historical Foundation, 1993.<br />

Larson, T. A. <strong>History</strong> of Wyoming. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1965.<br />

Launius, Roger D. and Jessie L. Embry. “<strong>Cheyenne</strong> versus Denver: City Rivalry and the Quest for Transcontinental Air Routes.” Annals of Wyoming<br />

68, No. 3: 8-23.<br />

Mackey, Mike. Meeting in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>: Wyoming’s Constitutional Convention. Sheridan, Wyoming: Western <strong>History</strong> Publications, 2010.<br />

7 4 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Massie, Michael A. “Reform Is Where You Find It: The Roots of Woman Suffrage in Wyoming.” Annals of Wyoming 62: 2-22.<br />

O’Neal, Bill. <strong>Cheyenne</strong>: A Biography of The “Magic City” of the Plains. Austin, Texas: Eakin Press, 2006.<br />

Schrock, Heyward D. “A Room for the Night: Evolution of Roadside Lodging in Wyoming. Annals of Wyoming 75, No. 4: 31-39.<br />

Stelter, Gilbert A. “The Birth of a Frontier Boom Town: <strong>Cheyenne</strong> in 1867.” Annals of Wyoming 39: 5-36.<br />

Talbott, Starley, and Linda Graves Fabian. <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing, 2013.<br />

Taylor, Paula Bauman. F. E. Warren Air Force Base. Arcadia Publishing, 2012.<br />

Thompson, D. Claudia. “Amalia and Annie: Women’s Opportunities in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> in the 1870s.” Annals of Wyoming 72: 2-9.<br />

Von Hesse-Wartegg, Ernst. “A German Looks at <strong>Cheyenne</strong> in 1876: The Travels of Ernest von Hesse-Wartegg.” Annals of Wyoming 55: 25-27.<br />

Waltz, H. C. “<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming Territory.” Annals of Wyoming 82: 31-33.<br />

Weidel, Nancy. <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, 1867-1917. Charleston, South Carolina: Arc<br />

B i b l i o g r a p h y ✦ 7 5

Wyoming became the forty-fourth<br />

state of the United States on July 10,<br />

1890. The citizens of the new state<br />

celebrated the momentous event in<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> two weeks later on<br />

July 23, 1890. This painting<br />

illustrates the parade as it wound<br />

through the streets of downtown<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>. The painting is one<br />

of more than thirty images done by<br />

Wyoming artist Dave Paulley, who<br />

has completed more than thirty<br />

paintings of various Wyoming<br />

historic scenes as part of a state<br />

centennial project sponsored by the<br />

Wyoming State Historical Society.<br />

For more information about<br />

Dave Paulley’s works, please visit<br />

www.davepaulley.com.<br />



7 6 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y




H i s t o r i c p r o f i l e s o f b u s i n e s s e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s ,<br />

a n d f a m i l i e s t h a t h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e<br />

d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e c o n o m i c b a s e o f C h e y e n n e<br />

16th Street Mercantile<br />

Holland & Hart, LLP<br />

T h e M a r k e t p l a c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78<br />

Q u a l i t y o f L i f e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116<br />

Searing Industries<br />

B u i l d i n g a G re a t e r C h e y e n n e . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140<br />

Western States<br />

Asphalt, LLC<br />

S h a r i n g t h e H e r i t a g e ✦ 7 7

Fowler’s at the corner of 17th Street<br />

and Carey Avenue.<br />



7 8 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y


C h e y e n n e ’ s f i n a n c i a l , r e t a i l , a n d c o m m e r c i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s<br />

o f f e r a n i m p r e s s i v e v a r i e t y o f c h o i c e s<br />

B l u e F e d e r a l C re d i t U n i o n ..........................................................................................................80<br />

Wy o m i n g L o t t e r y C o r p o r a t i o n ......................................................................................................84<br />

T h e P l a i n s H o t e l .......................................................................................................................88<br />

S i e rra Tr a d i n g P o s t ...................................................................................................................90<br />

T h e N o m a d i c N o r t h e r n A r a p a h o ..................................................................................................92<br />

We s t e r n Vi s t a F e d e r a l C re d i t U n i o n .............................................................................................94<br />

L i t t l e A m e r i c a H o t e l & R e s o r t .....................................................................................................96<br />

F i r s t C h e y e n n e F e d e r a l C re d i t U n i o n ............................................................................................98<br />

G re a t e r C h e y e n n e C h a m b e r o f C o m m e rc e .....................................................................................100<br />

Vi s i t C h e y e n n e ........................................................................................................................101<br />

Wy o m i n g S t o c k G ro w e r s A s s o c i a t i o n ...........................................................................................102<br />

Ta c o J o h n ’s ® ...........................................................................................................................103<br />

S u n d a h l , P o w e r s , K a p p & M a r t i n , L L C ........................................................................................1 04<br />

B u d d - F a l e n L a w O ffices, L . L . C . .................................................................................................1 05<br />

C h e y e n n e D o w n t o w n D e v e l o p m e n t A u t h o r i t y ................................................................................106<br />

K G W N - T V ..............................................................................................................................107<br />

R o m s a L a w O ffice, P. C . ............................................................................................................108<br />

S p r a d l e y B a rr C h e y e n n e ...........................................................................................................109<br />

N a g l e Wa rre n M a n s i o n B e d & B re a k f a s t ......................................................................................110<br />

T h e R o m a n o I n s u r a n c e A g e n c y ...................................................................................................111<br />

P re i s s E n t e r p r i s e s , I n c . ............................................................................................................112<br />

C h e y e n n e L E A D S .....................................................................................................................113<br />

M e r i d i a n Tr u s t F e d e r a l C re d i t U n i o n ..........................................................................................114<br />

L a t h ro p & R u t l e d g e , P. C . ..........................................................................................................115<br />

T h e M a r k e p l a c e ✦ 7 9



Above: This rare photograph was<br />

taken at the turn of the twentieth<br />

century from a <strong>Cheyenne</strong> resident<br />

who lived near the future location of<br />

the Seventh Avenue Branch.<br />

Bottom, left: A member awaiting a<br />

transaction at the first base branch,<br />

c. 1970s.<br />

Bottom, center: A view of the base<br />

branches converted hallway after the<br />

renovation from the base prison.<br />

Bottom, right: This newsletter from<br />

1983 announces the opening of the<br />

Seventh Avenue Branch, the former<br />

home of First Wyoming Bank.<br />

Blue Federal Credit Union<br />

is proud to have been a vital<br />

part of the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> community<br />

for the last sixty-five<br />

years. Since the Credit Union<br />

was founded, it has transformed<br />

and adapted to the changing times and expanded to include<br />

additional communities. However, the values of the Credit Union,<br />

the commitment to the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> community, and the effort to<br />

provide the best for the membership are aspects that have remained<br />

the same over the years.<br />

In the early 1950s, a group of civilian personnel on the F. E. Warren<br />

Air Force Base recognized the need for a credit organization. Knowing<br />

how beneficial credit union services can be for a group of likeminded<br />

individuals, the F. E. Warren A.F.B. Federal Credit Union was<br />

established and granted a federal charter on June 23, 1951.<br />

After the founding of the Credit Union, the small group encountered<br />

challenges with the initial start-up. Each member of the group was<br />

given a handful of passbooks to sell to other civilians at $5 each to<br />

help grow the membership. In November of 1955, the charter was<br />

amended to broaden the field of membership and allow permanent<br />

military personnel and Air Force Exchange employees to join the<br />

newly established credit union. Steady and sure, business began to<br />

grow and the Credit Union grew with it. By the end of the 1950s,<br />

F. E. Warren A.F.B. Federal Credit Union had 2,317 members and<br />

had an asset size of $1,035,214.<br />

F. E. Warren A.F.B. Federal Credit Union continued along a strong<br />

growth pattern through the 1960s. During this decade, it became the<br />

largest credit union in the state of Wyoming and one of the largest<br />

in the Rocky Mountain region. Inevitably, the Credit Union outgrew<br />

its original location in Building 284 on base. In November of 1974,<br />

F. E. Warren A.F.B. Federal Credit Union moved across the street to<br />

Building 218. Used as a jailhouse in the early 1900s, this building that<br />

used to hold inmates was now being used to conduct credit union<br />

business. The old holding cells were converted to waiting rooms, and<br />

the cell bars were used as dividers between those rooms and the<br />

teller stations. Shirley Howard was a key figure in overseeing branch<br />

operations during this time. Howard started with the Credit Union in<br />

1960 and was a 1973 graduate of CUNA Management School. She was<br />

deeply committed to the success and development of the organization.<br />

By 1975, Howard went on to lead F. E. Warren A.F.B. Federal Credit<br />

Union as CEO. By the end of the 1970s, the Credit Union had 10,495<br />

members and an asset size of $12,727,129.<br />

The 1980s brought about<br />

a new era of progression for<br />

the Credit Union. In June of<br />

1983, the board of directors<br />

approved to change the current<br />

name of F. E. Warren<br />

A.F.B. Federal Credit Union to<br />

Warren Federal Credit Union.<br />

Along with the name change,<br />

new branding and a new logo<br />

were established. Another big step for the Credit Union during<br />

this decade was the opening of its first branch off base grounds.<br />

8 0 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

The new main branch offices, located on Seventh Avenue adjacent<br />

to the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> airport terminal, opened in January of 1984. Even<br />

though the main offices were now located outside of base property,<br />

military personnel appreciated the second location and driveup<br />

access to the new branch. The Credit Union now had 14,659<br />

members and an asset size of $46,684,016 at the end of the 1980s.<br />

By the late 1990s, Howard retired as CEO of Warren. At the time<br />

of her departure, the Credit Union reached a significant milestone<br />

by surpassing $100 million in assets. Maureen Tebo accepted the<br />

position of CEO after Howard retired in November of 1999. During<br />

her time as CEO, Tebo invested in Warren’s infrastructure, marketing,<br />

IT, and staff development. Her first major task as CEO was an<br />

extensive renovation and expansion of the main branch and administrative<br />

offices on Seventh Avenue. The purchase of additional land<br />

near this branch allowed for more drive up lanes, administrative<br />

offices, and a larger IT facility. In turn, the expansion permitted for<br />

an increase of services and added convenience for members. At<br />

the end of the 1990s, Warren had 19,622 members and an asset size<br />

of $102,025,610.<br />

With preparations for Y2K and planning for the future of the Credit<br />

Union in a new millennium, it was known that growth was imminent.<br />

In June of 2000, the base branch moved out of the renovated jailhouse<br />

in Building 218 and into its new location at 5105 Randall Avenue. This<br />

new site was a great move for the Credit Union; not only did it have<br />

a prime location next to the entrance gate of F. E. Warren A.F.B.,<br />

but it also allowed for more space and the addition of drive-up lanes.<br />

As the Credit Union’s membership outside of the base continued to<br />

grow, there was a recognized need for more locations in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

Warren opened its third branch location in April 2003 on Dell Range.<br />

This Dell Range Branch location offered convenience to the<br />

growing membership on the east side of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. This location was<br />

quickly followed by opening of a fourth location in November<br />

2003—an in-store branch located inside Safeway on South Greeley<br />

Highway. This branch location served the membership throughout<br />

the south side of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. These new facilities were an immediate<br />

success for the Credit Union, which was reflected in the substantial<br />

membership growth during this time.<br />

In 2004, Tebo resigned as CEO and Tom Kane briefly held the<br />

position until Stephanie Teubner was appointed interim CEO. At the<br />

time, Teubner held the position of vice president of administration<br />

and in 2005 Teubner officially accepted the CEO position at Warren.<br />

In the late 2000s, Warren continued to expand its presence to<br />

effectively serve the growing membership. The first Warren Colorado<br />

location opened on January 2, 2008. The in-store branch in Wellington’s<br />

Ridley’s Market became the first credit union location within the town.<br />

Also in 2008, a fifth branch location was opened in North <strong>Cheyenne</strong> on<br />

Yellowstone Road. The Laramie Branch officially opened for business<br />

on February 10, 2009, located in the UW Plaza on Grand Avenue.<br />

Warren was fortunate to already serve 235 members who lived in<br />

Laramie, and looked forward to further serving those members with<br />

added convenience and exceptional products and services. With the<br />

accelerated location and membership growth during this time, Warren<br />

grew to 34,279 members and had an asset size of $317,037,789 by the<br />

end of 2009.<br />

Left: Shirley Howard and Myrtle<br />

Knight, the former chairman of the<br />

board pose with CLEO Ward at the<br />

base branch in the former “jail cell.”<br />

Right: Myrtle Knight cuts the<br />

ribbon at the base branch after<br />

renovation. Knight was later honored<br />

through the Warren Federal Credit<br />

Union Foundation with an annual<br />

scholarship to high school seniors.<br />

T h e M a r k e p l a c e ✦ 8 1

The forty-third annual meeting,<br />

and many others, were held for the<br />

membership at the Little America in<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>. The Credit Union now<br />

boasts a membership of nearly<br />

80,000 members. Pictured left to<br />

right, Steve Stephens, Steve L. Moe,<br />

Jim Hoffmann, Larry Hootman,<br />

James Soltesz and Art Mecer.<br />

Despite the lingering effect on most financial institutions following<br />

the Great Recession, Warren entered the new decade optimistic. The<br />

Credit Union maintained a strong balance sheet and stayed competitive<br />

by providing the great rates Warren was already known for. The<br />

Extreme Checking account product was introduced around this time;<br />

which allowed positive share growth by paying members a dividend<br />

on their checking account balance when they completed certain<br />

criteria. The dividend rate on Extreme Checking continues to remain<br />

highly competitive. The popularity of Extreme Checking increased<br />

membership and core deposit balances, and the Credit Union is<br />

proud to continue to offer such a robust financial product.<br />

As Warren continued to progress, the decision was made to open<br />

a branch location in Fort Collins, Colorado, in December 2012.<br />

Similar to the opening of the Laramie Branch, Fort Collins was<br />

already home to over 600 members. It was beneficial for the existing<br />

membership to have its own convenient location in Fort Collins,<br />

and beneficial for the Credit Union to expand into a new market and<br />

gain new members.<br />

With Warren now serving members in Laramie, <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Fort<br />

Collins, and Wellington, it became a priority to start giving back to<br />

the communities the Credit Union served. The Warren Federal Credit<br />

Union Foundation was established to improve the financial wellbeing<br />

of the communities in Wyoming and Colorado, especially those<br />

underserved by mainstream financial institutions. The foundation<br />

makes contributions to many worthy causes, from programs that help<br />

families reach financial independence to scholarships that further the<br />

next generation of community leaders. The 501(c)3 nonprofit not<br />

only allowed Warren to donate to worthy causes, it also opened<br />

the door for expanded membership opportunities. Individuals can<br />

donate $5 or more to the foundation and become a member.<br />

Along with the work of the foundation, it is common to see credit<br />

union employees out on the weekends volunteering and fundraising<br />

for local causes. The sense of volunteerism is strong at the Credit<br />

Union, with everyone looking for ways to give back and improve<br />

their community. This aspect of the credit union culture inspired<br />

the ‘Do Good Army’ campaign, which launched in Laramie in<br />

2014. The theme of that campaign continued throughout 2015<br />

with an all-staff volunteer day in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, where staff went out and<br />

volunteered at local organizations and schools, and helped clean up<br />

public parks and spaces. The Do Good spirit exists today not just in<br />

campaigns, but as the Credit Union’s mission to help inspire the<br />

spirit of employees, members and communities and invest in their<br />

pursuit of life.<br />

While Warren was experiencing positive growth in membership<br />

and financial numbers, it was operating in a highly competitive market<br />

and an environment of increasingly complex financial regulations. In<br />

order to ensure the continuation of strong and stable growth, one of<br />

the most important decisions to date was made. In November of<br />

2015, Warren announced that it would be merging with Community<br />

Financial Credit Union. Community Financial originated as Rocky<br />

Flats Federal Credit Union, which was originally established in 1955<br />

to serve the employees of the Rocky Flats Plant. Community Financial<br />

grew throughout the years to serve the communities of Broomfield,<br />

Boulder, and the north metro area in Colorado. Both Warren and<br />

Community Financial were well-capitalized credit unions at the<br />

time and acknowledged together they could do more to ensure long<br />

term value for the membership, credit union staff, and communities.<br />

By merging, they could achieve a greater economics of scale while<br />

continuing to offer competitive rates and broaden services.<br />

The merger was completed by May of 2016, and Teubner remained<br />

CEO of the united organization. The Credit Union now served nearly<br />

70,000 members with eleven branches throughout the Colorado<br />

communities of Broomfield, Boulder, Fort Collins, and Wellington<br />

and Wyoming communities of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Laramie.<br />

8 2 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

As Warren and Community Financial came together to form one<br />

new credit union, it was decided this new credit union should also<br />

have a new name and brand identity. The Credit Union wanted the<br />

new name to honor its strong roots in the Western region, particularly<br />

its military roots from the origination on F. E. Warren A.F.B. The<br />

new name reflects where the Credit Union was going in the future.<br />

From that direction, the united organization’s new name became<br />

Blue Federal Credit Union.<br />

Blue represents those strong military roots and embodies the<br />

expansive Western skies and clear waters of the natural surroundings.<br />

Blue is aspirational and represents a commitment to limitless<br />

opportunities and exceptional value for members. Blue promises new<br />

opportunities, retains core values, and preserves the organization’s<br />

commitment to the communities it serves.<br />

Shortly after the merger, the Credit Union started working on<br />

its 12th and 13th branch locations. The membership in<br />

Fort Collins was quickly growing in a competitive market, and<br />

Blue wanted to continue offering the best financial services and<br />

convenience to this community. The Old Town Branch officially<br />

opened for business in October of 2016. Located on Mountain<br />

Avenue in the heart of Old Town Fort Collins, this branch features<br />

a non-traditional design to better serve the community and fit in<br />

with the unique aesthetic of the downtown scene. The open lobby,<br />

interactive touch-screen kiosk, consultative teller stations, and<br />

large community room offer additional benefits and ease for the<br />

membership. In the summer of 2016, Blue broke ground on what<br />

would become its 13th branch location. Land was purchased at the<br />

intersection of Drake and Timberline Road to construct a brand new<br />

building. This building not only houses the new Blue Branch,<br />

but also has retail space for additional businesses and a community<br />

plaza for events. Blue is proud to have a positive economic impact on<br />

the Fort Collins community by providing employment and space for<br />

small businesses to flourish.<br />

After starting out as small organization on the F. E. Warren Air<br />

Force Base sixty-five years ago, Blue has grown into a dynamic<br />

credit union that serves members in Wyoming, Colorado, and all<br />

over the world. Blue looks forward to continued growth while staying<br />

committed to its roots on the F. E. Warren A.F.B. and the <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

community. At the end of 2016, Blue is currently serving 73,200<br />

members, 260 employees, and has an asset size of $906 million. With<br />

the Blue Foundation and the continuation of the Do Good spirit, the<br />

Credit Union remains strongly committed to giving back to the communities<br />

it serves.<br />

Above: Stephanie Teubner, pictured<br />

here in 2000 at the annual meeting<br />

check-in table, held the title of vice<br />

president of administration before<br />

accepting the CEO position in 2005.<br />

Left: A 1990s shot of Michele<br />

Bolkovatz and Shirley Howard<br />

from the original branch, along with<br />

long time former employee Linda<br />

Oligschlaeger in the background.<br />

T h e M a r k e p l a c e ✦ 8 3




Starting up a lottery is no simple task. It requires immense public<br />

support by retailers, procurement of trusted game vendors, and<br />

operations and marketing staff to boot. And yet, in 2013, Wyoming<br />

pulled it off.<br />

On March 13, 2013, after twenty-five long years of debate and<br />

deliberation, Governor Matt Mead signed House Bill 77 into law,<br />

authorizing the State of Wyoming to create a lottery and ultimately<br />

form what we now know as the Wyoming Lottery Corporation,<br />

or WyoLotto TM .<br />

Funded entirely by a private loan, WyoLotto has been an incredible<br />

success and has grown to be a key source of revenue for the<br />

Cowboy State. The WyoLotto brand has become a fixture in the<br />

State of Wyoming, responsibly securing millions in annual revenue<br />

for Wyoming’s communities. This was a deliberate choice. From the<br />

beginning, legislation was clear that the lottery must operate free of<br />

state funding and to the benefit of the Wyoming community.<br />

Once the foundation was finally in place, the rest came in stride.<br />

Leadership was crucial in those early days. WyoLotto’s founding<br />

board members were: Chairman Brian Scott Gamroth, Vice Chairman<br />

Barry Sims, Treasurer Gerry Marburger, Secretary Erin Taylor, and<br />

Members-at-Large, Mark Macy, David Bonner, Jim Griffin, Ross Newman,<br />

and Jim Whalen.<br />

This board managed the lottery alongside a start-up staff, made up<br />

of: Chief Executive Officer Jon Clontz (who was recruited from the<br />

Oregon Lottery), Chief Operating Officer Louise Plata, Chief Financial<br />

Officer Ted Robinette, Administrative Assistant Alisha Pineda, and<br />

Senior Retail Compliance Officer David Stevens.<br />

This small staff relied heavily on outside partners, such as marketing<br />

agency Warehouse Twenty-One, and Intralot, the lottery’s gaming<br />

vendor. Born out of this collaboration was Yolo, the “jackpotalope”<br />

mascot that represents the whimsical excitement of WyoLotto.<br />

With Clontz and board leadership in place, the Wyoming Lottery<br />

Corporation then looked to retailers and game players to carry the<br />

vision forward. The initial response from both was clear enthusiasm.<br />

Community members were eager to see the money their neighbors<br />

were spending in other states finally stay rooted and invested<br />

in Wyoming.<br />

8 4 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Their wish came true. On August 24, 2014, WyoLotto sold its<br />

very first ticket, bringing about one of the first major milestones in<br />

the lottery story. Right away, it was clear that WyoLotto would be<br />

an immense success.<br />

Just three months later, in April, WyoLotto made its first<br />

revenue transfer to the Treasurer of the State of Wyoming, who then<br />

distributed the more than $1 million to Wyoming’s cities, towns,<br />

and counties. Since that date, WyoLotto transfers have accumulated<br />

to more than $3.5 million, demonstrating the lottery’s commitment to<br />

public good.<br />

In March 2015, WyoLotto introduced Wyoming’s own game,<br />

Cowboy Draw R . It complemented the excitement of Powerball R and<br />

Mega Millions R , but with the addition of a unique western flair. The<br />

game has added benefits for Wyoming residents: it is only playable<br />

in Wyoming, so the odds of winning are better in comparison to<br />

national games.<br />

As revenue began to grow, WyoLotto decided to prioritize an<br />

aggressive payoff of its startup loan to accelerate revenue transfers to<br />

its primary beneficiary, the State of Wyoming. This, in coordination<br />

with a Powerball jackpot frenzy in early 2016, accomplished just<br />

that. WyoLotto paid off the loan in its entirety in January 2016<br />

and Powerball, for the first time, reached a jackpot of more than<br />

$1 billion.<br />

The initial legislation was written that lottery revenue would<br />

follow the state’s sales tax distribution formula, and if the revenue<br />

exceeded $6 million in a fiscal year, those additional funds would be<br />

deposited into Wyoming’s Permanent Land Fund’s Common School<br />

Account. The Wyoming Legislature passed a measure in 2017 to<br />

change the distribution to be based on sales of tickets in each county<br />

and removed the $6 million component.<br />

T h e M a r k e p l a c e ✦ 8 5

Today, WyoLotto continues to look for new opportunities, within<br />

statute, to add to the excitement of lottery gaming in a way that<br />

contributes to the state in a responsible and entertaining way.<br />

Most recently, WyoLotto added a fourth game to its portfolio. A multistate<br />

game with a unique prize. Lucky for Life R does not have a<br />

growing jackpot, but rather gifts winner of all six numbers $1,000 a<br />

day for life.<br />

In addition to creating fun games and bringing important revenue<br />

to the state, WyoLotto has boosted Wyoming’s economy in other<br />

important ways. WyoLotto’s primary offices are nestled in a highly<br />

visible location in historic downtown <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, bringing traffic<br />

and energy to the downtown area. The lottery also partners with more<br />

than 450 retailers across the state to sell lottery tickets, and so far,<br />

has paid local retailers more than $3.8 million in commissions.<br />

8 6 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Even so, the lottery’s responsibility to the Wyoming community<br />

goes far beyond boosting its economy. To this end, “responsible<br />

gambling” has been a fixture of WyoLotto communications. WyoLotto<br />

is committed to ensuring that its lottery functions with complete<br />

integrity and security and shields residents from gambling-related<br />

problems of addiction. Specific measures include limiting single<br />

transactions to $125, curtailing the number of hours each day<br />

tickets may be purchased, and making problem-gambling information<br />

accessible wherever tickets are sold and on the WyoLotto website.<br />

Now, the future of the Wyoming Lottery depends on the Wyoming<br />

Legislature and the people they represent. Regardless, WyoLotto games<br />

will remain appropriate to the people of Wyoming, and the lottery will<br />

continue to be operated openly, honestly, and with the utmost integrity.<br />

WyoLotto has also sponsored <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days TM , the<br />

Wyoming State Fair, University of Wyoming athletics, and other<br />

statewide events. A key vision for the corporation is be a part of<br />

the fabric of Wyoming, and to support the Wyoming community,<br />

while aligning with highly attended entertainment events to promote<br />

the lottery’s products and sales.<br />

T h e M a r k e p l a c e ✦ 8 7


HOTEL<br />

Come On Down!—The heart-beat of any city is its Downtown, and<br />

Downtowns need people!<br />

Luxuriously built the same year and the same size as the Titanic<br />

(1910), The Plains Hotel has been dodging its own “icebergs”<br />

since the 1960s. Like historic downtown <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, this venerable<br />

masterpiece was originally the gem of the High Plains, stretching<br />

its reach hundreds of miles in every direction.<br />

In 1867, Wyoming offered a relatively easier grade across the<br />

Continental Divide for laying tracks in the epic Union Pacific campaign<br />

to span the continent. Surveying ahead, the United Pacific Railroad<br />

chose this spot along Crow Creek as an ideal next station. After a short,<br />

but legendary period of “Hell On Wheels misbeehavin,” <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

became a respectable prosperous frontier town. As commerce and<br />

train loads increased, a world-class engine marvel, “Big Boy,” was<br />

employed to lug loads uphill to Laramie. Incredible wealth was created<br />

through frontier commerce, free range cattle and mining activity. By<br />

the 1880s, Laramie County became the highest wealth-per-capita<br />

county, in the U.S.A.<br />

The Plains Hotel opening on March 9, 1911, was perfectly timed<br />

for profitability. In 1913 the Lincoln Highway spanning from<br />

New York City to San Francisco opened. Would this muddy rutted<br />

route and these horseless carriage contraptions make it? Soon,<br />

fragile Model Ts arrived in droves. Following the tracks east to west,<br />

“motoring” along the Lincoln Highway, grew from another fad to a<br />

fundamental mode of transportation.<br />

In 1915, Jerry Olson Field opened to new-fangled aero planes.<br />

Amelia Earhart and Charles Lindberg both used this field, now<br />

commonly known as <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Regional Airport. With government<br />

sponsoring airmail, the businesses downtown flourished. By 1926,<br />

the advent of extremely dangerous night time flights demanded<br />

beacons be placed every three miles from Chicago to <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

to light the way. For efficiency, the aero-planes followed the<br />

Lincoln Highway, which efficiency followed the Union Pacific tracks.<br />

Our thriving Magic City brought in the fledgling Boeing Air Transport<br />

and United Air Lines!<br />

After WWII, developable land ran out in the historic downtown.<br />

New subdivisions were built both north of the airport and<br />

8 8 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Opposite, left: Chief Little Shield<br />

brought other Native Americans to<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days, 1915.<br />

They posed with some of the other<br />

guest in the lobby of the Plains.<br />



south of the rail yards, literally dividing the city into thirds.<br />

Motels, hotels, popular chain restaurants, and big box stores<br />

all vied for new patronage. To “protect” the old town for pedestrians,<br />

our major roads (now called I-25 and 1-80) were relocated a few<br />

miles away. By the 1960s, The Plains Hotel and downtown fell<br />

into hard times. Architecturally envied as a regional marvel, historic<br />

old town <strong>Cheyenne</strong> deserved our respect and patronage.<br />

Since being purchased, at auction, Astride A Starship LLC<br />

has encountered decades of deferred maintenance, especially in<br />

the so-called “back of the house.” Quite understandably, from top<br />

to bottom, roof to boilers, laundry to kitchen functionality was<br />

in a state of dizzying disrepair. At 106 years old and 118,000<br />

square feet, the overhead far exceeds revenue. To revive and maintain<br />

itself without outside support, The Plains Hotel must<br />

find new income streams. Management is eagerly evaluating<br />

the market for expanded uses such as extended stay, special<br />

occasion banquet affairs; public and private, a convenience grocer and<br />

a more streamlined restaurant. We feel, this could further reinvigorate<br />

our downtown.<br />

Dear Readers, please cross the tracks and the airfield and patronize<br />

your heritage. Day trip across the decades—At The Plains, “step in our<br />

doors, step back in time.” Long live the legacy of our unique beloved<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, “Magic City of the Plains!”<br />

• Events<br />

• Dining<br />

• Catering<br />

Create Your Legacy At The Plains<br />

• Weddings<br />

• Extended Stay<br />

Opposite, right: Painting of<br />

Chief Little Shield by Lillywhite used<br />

in The Plains Hotel logos.<br />

Left: Proposed Plains Hotel, 1910.<br />

Painting by William Dubois, Sr.<br />


Right: Banquets and meeting rooms.<br />

T h e M a r k e p l a c e ✦ 8 9

SIERRA<br />


Keith and Bobbi Richardson founded Sierra Trading Post in<br />

1986 in Sparks, Nevada, with a vision to create a one-of-a-kind<br />

business where customers save on the best brands in the outdoor<br />

industry. Selling outdoor gear, apparel and footwear, they opened<br />

the company’s first retail store location (which was later moved<br />

to Reno, Nevada), leased a tiny warehouse space, and began to<br />

produce hand-drawn catalogs for a mail-order business.<br />

Seeing the growth and success from the mail-order business,<br />

the Richardsons quickly looked to expand their warehouse space,<br />

and began their search in the West. With support from <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

LEADS, they secured land east of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s city center. In 1992,<br />

the Sierra Trading Post headquarters was relocated to <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

where a new retail store was opened. The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> community<br />

benefitted from Sierra Trading Post’s steady growth and jobs<br />

created from 1992 to 1998.<br />

By 1998, the business was ready to hit the internet.<br />

SierraTradingPost.com was launched and the company became one of<br />

the first catalog companies to establish an online presence. Another<br />

retail store was opened in Cody, Wyoming in 2000.<br />

A few years later, they completed construction on a 348,000-squarefoot,<br />

state-of-the-art fulfillment center to house the ever-increasing<br />

offering of the best brands in the outdoor industry and support<br />

website-driven demand. By 2007, Sierra Trading Post launched a blog<br />

known as Sierra Blogging Post and earned the rank of “Top 100<br />

Internet Retailer” by Internet Retailer Magazine. That same year, a fourth<br />

retail store was opened in Boise, Idaho, completing what became<br />

known to the Sierra Trading Post associates as the four “legacy stores”.<br />

In 2009, Sierra Trading Post expanded their digital footprint by<br />

joining Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube, and launched a mobileoptimized<br />

site the following year. Sierra Trading Post enjoyed awards<br />

like, “Best in Class” for customer service by Satmetrix and climbed the<br />

ranks on the “Top 100 Internet Retailer” list.<br />

By 2012 the Fort Collins Technology Campus was established, and<br />

the Richardsons had established Sierra Trading Post as a brand with a<br />

large, avid customer base. That year, the company caught the eye of the<br />

TJX Companies, Inc, and was acquired for approximately $200 million.<br />

The TJX Companies, Inc., is a leading off-price retailer of apparel<br />

and home fashions in the United States and worldwide, ranking in the<br />

top 100 of the Fortune 500 with more than 3,600 stores in nine<br />

countries and more than 200,000 associates. In addition to Sierra<br />

Trading Post, the TJX Companies include brands like T.J.Maxx,<br />

Marshalls, and HomeGoods.<br />

A year after the acquisition, Sierra Trading Post introduced free instore<br />

pickup of items purchased online, and released an Android<br />

application to make it even easier for customers to shop on a wide<br />

9 0 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

variety of mobile devices. Under the TJX Companies, Sierra Trading<br />

Post began expanding its retail footprint by rapidly adding locations<br />

across the U.S. In 2014, the South Denver and Fort Collins, Colorado,<br />

stores opened, and the following year Colorado Springs, Colorado, and<br />

Burlington, Vermont, were established.<br />

Today, Sierra Trading Post continues to grow, improve, and expand<br />

its retail presence. It opened four additional stores in 2016—<br />

Cottonwood Heights, Utah; Eagan, Minnesota; Silverdale, Washington;<br />

Danbury, Connecticut—and four in the spring of 2017—Kildeer and<br />

Wheaton Illinois; Ann Arbor, Michigan; and Woodbury, Minnesota –<br />

with a promise of many more stores to come.<br />

Throughout Sierra Trading Post’s history, it has supported various<br />

charitable causes. For National Make a Difference Day, the stores and<br />

offices collected gear and apparel donations to non-profits in our retail<br />

markets. The company also has supported causes aimed at helping<br />

people who live in our retail markets, including causes such as:<br />

Vermont Adaptive Sports; LOF Adaptive Skiers of Connecticut; Seattle<br />

(Washington) Adaptive Sports; Open Door<br />

Pantry of Eagan, Minnesota; Splore of Salt Lake City, Utah; Let the Kids<br />

Play of Colorado Springs, Colorado; and Larimer County (Colorado)<br />

Conservation Corps. Company associates continue their support of Habitat<br />

for Humanity of Laramie County.<br />

The company’s commitment to the communities it serves begins in<br />

stores and online. With customers and communities in mind, Sierra<br />

Trading Post makes it easier to explore everything the outdoors and<br />

active lifestyles have to offer. At Sierra Trading Post, they believe in a<br />

business model that empowers customers to do more by offering<br />

incredible savings on the best outdoor brands.<br />

T h e M a r k e p l a c e ✦ 9 1





Right: Black Coal (center, seated).<br />


Below: Goes-in-Lodge and other<br />

Arapaho warriors.<br />


Long before <strong>Cheyenne</strong> became the capitol of Wyoming, it was part<br />

of the route taken by massive herds of bison and the Native American<br />

tribes who hunted them.<br />

The Northern Arapaho, descendants of these nomadic hunters, still<br />

reside in Wyoming today and this is the story of their chief who helped<br />

lead them to their current home on the Wind River Indian Reservation,<br />

275 miles from <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

Chief Medicine Man was the chosen leader of the Long Legs band<br />

and the head chief of the Northern Arapaho during the 1860s. As leader,<br />

he had great influence over the tribe and determined that peace with<br />

the white man was our best option.<br />

“So far as we Arapahos are concerned, we are like the ants. There are<br />

a lot of us, but the white men are like the blades of grass on the prairie.<br />

We would have no chance if we started to fight them.”<br />

Medicine Man attempted for years to secure a reservation for the<br />

Arapaho without success. He petitioned Colorado Governor John Evans<br />

and other officials to establish a home for the Northern Arapaho in the<br />

Cache la Poudre area, their favored hunting grounds.<br />

On November 29, 1864, hope for a reservation was crushed<br />

after the brutal attack by the Colorado Militia on a peaceful village of<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Arapaho. Many Northern Arapaho, mainly women<br />

and children, lost their lives in the incident now known as the Sand<br />

Creek Massacre.<br />

By 1865, Medicine Man led his nomadic small band to the<br />

Sweetwater River area. They ranged north to the Big Horns, west to the<br />

Rockies, east to the Black Hills and south to the Cache la Poudre<br />

following the trail of the bison. Their path crossed over the land now<br />

home to <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

9 2 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

When the chief learned of the Wagon Box Fight in 1867, he<br />

appointed a crier to announce the facts to the camp with words of<br />

peace: “The Arapaho are a peaceful people and want to keep their<br />

treaties. Don’t do like our friend Red Cloud. Keep out of these fights<br />

and always be friendly with the white people.”<br />

Under his leadership, the Northern Arapaho did not become “stay<br />

around the fort Indians” and continued to hunt. In 1868, sixty-nine<br />

lodges of the Long Leg band brought in 2,000 buffalo robes to Ft.<br />

Fetterman for trade. They also received trading credit for army horses<br />

that they returned.<br />

Chief Medicine Man continued to lead his tribe in a search of a<br />

home to call their own and this led them to the Wind River area<br />

with Black Bear and Friday, two Arapaho Warrior Chiefs. Although they<br />

did not fight the non-Indians, they continued their raids against<br />

the Shoshone and Crow tribes, stealing horses and claiming their<br />

hunting territory.<br />

In 1871, Medicine Man died after<br />

eating bad rations at Ft. Fetterman. He<br />

never did accomplish his goal but he<br />

helped to guide the Northern Arapaho<br />

on their journey during a time when<br />

a strong leader was needed.<br />

Chief Black Coal was appointed<br />

as the new head chief of the Arapaho<br />

in place of Medicine Man. It was<br />

then Black Coal who ultimately led<br />

the Northern Arapaho to our current<br />

home on the Wind River Indian<br />

Reservation which we now share<br />

with the Eastern Shoshone tribe.<br />

Our ancestors followed closely<br />

the rules and regulations of the<br />

tribe, being taught from an early age<br />

to respect life and to be kind to<br />

others. Each individual, prior to the<br />

reservation days, had a specific duty<br />

and belonged to a lodge that helped<br />

to direct their paths in life. Each<br />

band or clan had a distinct leader that they followed, but only if he<br />

earned and kept their respect.<br />

Today, the Northern Arapaho tribe invite you to visit us on the Wind<br />

River Indian Reservation. Our culture is still going strong today and we<br />

welcome you to learn more about the Blue Sky People who once roamed<br />

the plains in search of bison.<br />

You can visit with our Elders in the Northern Experience Room,<br />

our tribe’s small museum, at the Wind River Hotel & Casino and<br />

watch a free performance of our traditional Song and Dance during<br />

the summer months. You can also book an adventure package to<br />

explore our great outdoors. Enjoy white water rafting, visit<br />

wild mustangs, get in a round of golf or even join in on a real<br />

dinosaur dig. It all happens on the Wind River Reservation, in the heart<br />

of Wyoming.<br />

For more information, please visit WindRiverHotelCasino.com.<br />

Above: Ethete Pow-Wow.<br />

Left: Dancers at the Wind River<br />

Hotel & Casino.<br />

T h e M a r k e p l a c e ✦ 9 3




When the late Thomas Kenehan of Mountain Bell carried<br />

Wytel Federal Credit Union in a small briefcase in the early 1940s,<br />

little did he realize the impressive proportions the finance venture<br />

would reach. Warren Hicks, a charter member of the credit union,<br />

once said, “There wasn’t anything when we started. I don’t think<br />

Kenehan even had a desk. Finally, we bought one, and it just kept<br />

going from there.”<br />

The desk led to a file cabinet. The file cabinet led to a small company<br />

office, housed in the bedroom of a benevolent individual, C. R.<br />

“Frenchie” Nolette. Eventually, the membership grew to more than a<br />

thousand, warranting a legitimate office space for the credit union.<br />

Wytel’s assets grew consistently and by 1960, with a membership of<br />

922, assets reached $550,000. Gael Hockersmith, the first manager of<br />

the credit union, distributed ceremonial key chains at the annual<br />

meeting. Just five years later, in 1965, Wytel emerged as a milliondollar<br />

credit union, with assets of $1,136,000.<br />

Over the next several decades, the credit union grew to more than<br />

$26 million in assets. As part of this expansion, Western Vista<br />

welcomed several other credit unions into its fold: Demem Federal<br />

Credit Union (1986), Bucking Horse Federal Credit Union (1986),<br />

Casper Natrona Employees Federal Credit Union (1988), and LHHS<br />

employees (1991).<br />

The 2017 Western Vista Federal<br />

Credit Union Board of Directors (from<br />

left to right): Thomas J. Montoya,<br />

Karan Dumont, Mark Mercer,<br />

Christine Kronz, Paul Cassista, Aimee<br />

Lewis, Tim Bolin, and Doug Thiede.<br />

9 4 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

In July 1995 the board authorized a new name for the credit union<br />

to better reflect the diversification of the new field of membership and<br />

what was once known as Wytel Federal Credit Union became Western<br />

Vista Federal Credit Union. A year later, the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> office moved<br />

into a newly built service center located at 3207 Sparks Road.<br />

In July 2002, Western Vista received authorization to add the<br />

NCUA-approved “underserved area” designation in most of Natrona<br />

County, Casper and <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, which allowed people who live, work,<br />

worship or attend school in these areas to qualify for membership.<br />

Increased growth led to an extensive addition and remodeling of the<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> building. A new entrance and additional parking provided<br />

access to the new home for mortgage lending services, administration,<br />

collections and the indirect lending department. In August 2005, an<br />

additional branch opened on the north side of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> at 1215 Story<br />

Boulevard as a full-service branch with five drive-up lanes, an ATM<br />

and full lobby access. Additionally, a new branch was built to replace<br />

an aging infrastructure in Casper and featured safety deposit boxes,<br />

five drive-up lanes and a large community room.<br />

In recent years, Western Vista added online and mobile services to<br />

increase its ability to serve members wherever they may live, work or<br />

worship. No one knows for certain what the future will hold, but<br />

Western Vista members can rest assured that their credit union will<br />

continue to do whatever it takes to serve their financial needs.<br />

“Our credit union changed over the years, partially by necessity and<br />

partially by choice, but always with our members in mind,” said John T.<br />

Balser, who served as president and CEO from September 1989 to<br />

January 2017.<br />

Today, Western Vista Federal Credit Union has more than $140<br />

million in assets, serves 10,000 members in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Casper and<br />

offers a full line of consumer, commercial and mortgage services.<br />

Western Vista Credit Union has two locations in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and one<br />

in Casper. For the closest branch or ATM near you or get current rates,<br />

please visit www.wvista.com.<br />

Top, left: John Balser served as<br />

president/CEO of Western Vista from<br />

September 1989 to January 2017.<br />

Top, right: Steven Leafgreen became<br />

president/CEO of Western Vista in<br />

January 2017.<br />

Bottom, right: President/CEO Steven<br />

Leafgreen is presented with a plaque<br />

to commemorate Western Vista’s<br />

support of economic development in<br />

Laramie County from Ron Kailey,<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> LEADS board member.<br />

T h e M a r k e p l a c e ✦ 9 5


HOTEL &<br />

RESORT<br />

At the crossroads of I- 25 and I-80 you will find Little America Hotel<br />

& Resort: an 80-acre oasis of luxury and service, surrounded by<br />

beautifully groomed grounds. Little America is <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s only resort<br />

and Wyoming’s largest convention hotel. With 188 guest rooms and<br />

over 50,000 square feet of meeting space it is the perfect destination<br />

for conventions, weddings and special events.<br />

All of Little America’s dining options are unsurpassed. Hathaway’s<br />

Restaurant, named after Governor Stan Hathaway, provides the perfect<br />

atmosphere and menu for everything from a quiet breakfast or a<br />

romantic dinner to an important business lunch. Hathaway’s Lounge<br />

provides the ideal atmosphere to watch the big game or catch up with<br />

friends while enjoying a cocktail. Carol’s Café features gourmet coffee,<br />

tea, pastries, ice cream and complimentary wi-fi. Other resort amenities<br />

include a nine-hole executive golf course, outdoor pool, retail shopping<br />

and Sinclair gas travel station.<br />

Earl and Carol Holding brought luxury to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> when<br />

they opened Holding’s Little America in 1966. The property required<br />

one year to build and costing approximately $4.5 million, according<br />

to Earl Holding. The landscaping involved the initial planting of<br />

over 6,000 evergreen trees, construction of three lakes and<br />

moving 100,000 cubic yards of earth. European fabrics for drapery<br />

and upholstery on the furniture found in sleeping rooms,<br />

imported chandeliers from Europe were in the meeting rooms<br />

and public space with no expense sparred in the décor. The property<br />

also boasted one of the largest Sinclair Service Stations with<br />

fifty pumps.<br />

Little America is part of Grand America Hotels and Resorts and<br />

devoted to a tradition of excellence. Established in 1952 by the<br />

Holding family, the Grand America Hotels & Resorts’ collection<br />

includes Little America Hotel locations in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Little America<br />

Wyoming, Salt Lake City, Utah; Flagstaff, Arizona; and The Grand<br />

America Hotel (Salt Lake City, Utah,) the collection also includes: Sun<br />

Valley Resort (Sun Valley, ID,) Snowbasin Resort (Huntsville, UT,) and<br />

The Westgate Hotel (San Diego, CA,). When it comes to outdoor<br />

adventure, family getaways, and destination meetings, Grand America<br />

Hotels & Resorts’ properties offer everything needed to ensure an<br />

unforgettable experience.<br />

By 1976 Earl and Carol Holding had created a small empire of hotels<br />

and service stations and had acquired a refinery in Casper, Wyoming.<br />

The Holding’s Little America Refining Company was positioned well for<br />

what Earl had set his sights on next, acquiring Sinclair Oil. In the<br />

summer of 1976 the Holdings ultimately purchased Sinclair Oil from<br />

Pasco, Inc. and started an aggressive expansion of their refineries.<br />

They continued to expand and grow both the hotel and oil sides of their<br />

business.<br />

9 6 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

In 2017, ten years after a convention center was added to the resort,<br />

Little America continues a tradition of excellence. The resort provides<br />

memorable experiences, beautiful backdrops, and genuine service for<br />

the community of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. Luxurious elements are still and<br />

throughout the resort. English wool carpeting, Italian glass chandeliers,<br />

French cherry-wood furnishings, and Italian marble can be admired<br />

throughout the property. Beautiful pieces or art and antiques are<br />

displayed and enjoyed by guests.<br />

Little America employs over two hundred <strong>Cheyenne</strong> residents,<br />

many of whom have been working for the Holdings for over ten<br />

years. They strive to provide quality guest service that exceeds<br />

expectations and allows for memorable experiences. Little America<br />

is Wyoming’s Convention Hotel & Resort and a proud part of<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s history.<br />

Little America Hotel & Resorts is Located at 2800 W Lincolnway in<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> and can be found on the internet at www.littleamerica.com<br />

T h e M a r k e p l a c e ✦ 9 7




First <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Federal Credit Union of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> is a memberowned,<br />

community chartered financial institution serving all of Laramie<br />

County. Its roots go back to May 29, 1935, when an application by<br />

the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> VA Medical Center to organize and operate a federal<br />

credit union was approved by the federal government. Its acceptance<br />

made First <strong>Cheyenne</strong> FCU, the first credit union in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

Two events, one month apart, set in motion the beginning of First<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> FCU. On May 4, 1934, the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> VA Medical Center, a<br />

133-bed facility, began service to veterans, and on June 26, 1934, the<br />

Federal Credit Union Act of 1934 passed. The law, passed during the<br />

depths of the Great Depression, allowed formation of federal credit unions<br />

in the United States. It also made credit available to people of small means<br />

and promoted thrift using a national system of cooperative credit.<br />

After the law passed, ten members of the medical center applied and<br />

received approval. They named the credit union, <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

V. A. F. Federal Credit Union. V. A. F. stood for Veterans Administration<br />

Facility. On July 2, 1935, an organization meeting was held, where<br />

James L. Laughlin was appointed temporary chairman and Margaret<br />

Diener was appointed temporary secretary. Signatory members voted<br />

to select the credit union’s first officers.<br />

The following members were selected for the Board of Directors:<br />

George H. McFall, Leo A. Kurz, Raymond Welch, Arnold Shindler, and<br />

Helen Sutherland. Credit Committee members were Hattie K. Olson,<br />

Mary A. McDyer, and Dr. W. H. Snoddy. Supervisory Committee<br />

members were George Mai, Ben H. Elwood, and James L. Laughlin. The<br />

first meeting of the board of directors was held immediately<br />

after the election. Board officers were elected as follows: Leo A. Kurz,<br />

president; Arnold E. Shindler, vice-president, and George H. McFall,<br />

treasurer and clerk.<br />

9 8 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

The credit union’s offices were located on the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Veterans<br />

Administration Facility’s campus, and the new credit union became the<br />

first credit union in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. It was known as a “common bond of<br />

association” credit union limited to employees of the Veterans<br />

Administration Facility and members of their immediate families.<br />

In 1996, the credit union changed its name to First <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Federal<br />

Credit Union. Through the years, the credit union had added additional<br />

businesses to its common bond as they did not want prospective new<br />

members to think it was only available to VA employees. Unfortunately,<br />

after spending more than sixty years on the VA Medical Center grounds,<br />

it was difficult for people to get the message.<br />

So, in 1997, a plot of land located next to the VA Medical Center<br />

was made available to the credit union through an act of Congress on<br />

which to build a new credit union building. In May 1998, First<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> FCU moved into the new building, which was easily<br />

accessible to the public for the first time.<br />

In December 2001, the credit union changed its field of<br />

membership from a common bond to a community charter. This<br />

change allowed anyone who lives, works, worships, or attends school<br />

in Laramie County to become a member of First <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Federal<br />

Credit Union.<br />

It is the credit union’s mission to create a mutually profitable<br />

relationship with you, its members. It does this while keeping the avenues<br />

of communication open, by listening, by caring, and by being responsive<br />

to member needs. It also provides products and services of value and<br />

strives to create the perfect service experience. It enables unlimited access<br />

to your accounts through progressive technology systems and it commits<br />

itself to continuing financial education to ensure everyone’s success.<br />

Today, First <strong>Cheyenne</strong> FCU has more than 4,300 members and $28<br />

million in assets. At First <strong>Cheyenne</strong> FCU, it is in the business of<br />

empowering its members to make good financial decisions so they can<br />

improve their overall quality of life. It offer solutions that are tailored<br />

to your needs and appropriate to your circumstances. It supplements<br />

these solutions with free programs in financial education, so its<br />

members can develop sound money management skills they can<br />

practice for a lifetime.<br />

The credit union provides its members with a full range of financial<br />

products and services with very competitive rates, fewer fees, and<br />

unparalleled levels of convenience. It is actively engaged in community<br />

events and programs that help to improve the overall quality of life in the<br />

community. It may be the oldest credit union in Wyoming, but it promises<br />

to always stay up-to-date with the latest technology and financial services<br />

needed to make its members as successful as they can be.<br />

Information regarding account and rate information, hours,<br />

location of the nearest branch or ATM and much more, please visit<br />

www.firstcheyenne.com.<br />

Scenes from the credit union’s<br />

annual picnic.<br />

T h e M a r k e p l a c e ✦ 9 9


Above: First luncheon in 2017<br />

with Madam Mayor Marian Orr<br />

as the featured speaker, it was a full<br />

house with 400 plus professionals<br />

in attendance.<br />

Top, right: The photograph is titled,<br />

Making a Difference.<br />


Right: The photograph is<br />

titled, Perspective.<br />


The western narrative of the City of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> is unique. When<br />

first founded, it was known for being an advanced culture. It was the<br />

Historic Plains Hotel which introduced the luxury of a phone in each<br />

room. Additionally, the Union Pacific Rail Road and transportation<br />

revolution played a significant role in putting <strong>Cheyenne</strong> on the<br />

map. Following were other quality of life elements, one being the<br />

community hospital, known today as <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Regional Medical<br />

Center. Through this development and growth, the Greater <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Chamber of Commerce served the area by creating a healthy business<br />

climate for years to come. The Tivoli Building on Lincolnway was<br />

the original home of the Greater Chamber of Commerce. Nearly a<br />

century later, in the effort to revitalize an integral historic building,<br />

the Chamber, along with other local organizations, transitioned to<br />

their current locations in the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Depot Museum.<br />

Representing more than 1,000 businesses, the Greater <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Chamber of Commerce is the strongest voice for business. The value<br />

of being engaged in the mission of the Greater <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Chamber of<br />

Commerce rests in the ability to showcase the Chamber’s deep roots<br />

in the community since 1907. The Chamber’s primary focus is to<br />

ensure economic growth in a responsible and balanced manner to<br />

create a steady, thriving business climate for years to come.<br />

With strong business comes a quality community. The Greater<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Chamber of Commerce, together with its partner investors,<br />

makes this community the vibrant, prosperous city it is today.<br />

The Chamber is directly connected to these community partners who<br />

step up and stand out for the betterment of all citizens. All efforts<br />

are focused to continue and sustain a healthy business climate.<br />

The Chamber is the first destination for all business and is proud<br />

to service the City of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. Learn more about the Chamber by<br />

visiting www.cheyennechamber.org.<br />

1 0 0 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

the historic Tivoli Building. In addition to its marketing and sales<br />

efforts on behalf of the community, the organization purchased a<br />

Trolley in 1988 and began providing historic tours. Since then,<br />

the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Street Railway has grown to a fleet of four trolleys<br />

and is one of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s top attractions, providing narrated tours and<br />

convention transportation.<br />

In 1991, Visit <strong>Cheyenne</strong> moved from the chamber office to 309 West<br />

Lincolnway, where the organization spent the next thirteen years.<br />

In the early 2000s, Visit <strong>Cheyenne</strong> played a leadership role in<br />

redeveloping and reopening <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s Historic Depot along with<br />

the city and other partners. In 2004, Visit <strong>Cheyenne</strong> moved its office<br />

and visitor center into the depot where it remains today.<br />

In 2012, Visit <strong>Cheyenne</strong> earned the tourism industry’s highest<br />

accreditation from Destination Marketing Association International<br />

by meeting eighty-two organizational, marketing, and sales standards.<br />

In addition, Visit <strong>Cheyenne</strong> has become a proud member of<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s economic development team, alongside <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

LEADS, the Chamber of Commerce, and <strong>Cheyenne</strong> DDA/Main Street.<br />

Visit <strong>Cheyenne</strong> is proud to have played a role in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s first<br />

150 years and looks forward to developing <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s hospitality<br />

industry and quality of life over the next 150 years. Visit <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

can be found on the Internet at www.cheyenne.org.<br />


Left: <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s Historic Depot with<br />

capitol dome in background.<br />

Below: One of four trolleys and top<br />

attraction, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Street Railway.<br />

Visit <strong>Cheyenne</strong> is the official tourism organization for the <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

area. It is governed by a board of directors with members appointed<br />

by <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Laramie County, and other nearby communities.<br />

Visit <strong>Cheyenne</strong> promotes and develops the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> area through<br />

advertising, visitor guides and websites, public relations, convention<br />

and bus tour solicitation, trolley operation, and two visitor centers.<br />

The ultimate goal is to attract visitors to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> where their<br />

spending will grow the local economy, jobs, and tax base.<br />

Visit <strong>Cheyenne</strong> was founded in August 1987 with a successful<br />

lodging tax election. This tax has been the organization’s primary<br />

source of funding over the years and has been renewed by the voters<br />

numerous times since.<br />

The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Area Convention & Visitors Bureau, as it was<br />

then called, started in the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Chamber of Commerce office in<br />

T h e M a r k e p l a c e ✦ 1 0 1


STOCK<br />



Above: Theodore Roosevelt and a<br />

party of several distinguished WSGA<br />

members rode from Laramie,<br />

Wyoming, to <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming, in<br />

July 1910. When the party left<br />

Laramie there were between 700 and<br />

1,000 horses in the outfit.<br />




Below: The calf bronze dedicated to<br />

U.S. Senator, Wyoming Governor and<br />

WSGA President Clifford P. Hansen in<br />

2005 sits in front of the Wyoming<br />

State Capitol. Left to right, Cliff and<br />

Martha Hansen with Jerry Palen,<br />

bronze artist.<br />


The open range system in the Wyoming Territory of the late 1800s<br />

made cattle rustling a tempting career track for ne’er-do-wells of the<br />

time. To combat this assault on their livelihood, five cattlemen met in<br />

a <strong>Cheyenne</strong> livery stable in 1872 to organize a vigilance committee to<br />

cope with rustlers.<br />

The meeting was the genesis of the Stock Association of Laramie<br />

County, which in 1879 was renamed the Wyoming Stock Growers<br />

Association. The association was involved in a wide range of activities,<br />

including managing roundups, conducting brand inspections, and<br />

dealing with health and sanitary concerns. Freight rates, fencing, and<br />

other public domain issues also occupied the association’s time.<br />

Today, the association exists to serve the livestock business and families<br />

of Wyoming by protecting their economic, legislative, regulatory,<br />

judicial, environmental, custom, and cultural interests. The association,<br />

as it has done since those early days, places high priority on<br />

advocating on behalf of the ranching industry both in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and<br />

in Washington, D.C.<br />

In its early days, the association played an important role in the<br />

development of Wyoming livestock and rangeland laws beginning in the<br />

1880s. In more recent years, the association has worked cooperatively<br />

with federal and state land agencies to maintain sustainable grazing,<br />

implement range improvements and achieve multiple use objectives.<br />

The association’s success spawned two affiliated groups. A women’s<br />

auxiliary, The Wyoming Cow Bells, organized in 1940, and a youth<br />

group, known as the Junior Wyoming Stock Growers Association,<br />

organized in 1954. The Wyoming Cow Bells, now the Wyoming<br />

CattleWomen, have provided invaluable service in the promotion of the<br />

beef industry, while the Junior Wyoming Stock Growers Association,<br />

reconstituted as the Young Producer Assembly, prepares future livestock<br />

producers for success in this challenging-yet-rewarding industry.<br />

The association now has approximately 1,200 members, three<br />

full-time employees, and one part-time employee. It is committed to<br />

remaining solid and true to its mission while being nimble enough to<br />

change with the industry. A major goal is to strengthen its financial<br />

resources through the 150th Anniversary Campaign to build its<br />

endowment to $1.5 million.<br />

As it approach its own sesquicentennial in 2022, it is focused on<br />

building an organization that will serve the industry during the next<br />

fifty years as ably as it has since those five men met in a <strong>Cheyenne</strong> livery<br />

stable so many years ago.<br />

1 0 2 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Like many great success stories, the inspiration for Taco John’s ®<br />

began with <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s own John Turner’s simple idea: Make great<br />

made-to-order tacos using bold spices and sell them from a small<br />

taco stand during the annual <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days TM celebration.<br />

Turner’s idea proved so successful that two local entrepreneurs–<br />

Harold Holmes and Jim Woodson—purchased the franchise rights<br />

in 1969 and named the restaurant after the man who started it all.<br />

Holmes and his wife, Nona, owned a manufactured camper<br />

business, which provided the earliest restaurants a way to operate<br />

Taco John’s using a simple trailer. The trailers were shipped via<br />

flatbed trailers to the location and set in place<br />

with a crane. The restaurants were completed<br />

and serving great Mexican food in a matter<br />

of weeks.<br />

Woodson, a local realtor in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, worked<br />

with his wife, Marian, and with Holmes to<br />

sell franchise restaurants, helping investors find<br />

great locations.<br />

It was not long before Taco John’s restaurants<br />

began popping up across the Midwest, evolving<br />

to include drive-thrus, interior seating, and bold<br />

originals like Potato Olés ® , and pioneering the<br />

original Taco Tuesday ® . Since opening its first taco<br />

stand, Taco John’s stands as one of the leading<br />

quick-serve Mexican chains with 392 restaurants<br />

and growing.<br />

Despite consistent expansion<br />

across the United States, Taco<br />

John’s still calls <strong>Cheyenne</strong> “home.”<br />

Taco John’s International, Inc.,<br />

employs forty-two employees at<br />

its historic West Edge location. It<br />

also employs 20 field staff in<br />

operations, training, marketing,<br />

and franchise development and has<br />

over 200 employees in its<br />

company-owned restaurants.<br />

Taco John’s is more than<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s biggest fan; it actively works to support the <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

community. With a mission of making a far-reaching impact,<br />

Taco John’s International donates food to COMEA House and<br />

donates money every year to Laramie County School District #1.<br />

Every year, Taco John’s International donates part of the proceeds<br />

from the annual Nachos Navidad ® campaign to a <strong>Cheyenne</strong> charity.<br />

Taco John’s International also supports local communities through a<br />

program of matching employee contributions to philanthropic causes.<br />

Taco John’s International looks forward to the next 150 years right<br />

here in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming!<br />

TACO JOHN’S ®<br />

Above: The original Taco John’s<br />

located on Carey Avenue.<br />

Below: The current Taco John’s<br />

Restaurant at the corner of<br />

Carey Avenue.<br />

T h e M a r k e p l a c e ✦ 1 0 3


company’s in-house designer and a Boulder, Colorado, architect worked<br />

to restore the old building. They, and the construction company selected,<br />

paid special attention to recapturing the original appearance and bringing<br />

the building up to code.<br />

Matching the materials on the existing structure proved challenging<br />

because the brick used on the second floor had not been made in two<br />

decades. A recently demolished building in Denver built using the<br />

same brick saved the day, and after structural reinforcements were<br />

added and adaptations made to bring the building up to code, the<br />

reconstruction process started.<br />

Several mill shops went to work to shape wainscoting, moldings,<br />

and railings, and an embossed metal ceiling was purchased from a<br />

New York firm said to be the last known company doing such work.<br />

Stained glass, wooden signs, and gold leaf on the doors were added,<br />

and a sign painter used turn-of-the-century methods to create the<br />

wording found on the outside of the building.<br />

Since purchasing it, Sundahl, Powers, Kapp & Martin, LLC has<br />

maintained the historical integrity of the building. It is just one more<br />

way the firm has given back to the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> community and the<br />

entire state of Wyoming.<br />

Sundahl, Powers, Kapp & Martin, LLC (SPKM) has provided first-rate<br />

legal services to individuals and corporations throughout the state of<br />

Wyoming since the 1920s. Today, the attorneys bring more than 150<br />

years of collective experience to bear on legal issues affecting their clients.<br />

It is only fitting then that a firm entrenched in the history of<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Wyoming would make its home in a building that dates<br />

to 1910. The Waldman Building has gone through several makeovers<br />

through the years, serving as everything from a church to a feed store<br />

to a restaurant before SPKM purchased the building in 1991. Located<br />

on the corner of Eighteenth Street and Carey Avenue, the building is<br />

the second structure to occupy the site. In 1910, it was torn down to<br />

make way for the current building.<br />

Throughout the next century, the building served many purposes<br />

and was remodeled at least twice to give the building a more modern<br />

look. Eventually, a fast food hamburger chain purchased the building to<br />

serve as a restaurant. Realizing that restoring the building to its original<br />

design would be the best thing for the building and the community. The<br />

1 0 4 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y



L.L.C.<br />

Budd-Falen Law Offices, L.L.C., has been serving property<br />

owners for more than two decades. The firm is owned by Franklin J.<br />

Falen and his wife, Karen Budd-Falen, whose experience as attorneys<br />

representing ranchers, farmers, and other landowners is a natural<br />

outgrowth of their upbringings. Both grew up on and around ranches<br />

and bring their experience and love for ranching to their work<br />

representing clients.<br />

The firm provides legal representation regarding endangered species,<br />

clean water, private property ownership and use, federal lands, local<br />

government involvement, local zoning and property rights, energy law,<br />

and other areas of law affecting ranchers, farmers, and other landowners<br />

in the federal courts of the United States of America and in several state<br />

courts. The firm’s attorneys are individually licensed to appear in<br />

Colorado, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, South<br />

Dakota, Washington, and Wyoming.<br />

The attorneys of Budd-Falen Law Offices also have represented clients<br />

in other states for specific matters when those states allowed its attorneys<br />

to appear pro hac vice or assist in matters out of the courtroom. The firm<br />

represents industry clients in Bureau of Land Management and U.S.<br />

Forest Service appeals. It also represents clients in litigation arising under<br />

the Endangered Species Act, the Federal Lands Policy and Management<br />

Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Water Act, and<br />

other environmental statutes. In addition, Budd-Falen Law Offices<br />

represents landowners with issues related to oil and gas, wind energy,<br />

solar energy, pipelines, eminent domain, and condemnation.<br />

Frank has served as chief administrative officer for the Washington<br />

Cattlemen’s Association and, in 2001, was named the Wyoming<br />

“Outstanding Ag Citizen of the Year.” Karen served in the Reagan<br />

Administration for three years in the U.S. Department of the Interior<br />

and was featured in Newsweek’s “Who’s Who: 20 for the Future” for her<br />

work on property rights issues.<br />

The firm traces its roots back five generations in Wyoming to the family<br />

ranch started by Karen’s family. Frank is a third-generation rancher in the<br />

Oregon, Idaho, Nevada corner. This tradition of federal land use and private<br />

property ownership continues today as Budd-Falen Law Offices seeks to<br />

protect rural traditions and ways of life, while still preserving natural<br />

resources in a manner consistent with multiple and wise use of the land.<br />

Above: The Budd-Falen Law Offices<br />

at 300 East 18th Street. The building<br />

was originally a residence.<br />

Below: Frank Falen and Karen<br />

Budd-Falen.<br />

T h e M a r k e p l a c e ✦ 1 0 5


The DDA has created many successful programs over the years,<br />

including the Façade Improvement Program, the ReRide Bike Share<br />

Program, and the shared art space, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Creative, just to name<br />

a few.<br />

Downtown <strong>Cheyenne</strong> is an evolving community of wonderful<br />

retailers and professionals all striving to continually improve and<br />

solidify our district as “the” place to be. We have recently developed<br />

a more defined Strategic Plan to encourage an economically vibrant<br />

downtown. Our four goals strive to:<br />

• Promote a strong sense of place through design and planning;<br />

• Create a climate of support and foster new and existing business<br />

and property owners;<br />

• Make Downtown <strong>Cheyenne</strong> the desired destination; and<br />

• Create a Downtown residential community.<br />

Above: Downtown party at the<br />

historic <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Depot Plaza.<br />

Right: The Downtown section<br />

of Lincolnway.<br />

Established in 1984, Downtown Development Authority was created<br />

to benefit the businesses and help revitalize the downtown area. The<br />

Downtown Development Authority/Main Street (DDA/Main Street)<br />

has a wide variety of projects and programs to preserve <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s<br />

colorful history and to enhance historic Downtown <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

DDA/Main Street is an advocate for downtown businesses and<br />

property owners, and works with community partners to encourage<br />

an economically vibrant downtown.<br />

The DDA is governed by a board of directors appointed by the<br />

mayor and ratified by the city council. The number of board members<br />

is nine, allowing for broader representation of downtown property<br />

and business owners. This is the maximum allowable by state statute.<br />

The DDA has four committees:<br />

• Organization;<br />

• Promotions;<br />

• Design; and<br />

• Economic restructuring.<br />

The DDA is continually striving for the future. Volunteers and staff<br />

members of DDA/Main Street support local organizations in order<br />

to help downtown <strong>Cheyenne</strong> grow. Moving forward Downtown<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> will participate and contribute funding to infrastructure<br />

projects that help meet end goals.<br />

Visit www.downtowncheyenne.com for a calendar of events or see<br />

what is planned for Downtown <strong>Cheyenne</strong> in the near future.<br />

1 0 6 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

KGWN-TV is the number one television station serving the<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>-Scottsbluff television market. It was the first television station<br />

in the State of Wyoming, starting in March 1954. The station<br />

signed on the airwaves under the call letters of KFBC-TV and carried<br />

programming from all four major networks.<br />

During KGWN’s early days, programming included local shows like<br />

“Club 5” and “The Margie O’Brien Show,” a program directed toward<br />

decorating, fashion, and cooking. The television station employees<br />

conducted double duty back in those days, whether it was working<br />

with the companion radio station or, in Margret O’Brien’s case, hosting<br />

her show and selling advertising.<br />

Personalities that helped build the television station included<br />

names such as Larry Birleffi, the sports director known throughout the<br />

Rocky Mountain region; Kirk Knox, the first newsman of Wyoming;<br />

and Robert Geha, a recent inductee into the Wyoming Association of<br />

Broadcasters Hall of Fame.<br />

Over the years and through ownership changes, the call letters<br />

eventually changed to KGWN.<br />

Today, KGWN produces nearly twenty hours of local news a week. The<br />

local news is complimented by network programming that includes being<br />

the affiliates for CBS, NBC and the CW. KGWN provides local television<br />

coverage to more than 57,000 households and has a total reach of more<br />

than 285,000 households in Wyoming, Nebraska, and Colorado.<br />

KGWN “Your Station” is proud to call <strong>Cheyenne</strong> home since 1954.<br />

KGWN-TV<br />

Top, left: Groundbreaking ceremony<br />

in 1954.<br />

Middle, left: An exterior view of the<br />

station in 1954.<br />

Bottom, left: The KGWN news team<br />

in 1979.<br />

Below: KGWN’s news studio in 2016.<br />

T h e M a r k e p l a c e ✦ 1 0 7

ROMSA<br />


Above: Matthew H. Romsa.<br />

Romsa Law Office, P.C. was founded by Matthew H. Romsa in<br />

2002, a fifth generation Romsa of Laramie County. Romsa’s ancestors<br />

homesteaded in eastern Laramie County in 1906 where Matthew and<br />

his family currently live, continuing the family heritage of farming<br />

and ranching in conjunction with the law practice. Romsa began his<br />

undergraduate studies by obtaining degrees in diesel mechanics,<br />

business administration, and accounting. Romsa graduated from<br />

the University of Wyoming College of Law in 1989 and began his<br />

legal career as the assistant city attorney in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> for four years;<br />

in-house counsel for the board of public utilities for four years; and<br />

then entered private practice.<br />

Currently, Romsa Law Office, P.C. employs three attorneys:<br />

Matthew H. Romsa, Jason Johnson and Christopher Brennan. Sharon<br />

Sara is the paralegal on staff. Each one has deep roots in Wyoming<br />

and Laramie County.<br />

Serving the greater <strong>Cheyenne</strong> area since 2002, Romsa Law Office, P.C.,<br />

located at 2123 Pioneer Avenue, stands prepared to provide its clients<br />

with full-service legal care. Romsa Law Office, P.C. is a general practice<br />

firm, focusing on wills, trusts, estates, business and tax planning,<br />

LLCs, corporations, partnerships, contracts, real estate, construction<br />

law, injuries, accidents, workmen’s compensation, family law, and<br />

non-felony criminal matters. We are a hometown firm committed to<br />

serving the hardworking men and women in the greater <strong>Cheyenne</strong> area.<br />

As business lawyers, we encourage all business owners to get an annual<br />

“check up” with their lawyer. If you do not have one, give us a call.<br />

We would be honored to serve you as your business is our business!<br />

Romsa Law Office, P.C. is located at www.romsalaw.com on the<br />

Internet, where “Hard Working Attorneys for Hard Working Men and<br />

Women” can be found.<br />

1 0 8 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y



Kriss Spradley and Bill Barr began their automotive careers in 1977<br />

in a small town in southern Colorado. In 1988, Kriss and Bill came<br />

to the beautiful city of Fort Collins, Colorado, and started what is<br />

now Spradley Barr Ford.<br />

In 1995 they purchased the Mazda franchise and opened a<br />

second location in Fort Collins. In 1998, Spradley Barr acquired the<br />

dealership in wonderful <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming. Kriss and Bill were<br />

honored to begin a partnership with Bob Womack.<br />

The three partners have since acquired Spradley Barr in Greeley,<br />

Colorado. All three partners have the same values, goals, and beliefs<br />

in what makes a great auto dealership. At all Spradley Barr dealerships<br />

taking care of customers’ needs is important. Spradley Barr employees<br />

ensure that every interaction is a good one; from sales and service to<br />

the parts and body shop.<br />

But it is not only the customers who are looked after. Employees<br />

are important to Spradley Barr, too. The company believes in promoting<br />

from within and has promoted many employees into management<br />

positions throughout the years.<br />

Spradley Barr is a hometown family business. Kriss, Bill, and Bob<br />

are hands-on and readily available. Their goal is complete customer<br />

and employee satisfaction. Their values have never changed and they<br />

want everyone to feel like family when they visit.<br />

With more than forty years of experience selling, servicing, and<br />

taking care of every automotive need, Spradley Barr’s team continuously<br />

provides the highest quality service with a sense of warmth, friendliness,<br />

company spirit, and individual pride. Spradley Barr’s mission is to treat<br />

every customer and employee with honesty and integrity. Spradley<br />

Barr has a long history of success due to loyal customers, dedicated<br />

employees, and great communities.<br />

Spradley Barr’s website at www.spradleybarrcheyenne.com offers<br />

a magnitude of information to include but not limited to: hours of<br />

operation, directions, current stock of new and pre-owned vehicles,<br />

special deals, financing, parts and service, and much more.<br />

T h e M a r k e p l a c e ✦ 1 0 9




Today, the mansion has twelve guestrooms, each with its own<br />

bathroom. The main house holds six rooms and the carriage house is<br />

home to six more. The third-floor tower and snuggery are available for<br />

guest use, as is the workout room on the garden level. Public areas<br />

include the parlor, sitting room, dining room, and library as well as<br />

three conference rooms on the garden level. The grounds include a hot<br />

tub room, patio, fountain, and gardens.<br />

The entire house has been decorated to recreate the elegance of the<br />

Victorian West while adding modern amenities like air conditioning, a<br />

private bath, telephone, and television in each guestroom. Business<br />

travelers will appreciate the services of the mansion’s fully equipped<br />

office and conference center.<br />

The Nagle Warren Mansion Bed & Breakfast is perfectly suited for<br />

special events such as bridal and baby showers and engagement<br />

parties. Enjoy a romantic weekend getaway and English High Tea<br />

served each Friday and Saturday by staff dressed in period costumes.<br />

For reservations or a tour, visit www.naglewarrenmansion.com or<br />

call (307)-637-3333 or (800)-811-2610.<br />

The Nagle Warren Mansion Bed & Breakfast remains one of<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s most elegant residences as well as one its most significant<br />

historical structures. It combines the elegance of the Victorian West<br />

with amenities expected by modern travelers to provide guests with a<br />

leisure or business experience unlike any other.<br />

Erasmus Nagle, who moved to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> to start a grocery business,<br />

built the Nagle Warren Mansion in 1888 at a time when <strong>Cheyenne</strong> was<br />

one of the richest cities of its size in the world. He built the residence<br />

at a cost of $50,000 but died two years later of peritonitis, leaving his<br />

wife and son behind.<br />

In April 1910, Senator F. E. Warren and his wife, Clara, purchased the<br />

property at 222 East Seventeenth Street, where they lived for the next<br />

nineteen years. Upon the senator’s death, Clara donated the property to<br />

the YWCA, fully furnished, to be used as chaperoned housing for single<br />

women and as a social gathering place for <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

Jim Osterfoss, the current owner, purchased the property in 1997<br />

and converted it into the bed and breakfast that exists today. The<br />

carriage house, originally built as the mansion’s stables, was converted<br />

into guestrooms and connected to the house.<br />

1 1 0 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

The Romano Insurance Agency is a family-owned<br />

company headed by Adrian Romano. Adrian who grew up<br />

in a home where insurance and taking care of people<br />

were the frequent topics of conversation. He learned<br />

the insurance business from his father, Ted Romano,<br />

who started the agency in 1976 with a goal to provide<br />

the people of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> with personalized service based<br />

on trust.<br />

The agency team now consists of incredible agent<br />

specialists who share the same values and ethic upon<br />

which the agency was founded. With this philosophy,<br />

The Romano Insurance Agency continues to forge new<br />

relationships with valued clients in both Wyoming<br />

and Colorado.<br />

Its commitment to policyholders has allowed the<br />

company to become one of the most trusted insurance<br />

agencies in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Front Range areas. This trust<br />

has contributed to the agency receiving many top awards<br />

and honors from Farmers Companies and has led to recognition as<br />

being among the top one percent of Farmers agencies nationwide.<br />

The Romano Insurance Agency has never forgotten that it is the<br />

relationships it builds with people that have made itsuccessful.<br />

Customers and non-customers alike are always welcome,<br />

whether it is to ask questions or discover creative ways to<br />

protect what is most important to them.<br />

It takes time and effort to determine the best protection<br />

available to each customer. The company’s focus will always<br />

be centered on listening carefully to clients’ concerns and<br />

helping them care for themselves, their families, and their<br />

businesses. The company’s staff works hard to build<br />

relationships and are committed to being there to support<br />

clients during all aspects of the insurance experience.<br />

The Romano Insurance Agency understands insurance<br />

can be costly and confusing. The company’s staff takes the<br />

time to educate clients and cut through the confusion,<br />

designing a plan in the clients’ best interests—not the<br />

company’s. A company mentor once shared, “We are not in<br />

the insurance or the financial services business, we are in the<br />

people business, and the day we stop caring about people is<br />

the day we close our doors.”<br />



AGENCY<br />

Adrian Romano.<br />

T h e M a r k e p l a c e ✦ 1 1 1

PREISS<br />


INC.<br />

It was around 7:30 in the morning in the summer of 1958 when a<br />

short man in a black derby hat walked into a <strong>Cheyenne</strong> real estate<br />

office known as Wallick and Volk. He introduced himself as Ray Kroc<br />

and asked for help finding a location for a restaurant. His plan was to<br />

find investors to build and lease a fast-food restaurant to his company,<br />

known as McDonald’s Restaurants.<br />

on Yellowstone Road, <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, and Grand Avenue in Laramie. Since<br />

then, they have built and operated three additional McDonald’s<br />

Restaurants in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and one more in Laramie. The Preisses currently<br />

own and operate the five McDonald’s Restaurants in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

Through the years, Jack and his team developed a system of streamlined<br />

production and service that have become national and global<br />

standards. The most obvious is the double-lane drive- thru. Following<br />

Jack’s lead, developing the most efficient way to serve customers<br />

has become the norm at today’s McDonald’s Restaurants, and Jack’s<br />

methods are used in some form around the world.<br />

After a complete renovation of the East Lincolnway restaurant<br />

in 2013, the red-and-white tiles used in the original construction<br />

were used to frame a photograph of the restaurant in its original<br />

design. It hangs in the lobby of the current, modern version of<br />

the restaurant. Some customers remember patronizing the original<br />

restaurant as children and remain good customers today.<br />

The Preiss family is proud to have played an important role in the<br />

history of McDonald’s Restaurants in Wyoming and look forward to<br />

serving customers for many years to come.<br />

Above: The first McDonald's in<br />

Wyoming, c. 1959<br />

Right: The McDonald’s at 2535 East<br />

Lincolnway, <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming.<br />

Although the real estate company had never heard of McDonald’s<br />

Restaurants, eventually it teamed up with other investors to purchase<br />

the north half of the block on East Lincolnway and build the first<br />

McDonald’s Restaurant in Wyoming. The restaurant opened in 1959<br />

as a walk-up service and has grown to a full-service restaurant still<br />

operating on the same site at 2535 East Lincolnway in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

The original franchisees were Ken and Marge Reilly, who moved to<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> from Illinois. In 1988, after Ken passed away, Jack and<br />

Suzanne Preiss purchased the restaurant. It was not the first<br />

McDonald’s Restaurant the Preisses had purchased—far from it.<br />

They bought their first franchise in Rawlins, Wyoming, in 1982, and,<br />

six years later, purchased the store on East Lincolnway along with stores<br />

1 1 2 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

They say you can tell a lot about a person by how they deal with<br />

difficulties. Some become discouraged and criticize efforts, while<br />

others see tough times as a challenge and an opportunity for growth.<br />

The people of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> chose the second path when faced with the<br />

economic bust of the mid 1980s, led by business and civic leaders,<br />

who decided to take matters into their own hands rather than waiting<br />

for government intervention.<br />

employees, only two more than when <strong>Cheyenne</strong> LEADS started more<br />

than three decades ago.<br />

Since its inception, the private sector has contributed more than<br />

$7.4 million to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> LEADS’ operations and the city and county<br />

governments have provided more than $2.2 million. In addition,<br />

the business community and individuals have contributed more<br />

than $5.9 million through the Progress and Prosperity capital<br />

campaigns, much of which has been used to pay for business parks<br />

and infrastructure.<br />

This investment is paying dividends with more than 80 new<br />

or expanded companies and more than 6,000 new direct jobs.<br />

The annual payroll from the jobs <strong>Cheyenne</strong> LEADS can track exceeded<br />

$170 million in 2016. The capital investment<br />

into the community from those companies<br />

has now exceeded $1 billion and is growing<br />

monthly. Millions of tax dollars annually<br />

flow into state and local government<br />

coffers, and the overall effect has had an<br />

overwhelmingly positive impact on the<br />

local economy.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> LEADS looks forward to<br />

continuing to serve as a driving force for<br />

economic development for <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and<br />

Laramie County for many years to come.<br />


LEADS<br />

They formed <strong>Cheyenne</strong> LEADS in 1986 to serve as a vehicle<br />

for economic development for <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Laramie County.<br />

Individuals and businesses stepped up to fund the initiative at a time<br />

when they could ill afford to tack another expense onto the liabilities<br />

side of their budgets. But they understood something that others<br />

might have missed—doing nothing would cost even more through<br />

bankrupt businesses, lost jobs, and a prolonged economic downturn.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> LEADS was established as a private, not-for-profit<br />

corporation serving as the economic development entity for the<br />

City of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Laramie County. It is funded 46 percent by<br />

LEADS members, 12 percent by local government, and is 42 percent<br />

self-funded. The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> LEADS board is a policy board with<br />

the work being done by a paid professional staff of five full-time<br />

T h e M a r k e p l a c e ✦ 1 1 3




Right: Meridian Trust Federal Credit<br />

Union Downtown branch location<br />

ribbon-cutting ceremony.<br />

Below: Meridian Trust Federal<br />

Credit Union <strong>Cheyenne</strong> East branch<br />

location, which was opened in 2004.<br />

In its sixty-three years of service to people in communities around<br />

the State of Wyoming and beyond, Meridian Trust Federal Credit<br />

Union has produced landmark successes and expansive growth.<br />

Chartered in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> in January 1954, a small office opened<br />

two months later in the State Board of Charities and Reform. In 1955<br />

the credit union was moved to a basement storage room in the<br />

State Capital Building, where volunteers took deposits for their<br />

fellow state employees. Known then as Wyoming Employees Federal<br />

Credit Union, it hired its first full-time employee in 1958.<br />

After spending a year working out of a garage facility behind the<br />

Wyoming Travel Commission, the current property at 2223 Warren<br />

Avenue in downtown <strong>Cheyenne</strong> was purchased in 1977. Meridian<br />

Trust Federal Credit Union began opening more branches across the<br />

state, including in Lander, Jackson, and Rawlins, and its first branch<br />

outside the Wyoming border, in Scottsbluff, Nebraska in 2013.<br />

The historic success of this financial cooperative continues with<br />

assets at the start of 2017 exceeding $338 million with 85 employees<br />

serving more than 28,000 members. Kim Withers, Meridian Trust<br />

Federal Credit Union’s CEO since 1994, envisions a promising future<br />

for members and employees of the credit union. “We have always<br />

embraced the idea of service for our members and continuing our<br />

success as a financial co-op.”<br />

Throughout its history, the mission of Meridian Trust Federal<br />

Credit Union has not changed. Offering the best in personal service<br />

and the highest-quality financial products at the lowest possible cost<br />

has always been fundamental to the organization. This stands true<br />

whether the service is provided at a physical branch location, over<br />

the phone through its dedicated call center, or in utilizing the newest<br />

and greatest in online and electronic tools.<br />

As members become more interested in managing their finances<br />

around the clock, Meridian Trust keeps pace. The credit union<br />

provides easy online account opening, along with free online bill pay<br />

and strong electronic banking tools. All this, plus an unbeatable<br />

mobile app that allows members to pay their bills, deposit checks<br />

and conduct financial transactions anytime from anywhere all from<br />

their smartphone. The mission of serving members has not changed<br />

in sixty-three years, only the tools to meet modern demands with<br />

increased speed, efficiency and access.<br />

Additional information is available at www.MyMeridianTrust.com.<br />

1 1 4 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

As a young man beginning legal practice in Green River, Wyoming,<br />

in 1928, Carlton Lathrop had assets: intelligence, charm, and a<br />

competitive spirit. A clergyman’s son, he had a solid family<br />

background, and a Harvard degree and the offer of a Rhodes Scholarship<br />

highlighted his resume.<br />

Lathrop enjoyed a successful legal career, compiling an impressive<br />

record of favorable court rulings. He handled major estate and entity<br />

work and was a fellow in the American College of Trial Lawyers. Highly<br />

regarded as a lawyer and <strong>Cheyenne</strong> community leader, he served as<br />

chamber of commerce and Rotary Club president and as director and<br />

general counsel for American National Bank.<br />

Lathrop’s son, Carl, earned his law degree from the University<br />

of Colorado. He joined his father’s firm in 1955 after practicing<br />

law in Sundance for three years. Carl developed an impressive<br />

career of his own. He served as president of the Wyoming State<br />

Bar in 1980, was elected to fellowship in the American College of<br />

Trial Lawyers and American College of Trust and Estate Counsel,<br />

and was listed in Best Lawyers<br />

in America. Carl has also<br />

found time for his community,<br />

serving on the school board,<br />

chamber of commerce board,<br />

and <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days<br />

Committee. As the firm’s senior<br />

member since his father’s<br />

death in 1967, Carl has led by<br />

example within and outside<br />

the firm.<br />

Kent Rutledge was inspired<br />

to go to law school because of<br />

Carlton and Carl, who were<br />

lawyers for the Rutledge Ranch<br />

where he grew up. Thework<br />

ethic and principles Kent<br />

learned on the ranch coincided<br />

with those of the Lathrops,<br />

and in 1974, he joined Carl<br />

in the law practice. Due in<br />

large part to the opportunities created by the Lathrops, Kent<br />

has enjoyed his own success as a lawyer, mainly in commercial<br />

and medical malpractice litigation. In 1999, he was elected to<br />

fellowship in the American College of Trial Lawyers. Kent also<br />

has been active in the community, having served on the board of<br />

the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Chamber of Commerce, as chairman and as a board<br />

member of the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days Committee, and as a Rotary<br />

Club member.<br />

Lathrop & Rutledge continues to emphasize high ethical<br />

standards, hard work, and quality representation. The firm’s other<br />

shareholder is Corey Rutledge, who joined the firm in 1989<br />

and is involved primarily in medical malpractice litigation. Sharing<br />

the values ingrained in the firm by Carlton, she has contributed greatly<br />

to the firm’s success. Corey has served as president of<br />

the Wyoming Association of Defense Trial Counsel. Erin Barkley<br />

joined the firm as an associate in 2013. She provides support in<br />

litigation cases.<br />

LATHROP &<br />

RUTLEDGE, P.C.<br />

(From left to right) Kent and Corinne<br />

E. Rutledge, and Carl Lathrop.<br />

T h e M a r k e p l a c e ✦ 1 1 5

An aerial view of Frontier Park and<br />

Lions park showing Kiddieland in<br />

upper left hand corner. To the left of<br />

Kiddieland is the sunken garden and<br />

to the right is the “midget train.”<br />

When the amusement park opened for<br />

the season in 1952 an advertisement<br />

in the Wyoming State Tribune said<br />

the park was “Fun for All” and “Bring<br />

the Kiddies” to enjoy the rides and<br />

“help dedicate <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s New,<br />

Modern Amusement Park.”<br />


1 1 6 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y


H e a l t h c a r e p r o v i d e r s , s c h o o l s , l i b r a r i e s , a n d o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s<br />

t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n C h e y e n n e<br />

C h e y e n n e R e g i o n a l M e d i c a l C e n t e r .............................................................................................118<br />

S T R I D E L e a r n i n g C e n t e r ..........................................................................................................120<br />

N a t i o n a l C e n t e r f o r A t m o s p h e r i c R e s e a rc h ...................................................................................122<br />

L a r a m i e C o u n t y C o m m u n i t y C o l l e g e ...........................................................................................124<br />

L i f e C a re C e n t e r o f C h e y e n n e ....................................................................................................126<br />

P o i n t e F ro n t i e r S e n i o r L i v i n g C o m m u n i t y ....................................................................................127<br />

F ro n t i e r O r a l S u rgery & I m p l a n t C e n t e r .....................................................................................128<br />

S a i n t s C o n s t a n t i n e a n d H e l e n G re e k O r t h o d o x C h u rc h ...................................................................129<br />

L a r a m i e C o u n t y L i b r a r y S y s t e m .................................................................................................130<br />

C o l l e g e A m e r i c a .......................................................................................................................131<br />

L a r a m i e C o u n t y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t 1 ...............................................................................................132<br />

C h e y e n n e S y m p h o n y O rc h e s t r a ..................................................................................................133<br />

L a r a m i e C o u n t y C o m m i s s i o n .....................................................................................................134<br />

S t a t e o f Wy o m i n g ....................................................................................................................135<br />

P ro t e c t i o n & A d v o c a c y S y s t e m , I n c . ............................................................................................136<br />

S k i l s ’ k i n ................................................................................................................................137<br />

C h e y e n n e F ro n t i e r D a y s T M ........................................................................................................138<br />

S M A RT S p o r t s M e d i c i n e C e n t e r ..................................................................................................139<br />

Q u a l i t y o f L i f e ✦ 1 1 7




<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Regional Medical Center has been fulfilling its mission to<br />

nurture and improve the health of individuals and the quality of life in<br />

the community long before it took on its current name and structure.<br />

Its roots go back as far as 1867, when the City of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> paid $125<br />

for hospital supplies and a tent, which had been set up a year earlier<br />

along the Union Pacific Railroad tracks to care for the sick working on<br />

the transcontinental railroad.<br />

Born as a “tent hospital,” <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Regional has changed, grown,<br />

and improved throughout several generations, and through it all the<br />

pioneering spirit on which it was founded has continued to lead and<br />

inspire healthcare excellence in the region. It is driven to provide<br />

patients and partners with the highest quality experience possible<br />

through steadfast determination to serve others.<br />

The tent that started it all was replaced a year later by a small, twostory<br />

building with a capacity to treat as many as forty patients and<br />

constructed at a cost of $2,500. There were no trained nurses, plumbing,<br />

or lights other than kerosene lamps, and although the hospital<br />

continued to grow, it was many years before it came to resemble a<br />

modern medical center. Records dated 1893 show the hospital’s<br />

inventory consisted of 1 hypodermic syringe, 1 clinical thermometer,<br />

2 pair of crutches, 8 medical reference books, 25 iron-and-wood<br />

bedsteads, 25 air mattresses, 1 calling bell, and several spittoons.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Regional is much better equipped today. It employs<br />

more than 2,000 people, including more than 170 active/associate<br />

medical staff, and have 222 licensed beds (120 medical-surgical,<br />

16 pediatric medical-surgical, 19 obstetric, 15 intensive care,<br />

20 physical rehabilitation, 16 psychiatric care, and 16 skilled nursing<br />

care). Its facilities also include 10 surgical suites.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Regional offers a comprehensive line of healthcare<br />

services including cardiovascular, cancer, orthopedics, women<br />

and children’s services, trauma, rehabilitation, home care, hospice,<br />

behavioral health, medical imaging, lab services, wound management<br />

and hyperbaric medicine.<br />

A major contributor to the growth of the hospital occurred in<br />

1900 when a typhoid epidemic put such a demand on the hospital<br />

that residents realized the necessity of having a hospital that could care<br />

for many patients. Several women who had assisted in treating patients<br />

during the epidemic formed the Hospital Aid Society, a precursor to<br />

the current Laramie County Memorial Hospital Foundation, which<br />

raises funds to support the hospital and advance its mission.<br />

The Hospital Aid Society raised funds to remodel the existing<br />

hospital of that time. In 1901, Sarah Jane McKenzie was hired as the<br />

first matron and superintendent. She quickly organized a training<br />

school for nurses, which led to the founding of the school of nursing.<br />

Two years later, six students graduated from the first class.<br />

1 1 8 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Throughout the twentieth century,<br />

the hospital was remodeled and<br />

expanded many times. It also went<br />

through several mergers and name<br />

changes. One of the most significant<br />

developments was construction of the<br />

West Tower Building, a seven-story<br />

wing attached to the main complex.<br />

Completed in 1968, it housed new<br />

physical therapy and X-ray departments,<br />

admitting and emergency room<br />

areas, cafeteria and kitchen, a maternity<br />

floor with new labor and delivery,<br />

newborn nursery, postpartum nursing<br />

space, and 120 patient beds.<br />

That same year, a Cobalt 60 unit to<br />

treat cancer was purchased, continuing a long history of cancer<br />

treatment at <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Regional. In 1985 the hospital opened its<br />

Radiation Therapy Complex giving <strong>Cheyenne</strong> area residents access to<br />

a major cancer treatment center specializing in radiation oncology.<br />

The center is accredited by the American College of Radiology.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Regional has a strong, growing hospitalist program. We<br />

employ an exceptional roster of highly skilled, specialized physicians<br />

to treat a variety of patients and diagnoses around the clock. This<br />

program benefits and promotes the overall goal of providing patients<br />

with a collaborative, seamless approach to their healthcare needs.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Regional Medical Group (CRMG) is the state’s largest<br />

medical group with approximately seventy-five providers offering<br />

a complete continuum of care from pediatrics and family medicine<br />

to advanced specialty care such as oncology, orthopedics and<br />

cardiology. CRMG is part of the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Regional healthcare system<br />

serving the people of Southeast Wyoming, Northern Colorado and<br />

Western Nebraska.<br />

When you come to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Regional, passionate physicians,<br />

nurses and staff will be here to encourage you with confidence and<br />

compassion throughout the healing process. We know our region<br />

better than any other healthcare system, and we are committed to<br />

providing you with the exceptional care you seek and deserve.<br />

Opposite, top: Sixteenth Street,<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, 1868.<br />

Opposite, bottom: St. Johns Hospital,<br />

original building at Twenty-Third and<br />

Evans Street.<br />

Left: Laramie County Memorial<br />

Hospital, <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming.<br />

Below: <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Regional<br />

Medical Center.<br />

Q u a l i t y o f L i f e ✦ 1 1 9

STRIDE<br />


CENTER<br />

STRIDE Learning Center is an<br />

early intervention and developmental<br />

preschool serving children<br />

from birth through age five, who<br />

have developmental delays or<br />

disabilities and live in <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

and/or Laramie County. STRIDE<br />

also teaches children who are<br />

typically developing so they may<br />

receive general education in<br />

preschool classrooms and serve as<br />

“Pacesetters” for children with<br />

educational disabilities.<br />

The genesis for STRIDE Learning<br />

Center, which incorporated as a nonprofit 501(c)(3) in 1973, goes<br />

back to February 1954 when seven mothers held a party for<br />

their “retarded” children. The meeting inspired the mothers to<br />

develop a school for their children they named the Opportunity<br />

School. Considering most children with intellectual disabilities<br />

were institutionalized in those days, starting a school to meet their<br />

developmental and educational needs was quite unusual.<br />

Throughout the next two decades, the school moved, changed<br />

names, and evolved several times until April 14, 1972, it became STRIDE<br />

Learning Center, serving only children age two to six with developmental<br />

disabilities. STRIDE stood<br />

for Special, Training, Research,<br />

Individual, Development, and<br />

Experience and accepted children<br />

with what was then known as<br />

“mental retardation” as well as<br />

children with hearing and speech<br />

problems, physical or neurological<br />

problems, and emotional problems.<br />

In 1989 the purchase of the<br />

current facility at 326 Parsley<br />

Boulevard was completed.<br />

As STRIDE continued to grow,<br />

new office space and classrooms<br />

were added to the Parsley Boulevard site. In 2009 the campus at<br />

5801 Yellowstone Highway was purchased to house the Infant and<br />

Toddler Program and to provide more preschool classrooms. To meet<br />

the needs of the children served, STRIDE created a specialized<br />

program for children on the autism spectrum and a specialized Deaf<br />

and Hard of Hearing Program.<br />

1 2 0 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

children and families. All early childhood special education teachers,<br />

speech language pathologists, physical therapists, occupational therapists,<br />

and a school nurse are highly qualified and are licensed to practice<br />

in Wyoming. All services are provided at no cost to the family for eligible<br />

children and children are never turned away or put on a waiting list.<br />

Through the years, STRIDE Learning Center has provided services to<br />

more than 10,000 children and their families. In 1960 the center served<br />

eighteen children in a single year, and by 2016, this number had<br />

grown to 695. Better child-find activities and screenings, physicians’<br />

understanding of the importance of early intervention, and advances in<br />

medicine leading to increased survival rates have led to the steady<br />

increase in the number of children served.<br />

Today, STRIDE Learning Center employs more than eighty people in<br />

an array of jobs. Together, they strive to fulfill the STRIDE mission to<br />

provide comprehensive, quality services for children with special needs<br />

and their family in a safe, inclusive, and compassionate environment so<br />

they may achieve their fullest potential.<br />

STRIDE operates under a contract with the Wyoming Department<br />

of Health, Behavioral Health Division, to provide the services mandated<br />

by the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. As such,<br />

STRIDE operates two distinct programs, a Preschool Program and an<br />

Infant and Toddler Program. The Preschool Program provides for special<br />

education and related services for children three years old through<br />

five years old that are identified as educationally eligible in accordance<br />

with State of Wyoming requirements. The Infant and Toddler Program<br />

provides for early intervention for children from birth through two<br />

years of age who have, or are at risk for, developmental delays.<br />

STRIDE employees work closely with families to understand and<br />

build on children’s strengths and to provide services that support<br />

Q u a l i t y o f L i f e ✦ 1 2 1





Above: The NCAR-Wyoming<br />

Supercomputing Center (NWSC) in<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming, provides<br />

advanced computing and data services<br />

to researchers in the Earth System<br />

sciences. The facility is extremely<br />

energy efficient, and is powered in<br />

part by renewable energy from wind.<br />

Below: The NWSC Visitor Center<br />

is open to the public and offers a<br />

high-quality educational experience<br />

about the NWSC facility and NCAR<br />

science. It provides windows into the<br />

computer room, videos, animations,<br />

interactive games, question-andanswer<br />

displays, and vivid science<br />

images and narratives.<br />

The powerful supercomputers at the National Center for Atmospheric<br />

Research (NCAR)-Wyoming Supercomputing Center (NWSC) in<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming, allow scientists to study climate and weather,<br />

explore the dynamics of the Earth and Sun, and better understand<br />

how we interact with our natural world. In the West, where weather<br />

extremes have long been a fact of life, gaining knowledge about<br />

our environment is helping us plan and respond better to the<br />

consequences of changing weather patterns such as wildfires, flash<br />

floods, and drought.<br />

Today’s highly detailed computer models capture science’s<br />

best understanding of the interplay between the natural forces that<br />

determine how our planet behaves. These models allow scientists to<br />

test ideas and serve as “virtual laboratories” allowing them to run<br />

experiments that would be impossible otherwise, like peering into the<br />

Sun’s corona, or changing the circulation of the oceans, or modifying<br />

the composition of the atmosphere.<br />

NCAR provides advanced computing services to scientists nationwide<br />

who pursue a broad range of research projects in disciplines<br />

including weather, climate, oceanography, air pollution, space weather,<br />

computational science, energy production, and carbon sequestration.<br />

NCAR also supports the university community with supercomputing<br />

services through the NWSC, and provides the research and teaching<br />

communities at U.S. universities with tools such as aircraft<br />

and radar to observe the atmosphere and with the technology<br />

and assistance to interpret and use these observations.<br />

NCAR scientists work with collaborators in universities,<br />

government agencies, and the private sector on research<br />

topics in atmospheric chemistry, cloud physics, climate,<br />

storms, weather hazards to aviation, and interactions<br />

between the Sun and Earth. Scientists are carefully<br />

investigating future climate, the predictability of severe<br />

weather, the availability of resources for both energy<br />

and water needs, and the impacts of human activities on<br />

the environment.<br />

The NWSC in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> plays an important role in<br />

these efforts. The scientific mission of the NWSC is to help<br />

scientists better understand our planet, and to apply this<br />

knowledge to help people. This mission also inspires the<br />

guiding principle at the heart of the NWSC—to maximize<br />

the benefits of this facility to society while minimizing its<br />

environmental impact.<br />

1 2 2 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

NCAR used this guiding principle to create a facility that uses energy<br />

and water resources efficiently, is adaptable to new technologies, uses<br />

sustainable and recycled materials, and reduces or eliminates waste<br />

during both its construction and its ongoing operation. The design and<br />

construction of the NWSC earned it the U.S. Green Building Council’s<br />

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold<br />

certification, an exceptional achievement for a supercomputing center.<br />

The public is welcome to explore and learn more about science,<br />

supercomputing, and data center design at the NWSC Visitor Center,<br />

and online at www.nwsc.ucar.edu.<br />

NCAR is a federally funded research and development center devoted<br />

to service, research, and education in the atmospheric and related<br />

sciences, and is managed by the University Corporation for<br />

Atmospheric Research (UCAR), a nonprofit consortium of more than<br />

100 universities. The National Science Foundation is NCAR’s sponsor,<br />

with significant additional support provided by other U.S. government<br />

agencies and smaller amounts of funding from the private sector and<br />

international agencies. The NWSC was made possible through a<br />

partnership among NCAR, NSF, the University of Wyoming, the State<br />

of Wyoming, the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> LEADS economic development group,<br />

the Wyoming Business Council, and Black Hills Energy. All NWSC<br />

operations are housed in a sustainable state-of-the-art facility built on<br />

twenty-four acres in the North Range Business Park west of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

Since opening in 2012, the<br />

NWSC has housed some of the<br />

world’s fastest supercomputers for<br />

scientific research. Supercomputers<br />

are used for intensive data analysis<br />

and other complex tasks—like<br />

detailed simulations and visual<br />

representations of global weather,<br />

which would overwhelm an ordinary<br />

computer. The supercomputer<br />

named <strong>Cheyenne</strong> was ranked as<br />

the twentieth most powerful<br />

computer in the world when it<br />

began operations in late 2016.<br />

The NWSC is also home to a<br />

premier data storage and archival facility that preserves valuable<br />

scientific data, including unique historical climate records.<br />

While no one can predict all the environmental challenges the<br />

Earth and its people will face in the future, the scientists who use the<br />

NWSC are working to help cope with the accelerating pace of changes<br />

in the weather and climate, and to answer some of the planet’s most<br />

important and difficult questions.<br />

Left: Performing 5.34 quadrillion<br />

calculations per second, the <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

supercomputer supports scientists<br />

studying weather and climate,<br />

wildfires, seismic activity, airflows<br />

that generate power at wind farms,<br />

and much more. Simulations running<br />

on <strong>Cheyenne</strong> advance the knowledge<br />

needed for saving lives, protecting<br />

property, and enabling U.S. businesses<br />

to better compete in the<br />

global marketplace.<br />

Below: This two-dimensional image<br />

is derived from 3D data output by<br />

Yellowstone, the NWSC’s first<br />

supercomputer, which simulated the<br />

physical processes inside the Sun that<br />

produce a sunspot. This image shows<br />

detailed interactions of horizontal<br />

and vertical magnetic fields in the<br />

transition zone from the sunspot’s<br />

umbra (dark center) to its<br />

penumbra (lighter outer region.)<br />

A supercomputer’s ability to<br />

perform these physics calculations<br />

allows scientists to “see” below the<br />

Sun’s surface—something that is<br />

impossible through direct<br />

observation—and this is one reason<br />

why supercomputing is such a<br />

valuable part of modern science.<br />

Q u a l i t y o f L i f e ✦ 1 2 3




Opponents of the college had requested a “cease and desist” order,<br />

which was delivered to trustee J. O. Reed as he stood on the site<br />

with the board and other members of the community during the<br />

groundbreaking ceremony. Reed accepted the letter, stuffed it in his<br />

pocket without reading it, and proceeded with the groundbreaking.<br />

“The college that cannot be built” is a story of persistence and<br />

perseverance that led to the formation and growth of Laramie County<br />

Community College (LCCC) beginning a half century ago and<br />

continuing to this day. Throughout its existence, this can-do attitude<br />

has spurred the college to fulfill the mission of “transforming our<br />

students’ lives through the power of inspired learning.”<br />

It was inspired thinking that led to the creation of the college.<br />

Political experts claimed the county lacked the resources and<br />

community support to make the college a reality. Yet, on May 21,<br />

1968, the electorate voted in favor of establishing a community<br />

college in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

Although the college continued<br />

to face opposition,<br />

support rapidly grew. Doran<br />

Lummis and the Arp family<br />

donated 168 acres of cattle<br />

pasture toward making the<br />

initiative a success, giving the<br />

land to the board of trustees<br />

to use as it wished. A well<br />

was drilled, free of charge, to<br />

make sure the new site had<br />

water, and soon ground was<br />

broken for the new college—<br />

although not without an<br />

element of drama.<br />

Today, LCCC is a full-service, comprehensive community college<br />

with campuses in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Laramie and outreach centers in<br />

Pine Bluffs and at F. E. Warren Air Force Base, providing a wide<br />

range of academic, career/technical, and community programs. The<br />

college is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission of the<br />

North Central Association of Colleges and Schools.<br />

LCCC understands students, regardless of who they are or how<br />

they arrive at the college, yearn for a better life by engaging in the<br />

process of acquiring knowledge. The faculty and staff of LCCC aid<br />

in this transformation by offering diverse educational experiences<br />

designed to be inspirational in the learning process. The entirety of<br />

LCCC’s work is grounded in the four foundational elements of the<br />

comprehensive community college mission:<br />

• to prepare people to succeed academically in college-level learning;<br />

• to engage students in learning activities that prepare and advance<br />

them through the pursuit of a baccalaureate degree;<br />

• to develop individuals to enter or advance in productive, lifefulfilling<br />

occupations and professions; and<br />

• to enrich the communities LCCC serves through activities that<br />

stimulate and sustain a healthy society and economy.<br />

1 2 4 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Through the years, the campus has grown to include<br />

twenty-five buildings on the 271-acre LCCC campus.<br />

These include three residence halls with a capacity<br />

of 250, a recreation and athletics complex, indoor<br />

and outdoor rodeo arenas, high-tech health sciences<br />

building, library, state-of-the-art science complex, and<br />

fully equipped and highly functional classrooms and<br />

computer labs. The newest buildings, constructed<br />

thanks to overwhelming community and legislative<br />

support, are the Clay Pathfinder Building and the Flex<br />

Tech Building, both of which were constructed in 2016.<br />

Although only a third as old as <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, LCCC<br />

has grown and matured with the city. Originally<br />

designed as a place for high school graduates to take the<br />

first steps on their higher education journeys, the college<br />

now serves all students, providing educational opportunities that<br />

help create a bridge between high school and four-year universities<br />

while also launching skilled workers directly into the workforce.<br />

LCCC also helps unemployed or under-employed people train for<br />

better careers, provides education for students needing high school<br />

equivalency degrees, improves the skills of entire companies who<br />

send employees to specialized training, and creates the future leaders<br />

of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Laramie County, and the region.<br />

At LCCC, everyone has the freedom to innovate and take informed<br />

risks based on promising practices and creative ideas, learning and<br />

growing from failures as much as from successes. Clear academic<br />

pathways, high-touch services, and engaged employees are the bedrock<br />

of the students’ success. The entire LCCC team drives collaboration<br />

throughout the community to ensure the success of all students:<br />

improving the world of higher education, facing seemingly impossible<br />

challenges, and committing tirelessly to help every learner.<br />

Q u a l i t y o f L i f e ✦ 1 2 5


Surrounded by beauty and centrally located, Life Care Center of<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> is a perfect choice for inpatient or outpatient rehabilitation<br />

or for the long-term care for you or a loved one. Life Care Center<br />

opened its doors in 1988 to provide residents with skilled nursing,<br />

short-term rehabilitation, and post-operative recovery services.<br />

Our 155-bed facility employs more than 250 people, including an<br />

array of specialty employees such as physicians and occupational,<br />

speech, and physical therapists. Life Care Center’s in-house rehabilitation<br />

staff offers state-of-the-art rehab equipment with an onsite<br />

physician offering faster, more convenient patient and resident care.<br />

Caregivers provide the highest levels of care and service to all,<br />

regardless of how basic or critical their needs.<br />

Life Care Centers of America—the parent company for Life Care<br />

Center of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>—is committed to being a premier provider of<br />

long-term healthcare. It is our desire to be the facility of choice in<br />

any community in which we operate. Our programs, services, and<br />

facilities are designed and operated with superior quality to satisfy<br />

the needs of our customers.<br />

The Life Care Centers of America story began in 1970 when the<br />

company’s founder, Forrest Lee Preston, built the first Life Care<br />

Center in Cleveland, Tennessee. Long before the concept of continuum<br />

of care became popular, Preston recognized the importance of providing<br />

such care. The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> site is a good example of this vision with<br />

Point Frontier Senior Living Community, an assisted living and<br />

independent living facility, located on the same campus as Life<br />

Care Center of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

Future plans for development of a ten-acre site north of the campus<br />

for sixty-five new units of assisted living and memory care. Memory<br />

care is designed to serve dementia patients who need specialized<br />

attention to secure their health and safety.<br />

Life Care Center of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> is committed to upholding the values<br />

that have made the company successful. We believe our residents<br />

are our highest priority, deserving of dignity, respect, and rights in a<br />

loving and caring environment. Our resident-centered approach to<br />

care means meeting the total needs of residents, and we encourage<br />

families to be closely involved in meeting the residents’ needs.<br />

Life Care Centers of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> is responsive to the continuum<br />

of care needs of our community and will remain committed to our<br />

residents, community, and employees for many years to come.<br />

1 2 6 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Pointe Frontier Senior<br />

Living Community is a 159-<br />

unit senior living facility<br />

in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. The first<br />

residents were welcomed<br />

on March 31, 1989. It is<br />

proud to be part of a<br />

continuum of care campus,<br />

working closely with Life<br />

Care Center of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

Pointe Frontier offers both independent living and assisted<br />

living. Independent living residents enjoy retirement surrounded<br />

by friendly peers and associates dedicated to creating a relaxing<br />

and enriching environment. Residents have the freedom to make<br />

their own schedules while forgetting the taxing aspects of everyday<br />

life, such as apartment maintenance, housekeeping, cooking, and<br />

laundry services.<br />

Assisted living residents enjoy living a fulfilling lifestyle while<br />

receiving help with daily activities and medication management.<br />

Our associates take care of the details of everyday life, freeing<br />

residents to enjoy what they love most.<br />

All residents at Pointe Frontier enjoy conveniences such as luxury<br />

transportation, twenty-four-hour emergency response system monitored<br />

by onsite staff, restaurant-style dining, fitness center, library,<br />

game room, live music, and a full calendar of outings and events.<br />

Also, available to our residents is the Life Care Center of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>,<br />

which is conveniently located on our continuum of care campus.<br />

The Life Care Center provides a full spectrum of long-term care<br />

services and a state-of-the-art rehabilitation therapy center. Our<br />

complete umbrella of care provides incomparable value and allows<br />

our residents to gracefully age in peace.<br />

Pointe Frontier offers a variety of apartment sizes designed to meet<br />

individual tastes and budget. Throughout the nearly thirty years of<br />

business in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Pointe Frontier has been fortunate to train and<br />

retain many of the seventy plus associates that service residents.<br />

Several of Pointe Frontier’s employees have long employment histories<br />

with the senior living community; some have been serving seniors<br />

since it opened.<br />


A tour of Pointe Frontier is always<br />

available on a scheduled or walk-in<br />

basis. Visitors are welcome to join<br />

the residents for one of the three<br />

chef-prepared meals served daily.<br />

At Pointe Frontier, you can enjoy<br />

a full schedule of social, recreational,<br />

and wellness activities while the<br />

friendly staff take care of the chores.<br />

Whether enjoying a recreational<br />

activity, experiencing a great meal, or<br />

spending quality time with friends and<br />

family, at Pointe Frontier you can enjoy your retirement to its fullest.<br />

Live the Legendary Lifestyle!<br />

Q u a l i t y o f L i f e ✦ 1 2 7


SURGERY &<br />


Frontier Oral Surgery & Implant Center provides <strong>Cheyenne</strong>-area<br />

patients a full scope of oral and maxillofacial surgery using the<br />

latest technology while focusing on comfort, safety and the overall<br />

well-being of its clients. Dr. Mariam Hamidi and her staff strive to<br />

give patients both professional and personable service for the most<br />

effective and pleasant experience possible.<br />

As an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, Dr. Hamidi treats a wide<br />

variety of issues relating to the mouth, teeth, and facial region with<br />

expertise in skeletal surgery, maxillofacial trauma, maxillofacial<br />

pathology, dental alveolar surgery, cosmetic surgery, reconstructive<br />

facial surgery, general anesthesia, and dental and facial implants.<br />

Her expertise ranges from dental implant surgery and wisdom tooth<br />

removal to corrective jaw surgery. This includes techniques to rebuild<br />

bone structure with minimal surgical intervention and optimal patient<br />

comfort. She also diagnoses and treats facial pain, facial injuries,<br />

and fractures.<br />

commission in the Army, completing a one-year training in advanced<br />

education in general dentistry before matriculating into a four-year<br />

oral and maxillofacial residency at Madigan Army Medical Center<br />

in Tacoma, Washington, one of the Army’s most respected hospitals.<br />

Dr. Mariam Hamidi.<br />

Dr. Hamidi earned a biology degree from the University of<br />

California at Riverside and a doctorate of medical dentistry from<br />

Tufts School of Dental Medicine, graduating at the top of her<br />

class. After graduating from dental school, Dr. Hamidi received a<br />

After completing her advanced degree in oral and maxillofacial<br />

surgery, Dr. Hamidi worked at Evans Community Hospital where<br />

she mentored residents of a one-year advanced education in general<br />

dentistry residency. She was awarded the Army Commendation<br />

Medal with three oak leaf clusters and was rated superior in every<br />

evaluation period.<br />

As a board-certified oral and maxillofacial surgeon, Dr. Hamidi is<br />

a member of several organizations, including the American<br />

Association of Dental Anesthesiology, the International Congress of<br />

Oral Implantology, and the American Association of Oral &<br />

Maxillofacial Surgeons.<br />

Dr. Hamidi speaks several languages, enjoys golf, hiking, and<br />

cycling and is deeply involved in charities helping third-world<br />

countries. Having served in the Army, Dr. Hamidi will always have<br />

a special place in her heart for the men and women in uniform,<br />

and as a lover of the great outdoors is excited to call <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

her home.<br />

1 2 8 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y



By Father Jason Dickey<br />

If a city’s vitality and richness of life depends on its faith and<br />

culture, then you need not fear Greeks bearing gifts. As a matter of<br />

fact, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> owes its unique character to the Greeks who left<br />

poverty and oppression behind them while seeking a better life in the<br />

American West at the turn of the twentieth century from halfway<br />

across the world.<br />

Like many immigrants, they came to Wyoming to support their<br />

families with the hope of returning to Greece. They worked in mines<br />

and on the rails, which had brought them here in the first place.<br />

In their spare time, they also managed to establish Wyoming’s<br />

first Orthodox Church in 1922 on the corner of Twenty-Seventh<br />

and Thomes—the same street corner where the late Archbishop<br />

Athenagoras stood in 1931 on the day of its consecration, pointing<br />

to the dome of the State Capital saying: “Never forget how blessed<br />

you are to be here. Always be proud to be both Greek and American.” 1<br />

Athenagoras was as insightful as he was prophetic. By the time<br />

construction was complete in 1934, Saints Constantine and Helen<br />

had become more than a Church building. It had become a spiritual<br />

home for Orthodox Christians, and was well on its way to becoming<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s Orthodox Church.<br />

We are blessed at Saints Constantine and Helen to have predecessors<br />

who were faithful in pursuing a hope for a better life. As we honor<br />

our past, and build upon our future, our prayer is that our spiritual<br />

family will continue to grow as we serve our brothers and sisters<br />

in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> realizing that “no one can lay a foundation other than<br />

the one already laid, which is Jesus Christ.” 2<br />

Whether it be in prayer, helping those in need, or partying at<br />

the Annual Greek Festival, <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s Orthodox Church has<br />

been sharing a culture of<br />

faith, love, and hospitality<br />

for nearly a century. Come<br />

join us! Our doors are<br />

always open!<br />

1<br />

Archbishop ATHENAGORAS<br />

later served as the Ecumenical<br />

Patriarch of Constantinople<br />

and leader of all Orthodox<br />

Christians from 1948-1974.<br />

2<br />

1st Corinthians 3:11<br />

Top, left: Saints Constantine and<br />

Helen shortly after construction was<br />

first completed, c. 1936.<br />

Above: Saints Constantine and<br />

Helen present-day located at<br />

501 West Twenty-Seventh Street.<br />

Left: The inside dome depicting<br />

Christ the “Pantokrator”<br />

(Christ the “Almighty.”)<br />

Q u a l i t y o f L i f e ✦ 1 2 9



by Laramie County Librarian<br />

Carey D. Hartmann<br />

Top: Laramie County Library in the<br />

former Carnegie building located at<br />

the southeast corner of Twenty-Second<br />

Street and Capitol Avenue. Built in<br />

1902 and torn down in 1969.<br />

Above: The Laramie County<br />

Library, from 1969-2007, located at<br />

2800 Central Avenue, is now the<br />

Wyoming State Library.<br />

Top, right: Bookmobile parked in<br />

front of the current Laramie County<br />

Library located at 2200 Pioneer<br />

Avenue. This branch opened in<br />

September 8, 2007.<br />

Established in 1886 when Wyoming was a territory, the Laramie<br />

County Library System in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> is the oldest, continually<br />

operating county library system in the United States. Citizens of<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> rallied to fund the first library building, located on Carey<br />

Avenue and later in the basement of Central School. When Wyoming<br />

became a state in 1890, state statute dictated library service be<br />

provided by county government.<br />

American philanthropist Andrew Carnegie offered $50,000<br />

toward a new building in 1899. Three years later, on May 19, 1902,<br />

the Laramie County Library opened on the southeast corner of<br />

Twenty-Second Street and Capitol Avenue, offering 10,000 square feet<br />

of space.<br />

Branches have opened and closed since 1923, with branches in<br />

Pine Bluffs and Burns, Wyoming, still in operation. A bookmobile has<br />

been in operation for decades.<br />

Sixty years after the Carnegie building opened, the need arose<br />

for a larger building in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, and on October 19, 1969, a new<br />

building at 2800 Central Avenue opened with 38,000 square feet.<br />

Ownership of the historic Carnegie Library building reverted to<br />

the City of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> at that point. No one came forward with<br />

adequate funding for major renovations and repairs needed to bring<br />

the building up to code; sadly, it was torn down in 1969.<br />

On September 8, 2007, Laramie County Library in <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

moved to 2200 Pioneer Avenue. Thanks to money approved by<br />

voters, the new library, a three-story, 100,000-plus-square-foot<br />

experience, has become a destination for the community and the first<br />

public building in Wyoming to achieve a LEED ® Gold Certification.<br />

Laramie County Library System was named the 2008 Library of the<br />

Year for innovative programs and services. The children’s area of<br />

the library has regularly been noted as one of the top ten children’s<br />

libraries in the United States, most recently by websites such as<br />

mommynearest.com in 2015.<br />

Seventeen individuals have held the title of County Librarian since<br />

1886 and numerous citizen volunteers have governed the library serving<br />

on the five-member board of directors. Since 1890 the board of directors<br />

have been appointed by the Laramie County Commissioners.<br />

1 3 0 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

With more than fifty years of experience behind them, CollegeAmerica<br />

has found winning strategies to help students graduate and obtain<br />

better jobs.<br />

The focus is clear.<br />

The college, accredited by the Accrediting Commission of Career<br />

Schools and Colleges, wants to educate people for rewarding careers<br />

fast, so they can improve their lives without further delay.<br />

“We accomplish this through tailored programs, scholarships for<br />

those who qualify, accelerated programs, flexibility, convenience,<br />

certifications, and career services,” says Executive Director Jaime Davis<br />

at CollegeAmerica’s <strong>Cheyenne</strong> campus.<br />

Tuition goes directly to programs and services to help students<br />

graduate quickly and begin working in the fields of healthcare,<br />

business, information technology, or graphic arts. CollegeAmerica<br />

offers hundreds of scholarships annually and actively seeks scholarship<br />

donors. But its commitment goes deeper. Through the Good<br />

Neighbor Initiative, CollegeAmerica offers free programs and services<br />

to help people who may not otherwise be able to move toward obtaining<br />

a college degree. GED ® test preparation classes and other services<br />

provide a bridge to degrees that can improve lives. These free services<br />

are not within the institution’s scope of accreditation.<br />

What appeals to many students are the college’s fast degree programs,<br />

which makes it possible to earn an associate’s degree in twenty<br />

months or a bachelor’s degree in thirty-six months. Students are<br />

encouraged to work toward certification programs. (Certifications and<br />

licenses may require additional study and cost and are not awarded<br />

by the college.)<br />

Flexibility and convenience are added bonuses. Students need not<br />

wait for the beginning of a year or semester to enroll. CollegeAmerica’s<br />

flexible course options enable students to get started almost immediately<br />

in day, evening, or online courses and continue working<br />

while going to school. Online programs are offered by their affiliated<br />

institution, Independence University.<br />

Of high value is CollegeAmerica’s commitment to programs packed<br />

with career-specific knowledge and skills, including critical thinking,<br />

communications, problem solving, and technology. One of the best<br />

reasons to select a CollegeAmerica education is its dynamic career<br />

services department. The career services staff helps students write<br />

resumes, identify job opportunities, set up interviews, and practice<br />

for interviews, including what to say and how to dress. Of course,<br />

while the college offers employment assistance, gaining employment<br />

is the graduate’s responsibility.<br />

CollegeAmerica celebrates future success from the beginning by<br />

giving each student a new laptop to help them during their college<br />

experience. Students use the laptops while in school and are able<br />

keep them when they graduate.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> is one of the school’s six campus locations in Wyoming,<br />

Colorado, and Arizona. Students who do not live near a campus<br />

can take a variety of programs online through the college’s affiliated<br />

institution, Independence University.<br />

Please visit www.ucanmakeithappen.org or www.collegeamerica.edu/<br />

cheyenne for more information.<br />

GED ® is a registered trademark of the American Council on Education (ACE)<br />

and is administered exclusively by GED Testing Service, LLC under license.<br />

This material is not endorsed or approved by ACE or GED Testing Service.<br />


Q u a l i t y o f L i f e ✦ 1 3 1


SCHOOL<br />

DISTRICT 1<br />

Central School was built in 1871,<br />

facing south on the north side of the<br />

100 block West Twentieth Street.<br />

In the fall of 1867, before Wyoming became a United States<br />

territory, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> residents requested the city establish a public<br />

school for their children. A few months later, on January 5, 1868,<br />

people gathered in a newly built, two-room wooden structure on<br />

Eighteenth Street, where they witnessed the dedication of Laramie<br />

County School District 1’s (LCSD1) first school.<br />

On July 25, 1868, Wyoming Territory came into existence and<br />

new settlers arrived. The district replaced their original school in<br />

1871 with a brick building named Central School, which offered<br />

primary courses to grade-school students and English, U.S. history<br />

and physiology to eighth graders. High school subjects included<br />

math, science, foreign language, English and literature.<br />

The district built Wyoming’s first high school, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> High,<br />

in 1875. Wyoming became the forty-fourth state admitted to the<br />

Union in 1890 and <strong>Cheyenne</strong> continued to grow.<br />

After nearly five decades of use in 1922, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> High’s aging,<br />

two-story structure was demolished and replaced by <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Central High. The district replaced Central School’s old structure with<br />

McCormick Junior High in 1929.<br />

As time passed, the district added more buildings, preserving some<br />

of its older schools, which are still in use today.<br />

Today, LCSD1 covers 1,592 square miles in southeast Wyoming, which<br />

includes 3 rural elementary schools, 26 urban elementary schools,<br />

1 charter school, 3 junior highs, 3 high schools and 1 alternative<br />

high school. As the largest school<br />

district in Wyoming, enrollment<br />

exceeds 13,800 students.<br />

One of the first accredited<br />

districts in the region, LCSD1’s<br />

efforts ensure all students achieve<br />

academic success, graduate from<br />

high school, become college<br />

and career ready and become<br />

responsible citizens.<br />

LCSD1 promotes core subjects<br />

along with athletics, fine arts<br />

activities and technology education.<br />

The district’s mission, in<br />

cooperation with students, parents,<br />

staff and the community, is to<br />

guarantee a high-quality education<br />

in a safe and orderly environment<br />

for all students, inspiring them<br />

to become lifelong learners and<br />

responsible, productive citizens.<br />

Information regarding school<br />

calendar and locations, district<br />

employment opportunities and<br />

much more is available on the<br />

Internet at www.laramie1.org.<br />

1 3 2 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y




The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Symphony Orchestra (CSO) is a professional orchestra<br />

serving the City of <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Southeast Wyoming. Musicians travel<br />

from many Western states in order to perform with CSO’s esteemed<br />

conductor, Dr. William Intriligator. His musicianship, energy, and<br />

personality have made a strong impression on the orchestra, its<br />

audiences, and the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> community.<br />

Each season, CSO offers a five-concert subscription season and a<br />

Holiday pops concert in the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Civic Center. CSO also presents<br />

a series of guest-artist recitals held in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> homes or smaller<br />

venues. CSO’s extensive educational outreach programs to the Laramie<br />

County schools impact approximately 6,000 students a year, and<br />

range from youth concerts, guest artist and conductor visits, to Art and<br />

Writing contests. CSO hopes to help inspire the next generation<br />

of concert-goers through these insights into the lives and work of<br />

professional musicians.<br />

CSO can trace its roots from the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Little Symphony, which<br />

was organized in 1935 by Clyde G. and Alice Ross, both prominent<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> musicians. The early orchestra, conducted by Clyde, a<br />

violinist, while Alice played the piano, had twenty-five members.<br />

In 1951, Alice organized the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Civic Symphony and served<br />

as its first president. Eugene Adams served as conductor.<br />

In July of 1954, the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Civic Symphony and the <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Community Chorus joined forces. During this period, several conductors,<br />

including local educator Rex Yocum, led the ensembles. The merger<br />

of the Symphony and Chorus lasted for nearly thirty years;<br />

the influence is still apparent in today’s strong ties with local choral<br />

ensembles, like the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Chamber Singers.<br />

By 1981, community support and demand for high-caliber entertainment<br />

created an opportunity for the organization to expand. Robert<br />

Carter Austin was hired as music director and helped to lead the initial<br />

transition from amateur to professional ensemble. Over the years, the<br />

baton has been passed to many internationally acclaimed Maestros<br />

including David Lockington, Mark Russell Smith, and Stephen Alltop.<br />

Above: Members of the<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Symphony Orchestra<br />

perform under the direction of<br />

Maestro William Intriligator.<br />


Below: The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Symphony<br />

Orchestra on-stage at the <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Civic Center, under the direction of<br />

Maestro William Intriligator.<br />


Q u a l i t y o f L i f e ✦ 1 3 3



Above: Laramie County Courthouse,<br />

at the corner of Nineteenth and<br />

Carey Streets.<br />

A large section of Wyoming<br />

became United States territory<br />

in the 1803 as part of the<br />

Louisiana Purchase. Wyoming<br />

means, “At or on the great<br />

plain” and is attributed to<br />

the Delaware Indians. Indians<br />

were the first people in the<br />

Wyoming region. In 1812,<br />

Jacques LaRamie, a French-<br />

Canadian fur trapper and one<br />

of the first white men in the<br />

region, passed through the<br />

area, leaving behind his name.<br />

Laramie County was one<br />

of five counties established<br />

by the Dakota Legislature in<br />

1867. It covered the east side<br />

of the territory from the northern border to the southern border.<br />

The earliest authorized government was the Dakota Legislature<br />

located in South Dakota. Laramie County residents were part of<br />

the Wyoming Territory and desired to establish their own local<br />

government. The first county officials were elected October 8, 1867.<br />

At the same election, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> won the votes as permanent<br />

County Seat. Laramie County now encompasses approximately<br />

2,660 square miles of rolling plains in the eastern portion of the<br />

county to the rising foothills of the Southern Laramie Mountain Range<br />

to the west.<br />

The Transcontinental Railroad was pushing across the nation. After<br />

crossing Nebraska, it entered Wyoming, reaching <strong>Cheyenne</strong> in 1867.<br />

General Grenville Dodge and a party of surveyors had discovered a<br />

fairly flat route through the Laramie Mountains, which was eventually<br />

chosen for the Union Pacific Railroad. On November 14, 1867, the<br />

first train came to town and for the rest of the winter, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> was<br />

the “end of the line” and grew substantially in population. <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s<br />

unique location has established the county as a transportation hub<br />

with rails reaching border to border and Interstates 25 and 80, which<br />

carry thousands of tons of freight every day.<br />

Originally established to protect the railroad and travelers migrating<br />

west, F. E. Warren Air Force Base has been in existence, albeit under<br />

other names, since 1867. Today, it is known as the nation’s largest<br />

nuclear arsenal.<br />

The grand days of the Cowboy live on in the “Daddy of ‘em All,”<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days TM . The worlds’ largest outdoor rodeo<br />

celebration draws thousands of tourists from across the country<br />

and around the world.<br />

Agriculture in the form of livestock grazing and high plains crops<br />

is still alive and well in Laramie County; however, oil and natural gas<br />

production has increased since 2012. Wyoming wind also makes it a<br />

prime location for wind production, dotting the landscape with both<br />

oil rigs and wind farms.<br />

Laramie County’s population is estimated at 97,121 as of 2016.<br />

The County Government employs 435 people and operates out of two<br />

main complexes. One located in downtown <strong>Cheyenne</strong> on the original<br />

site of the Historic Laramie County Courthouse and Annex, which<br />

houses courts, the jail and all elected county officials. The Archer<br />

complex ten miles east of the city, houses the Planning Department,<br />

Emergency Management, Coroner facilities and Public Works along<br />

with the Laramie County Fair offices. City and County Health<br />

Department is in South <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

1 3 4 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Before it became the state capital, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> was the capital of the<br />

Wyoming Territory. The Governor, Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer,<br />

State Superintendent of Public Instruction and Wyoming Supreme<br />

Court are all located in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. The Wyoming State Legislature<br />

and most state agencies are headquartered here. State government<br />

contributes to the vitality of this wonderful city in many ways.<br />

The State Capitol is an historic and prominent <strong>Cheyenne</strong> landmark.<br />

The 10th Territorial Legislative Assembly first met in the building<br />

in the late nineteenth century. Its turn-of-the-century beauty, rich<br />

history and important government functions draw visitors from near<br />

and far. During the Capitol renovation project, currently ongoing,<br />

offices in the building, including Governor Matt Mead’s office, have<br />

been temporarily located elsewhere in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. The Governor’s<br />

office is in the Idelman Mansion.<br />

The Wyoming State Museum, within walking distance of numerous<br />

state facilities and <strong>Cheyenne</strong> businesses, is a treasure. It is a<br />

fascinating, educational place where visitors can discover Wyoming’s<br />

history from prehistoric to present and experience Wyoming art,<br />

artifacts and culture. The Office of Tourism’s Southeast Wyoming<br />

Welcome Center, off I-25 south of town, is innovative inside and out.<br />

It has a green roof system and interpretive displays that show what<br />

visitors can see and do on their<br />

travels around the state.<br />

The Department of Education,<br />

Department of Environmental<br />

Quality, Wyoming State Library,<br />

and Wyoming Business Council<br />

(WBC), as well as other state<br />

agencies, are part of downtown<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>. The WBC is the<br />

state’s economic development<br />

agency. Its goal is to grow and<br />

diversify the economy and<br />

strengthen Wyoming communities.<br />

It administers a grant and<br />

loan program and works with<br />

private businesses, state agencies,<br />

local governments, local<br />

economic development groups, partners and nonprofits.<br />

This page whets the appetite but can only scratch the surface<br />

of state government operations in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. The state website,<br />

www.wyo.gov, is a source of additional information. The State of<br />

Wyoming is proud to be an integral part of this great western city—<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming.<br />

STATE OF<br />


Above: The Southeast Wyoming<br />

Welcome Center.<br />


Left: The State Capitol building.<br />


Below: The Wyoming State Museum.<br />


Q u a l i t y o f L i f e ✦ 1 3 5



SYSTEM, INC.<br />

Below: First P&A Board of Trustees<br />

President, Ellen Crowley.<br />



P&A STAFF.<br />

Helping the most vulnerable in our society is the mission of<br />

Protection & Advocacy System, Inc. (P&A) of Wyoming. Founded<br />

on June 16, 1977, P&A exists to protect the rights of people with<br />

disabilities. It does this by working to establish, expand, protect, and<br />

enforce human and civil rights of the disabled through administrative,<br />

legal, and other appropriate remedies.<br />

P&A implements certain mandates of<br />

several federal laws. Enacted by Congress,<br />

these laws provide various protection and<br />

advocacy services. The P&A network is the<br />

largest provider of legally based advocacy<br />

services for persons with disabilities in the<br />

United States, with similar organizations in<br />

every state and territory.<br />

P&A was created as a nonprofit corporation<br />

to implement the provisions of Public<br />

Law 94-103. It initially was created to protect<br />

the rights of persons with developmental disabilities<br />

and to have the authority<br />

to pursue legal, administrative,<br />

and other appropriate remedies<br />

to ensure that the rights of<br />

persons with developmental<br />

disabilities were protected. In<br />

accordance with federal law, the<br />

agency was created as a nonprofit<br />

corporation to be independent of<br />

any state agency that provides treatment, services, or<br />

habilitation to persons with developmental disabilities.<br />

Funded with a $20,000 federal grant, P&A began<br />

operating one-and-a-half rooms with only a full-time<br />

director and a part-time assistant. In the early days,<br />

P&A relied on donated legal and other services as it<br />

worked to expand its resources and abilities to address<br />

the many needs of its clients. Throughout its history,<br />

P&A has utilized the dedicated services of volunteers<br />

throughout Wyoming who have served on the board of<br />

trustees and the agency’s advisory council.<br />

P&A has helped advance disability law in Wyoming and the nation.<br />

Long before the U.S. Supreme Court addressed the issue, P&A obtained<br />

institutional protections and community integration rights for<br />

hundreds of Wyoming citizens with intellectual disabilities. Building<br />

on that success, P&A obtained improved institutional conditions and<br />

community based services for persons with mental illness.<br />

Throughout its existence, P&A has been guided by Chief Executive<br />

Officer Jeanne A. Thobro, M.A., a fourth-generation Wyoming pioneer,<br />

daughter of Lieutenant Colonel William J. Strike and Ruth Jenkins<br />

Strike, and the great-granddaughter of Theresa Jenkins, who gave the<br />

statehood speech when Wyoming became a state and was the first<br />

female delegate to a major national political convention.<br />

Today, P&A works with sixteen employees and contractors and<br />

its federally and privately funded budget is $1.3 million or more.<br />

P&A operates eight federal programs with statewide impact and<br />

will continue to seek additional opportunities to serve the needs of<br />

persons with disabilities.<br />

1 3 6 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y


Skils’kin is a nonprofit organization that provides employment,<br />

representative payee, and supported living services to adults with<br />

disabilities, helping them grow and thrive within the community.<br />

Through these collaborative services, Skils’kin helps individuals<br />

with disabilities find meaningful employment, effectively manage<br />

their financial resources, and receive habilitative care that promotes<br />

integration and, ultimately, a top quality of life.<br />

Skils’kin has been active in the AbilityOne program since 1978.<br />

The AbilityOne program is a federal program that creates jobs and<br />

training opportunities for people who are blind or who have other<br />

disabilities, empowering them to lead more productive, independent<br />

lives. Through this AbilityOne program, Skils’kin currently provides<br />

employment opportunities to individuals with disabilities in such<br />

areas as food services, custodial services, and grounds maintenance.<br />

Skils’kin’s AbilityOne employees work in a variety of different positions<br />

at the F. E. Warren Air Force Base in Wyoming, the Fairchild Air Force<br />

Base in Washington, the Malmstrom Air Force Base in Montana, and<br />

the Altus Air Force Base in Oklahoma. At F. E. Warren AFB, through<br />

the AbilityOne program, Skils’kin provides employment opportunities<br />

for adults with disabilities in food services and grounds maintenance.<br />

Recognized as a leader in the disability community, Skils’kin and its<br />

employees have received numerous honors and accolades, including<br />

the 2015 CRSA Emerging Leaders Award, the 2016 SourceAmerica<br />

NCSE Management Excellence Award, the 2016 SourceAmerica<br />

Regional Evelyne Villines Award, and the 2017 Washington State<br />

DSP of the Year Award.<br />

Skils’kin is rapidly becoming the company most known for<br />

creating and implementing the model for the delivery of collaborative<br />

services for adults with disabilities. Through innovation, integrity,<br />

and purpose, Skils’kin is changing the conversation surrounding<br />

disability employment while continuing to enrich the quality of life<br />

for adults with disabilities at all sites of operation.<br />

Q u a l i t y o f L i f e ✦ 1 3 7





Each July, thousands of visitors descend on <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming,<br />

to enjoy the World’s Largest Outdoor Rodeo and Western Celebration.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days TM (CFD) is an annual festival celebrating the<br />

Old West Roots that make <strong>Cheyenne</strong> one of the most interesting and<br />

memorable destinations in the United States.<br />

The “Daddy of ‘em All ® ” celebrates over 120 years as the leader in<br />

rodeo action. During the last full week in July, the rodeo draws top<br />

professionals who compete for more than $1 million in cash and prizes.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days TM began in 1897 as a cowboy roundup<br />

featuring bronco busting, steer-roping contests, and pony races. Today,<br />

more than a century later, it as a ten-day festival with non-stop activity<br />

and hospitality that brings a $28 million economic impact to the Capitol<br />

City. Livability.com named <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days TM as one of the top<br />

festivals in the nation in its annual list of “Top 10 Summer Festivals.”<br />

Complementing the daily rodeo action are Behind-The-Chutes<br />

tours, trick riding and a wild horse race. A Native American village,<br />

Old Frontier Town, saloon, dancing, chuck wagon cook-off, pancake<br />

breakfasts, and an art show carry the frontier theme throughout the<br />

week’s activities. A new stage for Frontier Nights ® concerts provides<br />

fans with an improved concert experience, and is ranked one of the<br />

largest portable stages in the world. A carnival midway, the USAF<br />

Thunderbirds, top-name musical entertainment, Championship<br />

Bull Riding, and several parades that include antique carriages and<br />

automobiles round out the celebration.<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days TM celebrates Wyoming’s mountain vistas,<br />

forested wilderness, blue skies, and golden sunsets. It commemorates<br />

one of the few remaining parts of the United States where you can<br />

get an up-close-and-personal glimpse of the true American West.<br />

In the state where the myth of the cowboy was born, you will discover<br />

a genuine culture untrampled by the wheels of time.<br />

The Magic City of the Plains brings together rodeo fans, country<br />

music lovers, Western enthusiasts and fun-seekers from all 50 states<br />

and 23 foreign countries on five continents. Bring the whole family<br />

for an unforgettable experience in the real West, beginning with<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days TM , for an experience that will leave you<br />

wanting more and provide memories that will last a lifetime.<br />

1 3 8 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y



CENTER<br />

SMART Sports Medicine Center has been a significant contributor<br />

to the diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of orthopedic and<br />

sports injuries in the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> area for more than a quarter<br />

century. It is the fulfillment of a dream that the center’s founder,<br />

Vincent “Skip” Ross, M.D., first envisioned when he was eight years old.<br />

Dr. Ross, a <strong>Cheyenne</strong> native, finished his family medicine<br />

residence in 1988 and began his career in the emergency room at<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s DePaul hospital. In 1990 he began searching for space<br />

where he could begin to fulfill his dream, eventually locating a site<br />

at 5307 Yellowstone Road.<br />

He went to work on the build-out of the 6,000-square-foot space,<br />

which originally had been a fitness center, with some talented<br />

tradesmen. Jim Anderson, Mike Bowen, Ed Hunt, and Kevin Williams<br />

applied their knowledge and skills to transforming the space.<br />

The center opened in May 1992.<br />

By the Grace of God, through the years, the center expanded into<br />

the entire 16,000-square-foot building, which Dr. Ross purchased in<br />

1994. In 1997 he expanded the space further by 2,000 square feet,<br />

adding a swimming pool that is now used for therapy and for the<br />

fitness center.<br />

After opening the clinic, Dr. Ross worked there by day and continued<br />

working in the emergency room during nights and weekends. His job<br />

in emergency medicine provided funding for the center. Although he<br />

averaged only three to four hours of sleep per night, he maintained<br />

that regimen for two years. He married his wife, Sasha, (R.N.) in 1996<br />

and she helped in the management and expansion of SMART. She has<br />

also run her aesthetic practice at SMART for fifteen years now and<br />

continues this trade.<br />

The center’s success would not have been possible without help<br />

from Dr. Kieffer, Dr. Curnow, and Dr. Kuhn, who treated patients<br />

there at various times. Dr. Kuhn, who joined the center in 1994, continues<br />

to work there as an orthopedic surgeon. Through the years, the<br />

staff has grown from 2 people to around 15 full-time and 15 parttime<br />

employees.<br />

In 2008, Dr. Ross began seeing patients at the Orthopedic and<br />

Spine Center of the Rockies in Fort Collins, Colorado, and continues<br />

to work with them. He also provides sports coverage for East High<br />

School, South High School, Laramie County Community College,<br />

Stampede Hockey, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days, and Eagles Hockey.<br />

He has served as physician for Bull Riders Only, PBR, Professional<br />

Rough Stock Series, and ASP-Professional Surfing Association.<br />

Dr. Ross plans to further develop his relationship with Orthopedic<br />

and Spine Center of the Rockies. He hopes to increase services by<br />

adding more healthcare professionals, surgeons, therapists and staff,<br />

and to continue providing fitness services with one central goal: to<br />

provide the best possible facility for sports training and conditioning.<br />

Above: The fitness center’s founder,<br />

Vincent “Skip” Ross, M.D.<br />

Q u a l i t y o f L i f e ✦ 1 3 9

A postcard of the “new” viaduct<br />

constructed in 1929. According to the<br />

postcard the viaduct offered “a much<br />

more direct course for auto traffic to<br />

the south.” Concurrently, “a new<br />

section of highway was built south<br />

from the viaduct connecting with the<br />

Denver Road.”<br />

1 4 0 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y


C h e y e n n e ’ s r e a l e s t a t e d e v e l o p e r s , c o n s t r u c t i o n c o m p a n i e s , e n e r g y<br />

c o m p a n i e s , h e a v y i n d u s t r i e s , a n d m a n u f a c t u r e r s p r o v i d e t h e<br />

e c o n o m i c f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e c i t y<br />

D u k e E n e rgy R e n e w a b l e s ...........................................................................................................142<br />

R e i m a n C o r p . .........................................................................................................................144<br />

C a p i t o l R o o f i n g , I n c . ................................................................................................................146<br />

H i g h We s t E n e rgy ....................................................................................................................148<br />

C o l d w e l l B a n k e r T h e P ro p e r t y E x c h a n g e ......................................................................................150<br />

S i m o n C o n t r a c t o r s ...................................................................................................................151<br />

M o o re I n s u l a t i o n C o m p a n y, I n c .<br />

M o o re F o a m S y s t e m s , L L C ...................................................................................................152<br />

D y n o N o b e l , I n c . .....................................................................................................................153<br />

E l l e n b e c k e r O i l , I n c . ................................................................................................................154<br />

L a r a m i e C o u n t y A b s t r a c t & Ti t l e C o . ..........................................................................................155<br />

M e r i l l , I n c . ............................................................................................................................156<br />

S t e i l S u r v e y i n g S e r v i c e s , L L C ....................................................................................................157<br />

F i r s t A m e r i c a n Ti t l e I n s u r a n c e C o m p a n y .....................................................................................158<br />

H o l l y F ro n t i e r C h e y e n n e R e f i n i n g L L C .........................................................................................159<br />

B l a c k H i l l s E n e rgy ...................................................................................................................160<br />

A d d i s o n C o n s t r u c t i o n C o . .........................................................................................................161<br />

B u i l d i n g a G r e a t e r C h e y e n n e ✦ 1 4 1



Duke Energy is the largest electric power holding company in<br />

the United States, supplying and delivering energy to more than<br />

7.5 million U.S. customers by providing electric and gas services in<br />

a sustainable way–affordable, reliable, and clean.<br />

Duke Energy Renewables, a commercial business unit of Duke<br />

Energy, primarily acquires, develops, builds and operates wind<br />

and solar renewable generation throughout the continental U.S.<br />

The portfolio includes nonregulated renewable energy and energy<br />

storage assets.<br />

Duke Energy Renewables began to build its first wind projects in<br />

2007 in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming. Happy Jack Windpower Project<br />

reached operation in 2008 and Silver Sage Windpower Project<br />

began service in 2009. Since then, the company has built two<br />

additional wind sites near Casper, Top of the World and Campbell<br />

Hill Windpower Projects. In total, these Wyoming sites produce<br />

370 megawatts, enough to power more than 100,000 homes.<br />

Today, Duke Energy Renewables’<br />

owns and operates 21 wind and<br />

63 solar utility-scale projects, which<br />

total 2,900 megawatts across 14<br />

states. The power produced from<br />

renewable generation is primarily<br />

sold through long-term contracts<br />

to utilities, electric cooperatives,<br />

municipalities and commercial and<br />

industrial customers.<br />

As part of its growth strategy, Duke<br />

Energy Renewables has expanded its<br />

portfolio through the addition of<br />

distributed solar companies, energy<br />

storage systems and energy management<br />

solutions specifically tailored to<br />

commercial businesses and other institutions. These investments<br />

include the 2015 acquisition of REC Solar Corp., a California-based<br />

provider of solar installations for retail, manufacturing, agriculture,<br />

technology, government and nonprofit customers across the U.S<br />

and Phoenix Energy Technologies Inc., a California-based provider of<br />

enterprise energy management and information software.<br />

Headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina, its parent company,<br />

Duke Energy, is a Fortune 125 company traded on the New York<br />

Stock Exchange under the symbol DUK. With more than $121 billion<br />

in assets and 52,700 megawatts of generating capacity, it is hard to<br />

imagine it all began more than 100 years ago, with three visionaries<br />

seeking to spur economic growth in the North Carolina countryside.<br />

Duke Energy’s history began with the Catawba Power Company in<br />

the early 1900s. Three individuals founded the company because they<br />

believed the South’s heavy dependence on agriculture was prohibiting<br />

growth of other industries. By developing an integrated electric system<br />

of hydro-powered generating stations, they envisioned linking customers<br />

by transmission lines. Over the next several years, the company’s<br />

hydroelectric fleet grew to serve commercial textile mills and the region’s<br />

growing appetite for the conveniences that electricity could provide.<br />

1 4 2 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

The economic boom after<br />

World War II brought unprecedented<br />

demand for electric power.<br />

The thriving economy helped<br />

fuel demand for modern-day<br />

conveniences. By the mid-1950s,<br />

Duke Power was looking to<br />

nuclear power as a clean, safe<br />

and economical alternative for<br />

meeting electric energy needs. The<br />

first nuclear project, the Keowee-<br />

Toxaway Project, was launched<br />

in 1965. The project earned Duke<br />

Power its first of three Edison<br />

Awards, the power industry’s<br />

highest honor.<br />

The 1990s ushered in natural<br />

gas industry deregulation in the United States, culminating in the<br />

“unbundling” of natural gas transportation, gathering, and storage<br />

services from the government-regulated pipeline industry. Duke<br />

Power and PanEnergy merged in 1997 to create Duke Energy.<br />

The new company made, moved, managed and marketed energy.<br />

About this same time, the Cincinnati Gas & Electric Co. and<br />

PSI Energy, Inc., merged to form Cinergy Corp., a major energy<br />

player in the Midwest. In 2006, Duke Energy and Cinergy Corp.<br />

became one company, retaining the Duke Energy name and<br />

expanding service to Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana.<br />

The early twenty-first century ushered in an era of transformation<br />

for the energy industry. Standing at the forefront of innovation,<br />

Duke Energy targeted its focus on environmental and economic<br />

sustainability. Meanwhile, the Raleigh, North Carolina-based energy<br />

company, Progress Energy, adopted a similar focus, sharing Duke<br />

Energy’s commitment to improving energy efficiency, developing<br />

renewable energy, keeping nuclear power a viable option, and<br />

modernizing existing power plants.<br />

In 2012, Duke Energy and Progress Energy combined, expanding<br />

Duke Energy’s services to Florida and forming the largest electric<br />

utility in the United States.<br />

As Duke Energy moves forward, it is working<br />

to reduce the environmental impact of existing<br />

plants and investing in energy efficiency<br />

initiatives that can reduce the need to build<br />

new ones. The company is also developing<br />

smart grid technologies that will create a digital,<br />

interconnected network—giving customers<br />

new ways to save energy, money and the<br />

environment. In the meantime, Duke Energy<br />

continues to invest in renewable energy<br />

sources, adding aggressively to its portfolio of<br />

wind and solar assets.<br />

Today, energy is about more than keeping<br />

the lights on. The twenty-first century electric<br />

company is a technology company disguised<br />

as a utility—identifying, integrating and scaling<br />

up new technologies that make electricity<br />

cleaner, more reliable and affordable. Duke<br />

Energy is poised as an industry leader in sustainable<br />

innovation, providing solutions to help<br />

customers and communities thrive and grow.<br />

B u i l d i n g a G r e a t e r C h e y e n n e ✦ 1 4 3


No matter where you go in Wyoming, you are likely to see a<br />

building, bridge, or roadway built by Reiman Corp.<br />

Since 1948 the locally owned and operated firm has completed<br />

more than 2,500 projects in a variety of sectors—starting with<br />

the Barrett Building in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, just two years after the firm<br />

was founded.<br />

employees and to each employee’s commitment to living out the firm’s<br />

core values. These values are:<br />

• Wyoming True Grit–the firm’s perseverance and commitment;<br />

• “Oh, yes, we can!”–the firm’s can-do attitude;<br />

• “Build bridges, don’t burn them”–the high value the firm places<br />

on relationships;<br />

• “Live the legacy”–speaking to the firm’s commitment to stay true<br />

to their values; and<br />

• “Ride for the brand.”<br />

Though the firm initially began as a commercial building<br />

contractor, it has since grown and evolved to match and meet the<br />

region’s needs. Reiman Corp. is now a general contractor (licensed<br />

in Wyoming, Colorado, Nebraska, and New Mexico) focusing on<br />

bridges, commercial buildings, and construction management.<br />

Above: <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Depot Plaza.<br />

Right: Norris Viaduct.<br />

Each and every project completed since then reflects the Reiman<br />

Corp. commitment to professional excellence in construction, with<br />

extra emphasis on construction supervision, subcontractor relations,<br />

scheduling, procurement, coordination, claims resolution, bonding,<br />

insurance, and risk management.<br />

Before Reiman Corp. was “Reiman Corp.,” it was Riedesel-Lowe—<br />

a company founded in Cody, Wyoming, through a partnership<br />

between W. R. (Bob) Reiman, Bill Lowe and Russ Riedesel.<br />

Today, Reiman Corp. is proudly operated by CEO Tom Reiman,<br />

President Rich Bolkovatz, Vice President Wally Reiman,<br />

alongside an aspiring third generation of Reimans and new,<br />

talented leaders.<br />

Over the years, Reiman Corp. has earned a solid reputation for<br />

integrity and skill. This is a credit to both the caliber of the firm’s<br />

The firm’s heavy highway sector builds bridges, parking structures<br />

and stadiums; drives H piling and sheet piling; and completes<br />

work in the areas of concrete paving, structural steel, precast erection,<br />

curb and gutter, sidewalks, and box culverts.<br />

1 4 4 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

The firm’s commercial building sector has completed many<br />

recognizable projects around the state, including <strong>Cheyenne</strong>’s Central<br />

High School, many elementary schools, numerous government<br />

buildings, hotels, and tenant finishes.<br />

As a part of the local community, Reiman Corp. strongly believes<br />

in giving back. Not only does the firm offer the Bob Reiman<br />

Scholarship and the Reiman Corp. Scholarship at the University<br />

of Wyoming, it is also an ongoing sponsor of the Boys & Girls<br />

Club of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>; Cathedral Home for Children; the YMCA;<br />

United Way; <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days; and a wide variety of local<br />

events and charities.<br />

Within the industry, Reiman Corp. maintains membership in<br />

WCA and WYCA. Looking toward the future, Reiman Corp. plans<br />

to continue bridging the Rockies and building Wyoming…just as<br />

they have been doing for almost seventy years now, and just as<br />

they plan to continue doing for generations to come.<br />

Top, left: <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Community House.<br />

Above: Reiman’s crew and their<br />

“Oh, yes, we can!” attitude.<br />

Left: The Dinneen Building is a<br />

renovated Car Dealership originally<br />

built in 1927 which was also owned<br />

by the Dinneen Family. Reiman Corp.<br />

has been providing the Construction<br />

Management for all of the remodel<br />

and addition work on the building.<br />

The Building is now home to the Rib<br />

and Chop House Restaurant, a Law<br />

Office, and many other Downtown<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> businesses.<br />

Right: The University of Wyoming’s<br />

War Memorial Stadium.<br />

B u i l d i n g a G r e a t e r C h e y e n n e ✦ 1 4 5



Our mission is “To provide our customers superior value, through<br />

courteous, knowledgeable salespeople, experienced project management,<br />

outstanding customer service, fair business practices and skilled workers.”<br />

The roofing business and the rodeo circuit might not have much in<br />

common, but had it not been for the friendship of two young cowboys<br />

and their love of riding bucking horses and bulls, Capitol Roofing,<br />

Inc., might never have come to be. In the late 1970s and early 1980s,<br />

two young cowboys named Dennis Humphrey and Craig Boheler<br />

found a way to help finance their love of rodeo.<br />

In the early days, they worked with no business structure, but<br />

simply with a mantra that screamed…“Whatever they can do, we can<br />

do better, faster, and at a better price.” They rode, roofed, rode again,<br />

and roofed some more. They sometimes hauled hay, killed gophers<br />

and even built fences for money to fund their first love, while they<br />

operated out of Craig’s house. Steve Robertson joined the team in the<br />

late 1980s and quickly became<br />

the “do-everything” guy, which<br />

lightened the load for Dennis<br />

and Craig.<br />

It was not until 1985 that<br />

a business license, building<br />

permits, insurance, labor laws<br />

and the like became a reality.<br />

Through hard, honest work<br />

and fair dealings, Capitol<br />

Roofing became more than just<br />

a way to finance trips to rodeos. It became a job, then a business, and<br />

ultimately, a way of life. Due to Craig’s tenacity at home, Dennis<br />

enjoyed a successful career as a professional bull rider through the<br />

decade of the eighties, while contributing to Capitol Roofing on a parttime<br />

basis. Dennis retired from bull riding in 1992. In early 2003,<br />

Craig left the company to pursue other business ventures, which have<br />

gone well for him. Capitol has flourished since his departure as well.<br />

To this day, Dennis remains thankful to Craig for keeping Capitol<br />

moving forward through the early years.<br />

After Craig moved on, Capitol operated out of a thirty by forty foot<br />

Morton Building, with a dirt floor on a five-acre residential lot where<br />

Dennis grew up. Steve remained a loyal mainstay in sales and service.<br />

Jeanette Nusbaum came on board in May 2003, and in 2008, her<br />

husband, Cody, became a part of Capitol and has led the team in sales<br />

nearly every year since. In May 2009, Capitol moved across <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

to a 10,500-square-foot commercial building on 2.6 acres. Locally<br />

owned and operated since its inception, Capitol has enjoyed a long<br />

history of being a respected and trusted service provider. While<br />

starting as a residential shingling outfit, Capitol has expanded its<br />

offerings to include commercial roofing, gutters, and limited sheet<br />

metal and siding related work.<br />

The “10 Principles to Live By,” made famous in the Jim Owens<br />

book Cowboy Ethics, are proudly displayed on the wall and guide<br />

Capitol’s culture. Today, Capitol Roofing, Inc., employs twenty fulltime<br />

employees, works with six to eight contract labor crews and<br />

serves the southeast Wyoming and northern Colorado areas. Capitol<br />

Roofing’s commitment to delivering a quality product at a fair price,<br />

while insisting on superior customer service, has established it as<br />

the region’s premier roofing company. Focusing on the customer’s<br />

satisfaction is central to the company’s DNA. Employment at Capitol<br />

Roofing has a family feel, and Capitol prides itself on being a<br />

company with small-business service with large-business capabilities.<br />

The mindset of “We ain’t perfect but we’re here…and if it ain’t right,<br />

we’ll make it right” is a well-known staple of Capitol’s commitment<br />

to customer service.<br />

Today, in her fourteenth year with Capitol, Jeanette runs the show<br />

as finance and operations manager and is responsible for all daily<br />

operations. She directly oversees a team of three incredible ladies,<br />

1 4 6 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Liz, who runs production, plus Carol and Diane, who share numerous<br />

administrative and customer care duties. Cody has continued his<br />

winning ways in selling, and has been joined by others who press<br />

him and “challenge him for the crown.” Shon is Cody’s northern<br />

Colorado counterpart in sales supremacy. Jeff, a former bull riding<br />

buddy of Dennis, is also part of the sales team. Steve has expanded his<br />

sales role and continues to be responsible for overall performance and<br />

quality of activity in the field. Field Superintendent Pat, a friend of<br />

Dennis from their teen years and another former bull rider, steers<br />

the commercial crew, while Lloyd leads the service team. Safety<br />

Director Kelly, yet another former bull rider, keeps the employees and<br />

contract laborers trained and safe. Rumor has it that “Capitol Roofing<br />

is where old cowboys go to die.”<br />

Through the years, Capitol Roofing has installed, replaced, or<br />

serviced thousands of roofs, both residential and commercial, in<br />

southeast Wyoming and northern Colorado. Capitol’s crews and<br />

service techs, whether employees or contract laborers are skilled,<br />

safe, talented and customer friendly folks. Capitol offers a standard<br />

five-year workmanship guarantee, in addition to the manufacturer’s<br />

product warranty. Choosing Capitol Roofing for your roof contracting<br />

needs assures the customer a job well done, with peace of mind and<br />

a feeling of being treated right and fair.<br />

Roofing is a very weather influenced industry, and storm restoration<br />

has become a very large part of Capitol’s livelihood. The company is<br />

deliberately focusing on further developing its commercial and service<br />

divisions, as well as the new construction area, in hope of removing<br />

some of the hair-raising peaks and valleys related to storm work.<br />

Capitol’s success can be attributed to the company’s reputation for<br />

providing value and instilling trust in the mind of customers. In 2014,<br />

Capitol Roofing was awarded the Torch Award for Business Ethics<br />

by the Better Business Bureau of Wyoming and Northern Colorado.<br />

Capitol believes in giving back to the communities where it lives,<br />

serves and works. The folks at Capitol love supporting local and area<br />

youth in addition to numerous worthwhile causes and events. Capitol<br />

Roofing is a member of the Greater <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Chamber of Commerce,<br />

National Roofing Contractors Association, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Association of<br />

Realtors and the newly formed <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Roofing Alliance.<br />

“Doing the right thing, because it’s the right thing” adds value and<br />

creates raving fans who tell their friends. Repeat customers and<br />

referrals of past customers make up over half of Capitol’s client base.<br />

“10 Principles to Live By” (Authored by Jim Owens and adopted by<br />

Capitol Roofing, Inc.):<br />

• Live each day with courage.<br />

• Take pride in your work.<br />

• Always finish what you start.<br />

• Do what has to be done.<br />

• Be tough, but fair.<br />

• When you make a promise, keep it!<br />

• Ride for the brand.<br />

• Talk less, say more.<br />

• Remember, some things are not for sale.<br />

• Know where to draw the line.<br />

Opposite: Capitol Roofing, Inc.<br />

is known for quality, service and<br />

innovation. You can depend on<br />

Capitol for your residential needs.<br />

Above: Capitol Roofing, Inc.<br />

provides a full range of commercial<br />

roofing services including re-roofing,<br />

roof repair, new construction<br />

and maintenance.<br />

B u i l d i n g a G r e a t e r C h e y e n n e ✦ 1 4 7


ENERGY<br />

High West Energy has a rich heritage that forms the foundation for<br />

the company’s future. Even as we evolve and grow into a solutionsoriented<br />

membership corporation, focusing in the areas of energy<br />

delivery/management and information/communications, we continue<br />

to preserve the core values and code of ethics on which we were<br />

founded many decades ago.<br />

For home and business owners in the tri-state region of South<br />

Eastern Wyoming, Northern Colorado, and Western Nebraska who<br />

need accessible and friendly service, the High West Energy family of<br />

companies remain member owned and locally operated, delivering<br />

solutions to a number of energy and communications needs.<br />

High West Energy began in the late 1930s when some farms and<br />

ranches had windmills and batteries to generate and store power.<br />

A need for more reliable and robust energy solutions led farmers and<br />

ranchers to band together to form Rural Electric Company to develop<br />

a solution and improve their quality of life.<br />

The solution, as they saw it, was to build infrastructure to the<br />

countryside to receive central station electricity through a company<br />

organized, owned, and controlled by those it served. The first board<br />

of directors was named in November 1936 with H. O. Cooper<br />

from Albin, Wyoming, serving as president. The board appointed<br />

George Phillips, a local Pine Bluffs farmer, to promote and organize<br />

membership drives in various communities with a five-dollar fee<br />

collected with each signed membership. Phillips later was appointed<br />

as the first manager of the Rural Electric Company.<br />

In 1939, word was received that a loan for 162 miles of line had<br />

been approved for Rural Electric Company. In May 1940 the first<br />

lines were energized and the Rural Electric Company was in business,<br />

with 500 consumers and $234,000 invested. Phillips continued to<br />

serve as general manager until February 1946. B. E. Lyons was<br />

then selected to supervise operations, and under his management,<br />

Rural Electric Company grew to 2,675 miles of distribution line with<br />

4,900 consumers, including 700 irrigation wells. The company grew<br />

quickly during the 1950s and 1960s as oil wells, and irrigation wells<br />

were converted to electric power and line extensions reached new<br />

consumers in the tri-state area.<br />

1 4 8 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

In 1962 the missile program brought new growth to the area,<br />

so much so that Rural Electric Company found itself with more load<br />

than the lines could carry. A building program strengthened the<br />

system to provide adequate power for ninety-eight missile sites.<br />

Eventually, on July 15, 1999, Rural Electric Company changed its<br />

name to High West Energy to reflect its expanded programs and<br />

services. Today, High West Energy serves Laramie and Albany<br />

Counties in Wyoming; Weld and Logan Counties in Colorado; and<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Kimball, and Banner Counties in Nebraska.<br />

The cooperative is governed by seven directors and a general<br />

manager who, along with all High West Energy employees, are<br />

responsible for providing the very best service to the member<br />

consumers. High West Energy recognizes the need to continue evolving<br />

from an electric distribution cooperative into a more dynamic<br />

business where change and growth and providing new value are the<br />

norm. The addition of High West Digital Solutions and High West<br />

Wiring are examples of this. A hallmark of the cooperative<br />

has been our relationship with members and local communities.<br />

We continue offering personalized service and remain involved in<br />

our communities, both financially and socially. The power of human<br />

connections is what separates us from other providers and has<br />

been an integral part of who and what a cooperative is. As we<br />

preserve our core, we recognize the importance of stimulating<br />

progress. We also understand the importance of managing our<br />

costs and maintaining financial strength as these have been the<br />

hallmark of our success and will continue to be imperative as we<br />

go forward.<br />

Likewise, safety of our employees and the public has always been<br />

a priority and must continue to be so, and reducing inconveniences,<br />

whether it be from the interruptions of power or communications,<br />

will continue to be the focus of improving our members’ experience<br />

with us. High West Energy recognizes its need to continue<br />

evolving, but at the same time, we recognize the importance of<br />

continuing to abide by our code of ethics. At High West Energy,<br />

our code is one of respect, honesty, teamwork and cooperation,<br />

accountability, continuous improvement, and professionalism.<br />

Having a code makes each of us a better employee serving the<br />

membership, whether in the workplace, at home, or in the community.<br />

B u i l d i n g a G r e a t e r C h e y e n n e ✦ 1 4 9


Coldwell Banker The Property Exchange is one of the few Realtor ® -<br />

owned real estate companies in Wyoming. With more than seventy<br />

full-time real estate agents, we consistently sell more than $250 million<br />

in residential and commercial real estate in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Laramie,<br />

Laramie County, Wyoming, and the entire Rocky Mountain Region.<br />

After obtaining his real estate license in 1979, Kent Jesperson<br />

moved to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> to work for the company<br />

as sales manager. By 1983, Jesperson had<br />

purchased the company from the previous<br />

owner and began the process of building it<br />

into the successful enterprise it is today.<br />

Coldwell Banker The Property Exchange<br />

is proud to have created a company made<br />

up of the best and most-diligent real estate<br />

agents who have a vested interest in the<br />

company’s success. Patrick Graham, joined<br />

the business as sales manager in 2010, now<br />

serves as managing broker and president.<br />

We operate out of a single, 18,000-squarefoot<br />

office building constructed in 2007.<br />

Our convenient, local location serves the<br />

needs of customers and clients throughout<br />

the areas.<br />

All Coldwell Banker The Property Exchange agents are highly<br />

trained in residential, commercial, farm and ranch, and unimproved<br />

land. But our real estate agents do more than find buyers and<br />

sellers for property. Our commercial division has some of the<br />

brightest minds in the business who continually work to come up<br />

with ideas for commercial and housing developments to help our<br />

communities grow. Our latest projects include a 500-unit storage<br />

facility, a restaurant site, and several office buildings. More projects<br />

will be announced in the future.<br />

Our Realtors ®<br />

strive to be very active in the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> community<br />

by serving on boards and committees, chairing fundraisers, and<br />

volunteering. Coldwell Banker developed the Adopt-A-Block Program<br />

for Downtown <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and started Back the Blue with Beef,<br />

an event to raise funds for first responders. Graham also created “The<br />

Cycle of Life” raising more than $20,000 for Across the Street Homes,<br />

which helps families get into permanent housing, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Day of<br />

Giving, and Laramie County Habitat for Humanity.<br />

As a locally owned, independent real estate company, we live here,<br />

work here, and raise our families here. We are committed to helping<br />

build a strong community in Laramie County and making it a great<br />

place to live.<br />

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Simon Contractors has a long and successful history in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

The great people and “western spirit” here have served both the<br />

business side of our company and provided the quality of life our<br />

employees want.<br />

Simon Contractors was founded sixty-three years ago, in 1954<br />

by James E. Simon, who started his company by taking on any<br />

kind of construction job he could get his hands on. The projects<br />

started with minor building, concrete and pipe—and eventually<br />

asphalt work.<br />

As project scope and size grew, so did Simon Contractors. To better<br />

accommodate increasing asphalt projects, Simon Contractors opened<br />

an asphalt plant in North Platte, Nebraska, in the late 1960s. The<br />

North Platte plant enabled the company to make asphalt a predominate<br />

part of Simon Contractors’ business.<br />

Throughout the seventies, Simon<br />

Contractors opened three more locations.<br />

In 1983, Simon purchased Read<br />

Ready Mix in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, which led<br />

eventually to the move to <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

for the corporate headquarters.<br />

Simon Contractor’s bridge division<br />

was another intuitive and decisive<br />

move by Simon. James E. Simon<br />

observed the tremendous financial<br />

opportunity in bridge building and<br />

maintenance. He aligned with the most capable professionals and<br />

made the new venture work.<br />

The growth, diversity and quality work of Simon Contractors drew<br />

the attention of a major company, Colas, the worldwide leader in<br />

transportation technology, infrastructure construction and maintenance.<br />

In November of 1994, the Colas Group acquired Simon Contractors.<br />

Simon has continued to grow with the acquisitions of Hills<br />

Materials of Rapid City, South Dakota; Intermountain Construction<br />

in northeast Wyoming; Osborne Concrete in Laramie; and Willits<br />

Aggregates located in Harriman, Wyoming. Simon has also moved<br />

into Northern Colorado with the addition of a concrete plant<br />

in Wellington. Currently, Simon employs nearly 800 individuals<br />

at the height of construction season.<br />

Simon Contractors has<br />

completed projects in<br />

many states west of the<br />

Mississippi River. Today,<br />

Simon Contractors, a Colas<br />

company, still operates<br />

with the safety, integrity,<br />

quality, and reliability it<br />

was founded on sixty-three<br />

years ago—a distinction the<br />

company is proud to have<br />

fostered, and one that it is<br />

determined to continue.<br />

SIMON<br />


B u i l d i n g a G r e a t e r C h e y e n n e ✦ 1 5 1

MOORE<br />





Leo Moore saw something missing in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> when he started<br />

Moore Insulation Company, Inc., in 1978. He saw a need for homes<br />

and buildings in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> to become more energy efficient with<br />

insulation and solar, so he took a leap of faith and started the<br />

business out of his home. He kept his day job and worked nights<br />

and weekends at his new business, while his wife, Kristen, ran<br />

the office and took care of the home and their two children.<br />

Through the next four<br />

decades, Leo and Kristen<br />

found hard-working people<br />

to join their business and<br />

together they helped the<br />

company earn a reputation<br />

for quality work, professionalism,<br />

and dependability.<br />

That explains why the<br />

company has grown from a<br />

mom-and-pop operation to<br />

one of the leading installers<br />

of insulation products in Wyoming, northern Colorado, and<br />

western Nebraska. As the company grew, it added spray foam<br />

insulation to its services and formed a second company known as<br />

Moore Foam Systems, LLC.<br />

Karl Redlich began working for the company in 1997 as an insulation<br />

installer. His responsibilities grew over time, and when the company<br />

added spray foam insulation, he became the lead installer for Moore<br />

Foam Systems, LLC. After ten years, Leo asked him to serve as general<br />

manager of both companies, and, in 2015, turned the reins over to<br />

Karl, who now serves as vice president and future owner.<br />

Moore Insulation Company, Inc. and Moore Foam Systems, LLC<br />

have become insulation experts by learning and developing to meet<br />

the ever-changing industry standards for energy efficiency. Installers<br />

are trained according to these standards, resulting in hundreds of<br />

satisfied residential customers and long-standing relationships with<br />

many respected commercial contractors. Our team is dedicated to<br />

growing with the business, partnering with organizations to support<br />

our local communities, and continuing the legacy Leo Moore started<br />

as one of the best subcontractors in the area.<br />

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INC.<br />

Dyno Nobel Inc.’s plant<br />

in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming,<br />

has been producing quality<br />

ammonia-related products<br />

since the construction of<br />

the plant in 1964. The facility<br />

was originally owned<br />

by WYCON Chemicals, a<br />

co-op between Wyoming,<br />

Colorado, and Nebraska. At that time, it produced three products<br />

and had a capacity of 50,000 tons of ammonia per year and employed<br />

134 individuals. The plant was originally constructed to consume<br />

stranded natural gas and produce agricultural products, ammonia and<br />

ammonium nitrate.<br />

Since then, the plant has been bought and sold multiple times with<br />

the most recent acquisition in 2005 by Dyno Nobel Inc. The facility<br />

has undergone several expansions since the original construction,<br />

including adding the capacity to produce urea, urea ammonium<br />

nitrate, low density ammonium nitrate and carbon dioxide, along<br />

with several other products. Currently, the plant has 175 employees<br />

and produces 12 products that serve the mining, construction,<br />

agriculture and transportation industries. Ammonia remains the<br />

plant’s lifeblood as it is used as the feedstock for production of<br />

the other products. Annual production has now increased to 192,000<br />

tons of ammonia.<br />

Dyno Nobel Inc.’s strategic location provides for an<br />

excellent distribution system for ammonium nitrate to<br />

service the local community, including the Powder<br />

River Basin. This location also allows for distribution<br />

of UAN to the local agriculture and fertilizer industry<br />

and CO 2 to the malt beverage industry.<br />

Over the years, the plant has been actively<br />

involved in the local community, sponsoring such<br />

events and organizations as Frontier Days, <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Chamber of Commerce, LEADS and the Boys and Girls<br />

Club of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>. Dyno Nobel Inc. is continuing<br />

a fifty-year business tradition to meet tomorrow’s<br />

challenges with enthusiasm while remaining committed<br />

to the changing needs of its customers as well as<br />

the environment.<br />

B u i l d i n g a G r e a t e r C h e y e n n e ✦ 1 5 3


OIL, INC.<br />

Above: Dan Ellenbecker,<br />

(Don’s father), founder of<br />

the company.<br />

Right: Left to right, Don, Shelly and<br />

Tyler Ellenbecker.<br />

The history of Ellenbecker Oil, Inc., goes back more than half a<br />

century spanning three generations. The company is now owned and<br />

operated by Don and Shelly Ellenbecker. In 2005, their son, Tyler,<br />

joined the company. Tyler is carrying on a family tradition that<br />

began when Dan Ellenbecker (Don’s father) founded the company.<br />

Dan began his petroleum career with<br />

Chevron Oil in 1962 as a commission<br />

agent. He also managed two Chevron<br />

stations at the time. As a commission<br />

agent, Dan bought his own fuel trucks,<br />

and Chevron supplied the fuel. Chevron<br />

paid a commission per gallon sold<br />

along with mileage required for delivery<br />

distance zones. Dan also sold Atlas<br />

tires, batteries, and accessories to the<br />

public and to Chevron stations.<br />

In the mid 1970s, Don began<br />

working for his father. He expanded his<br />

area to Laramie and the two of them<br />

worked together to expand their customer base and service area.<br />

Dan purchased the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Laramie properties from Chevron<br />

in 1982, and in doing so went out on his own, starting the company<br />

known today as Ellenbecker Oil, Inc.<br />

The company purchased its own gasoline and diesel and sold it to<br />

customers, becoming a fuel jobber or wholesaler. The fuels they sold<br />

came unbranded from Chevron, Sinclair, and Conoco. Don’s main goal<br />

was to deliver the fuels while Dan focused on promoting the packaged<br />

oil until his retirement in 1992. Don and Shelly have continued to<br />

run the business after Dan’s retirement and death in 1995.<br />

When Tyler joined the company, he joined his dad in delivering<br />

fuel. Through the years, the family has grown the business in<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Laramie and now deliver in five counties. Ellenbecker<br />

Oil’s base includes agriculture, commercial, and government agencies.<br />

Both <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Laramie have an office and oil warehouse and<br />

offer 24/7 private card-lock fueling service.<br />

Don and Shelly hope Tyler will someday take over the company<br />

and continue serving old customers while attracting new ones.<br />

Repeat customers make up the bulk of their customer base. They are<br />

thankful for their customers, friends, and community. They say<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> has been a great place to run a small business and a<br />

wonderful town in which to live and raise a family.<br />

1 5 4 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Laramie County Abstract & Title Co. (LCA) provides clients with<br />

the best of both worlds: a hands-on approach from a staff that has<br />

spent many years building strong relationships in the local real estate<br />

community combined with the resources and strength of a regional<br />

holding company with offices in Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana.<br />

Title Financial Corporation located in Blackfoot, Idaho, is LCA’s<br />

parent company. LCA joined the Title Financial Corporation family<br />

in 2014 and has been encouraged to continue its involvement in the<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> community. LCA is proud of its seventy year commitment<br />

to <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and appreciates the ongoing support of the local real<br />

estate professionals and community. Protecting property rights and<br />

providing outstanding escrow settlement services for property owners<br />

in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and Laramie County are of utmost importance and<br />

remain the focus of the company and its employees.<br />

Lewis F. Hanson founded Laramie County Abstract & Title Co. in<br />

1947. It occupied several locations until the early 1960s, when<br />

Hanson purchased the building at 1819 Warren Avenue, where<br />

LCA remains to this day. The company started with abstracts and<br />

moved into title insurance in the 1970s. Around that time, LCA<br />

established a long relationship with Chicago Title Insurance as one<br />

of its underwriters, a relationship that is still in place today.<br />

Hanson passed on his legacy to his two sons, Keith and Norman,<br />

who ran the company until 1989 when Keith moved to California.<br />

In 1987 an addition to the existing building was added to the<br />

back, enabling the company to continue to grow. Then, in January<br />

1994, Norman sold the company to Sharon Radomicki but continued<br />

to stay with LCA until December 1998. Radomicki served as<br />

president and owner of LCA until selling the company in April 2014<br />

to Title Financial Corporation.<br />

Title Financial Corporation, founded in 1906 by William Herman<br />

Stufflebeam, is a family-owned regional company that believes<br />

local commitment is critical to its success. It prides itself on hiring<br />

locally, actively supporting local community affairs, and keeping<br />

earnings local.<br />

Title Financial Corporation is committed to unrivaled customer<br />

service. It is customer focused and strives to provide a world-class<br />

experience at every level. It blends hometown customer service<br />

with sophisticated, cutting-edge technology to meet its customers’<br />


real estate transaction needs. With the backing of Title Financial<br />

Corporation, Laramie County Abstract & Title Co. has the resources to<br />

compete without losing its identity and local, personalized approach.<br />

B u i l d i n g a G r e a t e r C h e y e n n e ✦ 1 5 5


Merrill, Inc., is an award-winning construction company that has<br />

grown enormously in the past decade even as other companies have<br />

struggled to remain in business. Its success is tied to the “give-it-everything-you’ve-got”<br />

spirit of its owner, Jennifer Merrill, and astute business<br />

moves that have paid off and will pay dividends well into the future.<br />

Merrill, Inc., opened for business on January 2, 1991, originally as a<br />

livestock operation and slowly evolved into a construction company.<br />

This Class A general contracting company specializes in site excavation<br />

including football and soccer fields, underground utilities, concrete,<br />

trenching, road construction, footer-foundation excavation, and building<br />

erection/remodel/renovation. It also works on erosion control,<br />

demolition, drainage, and miscellaneous grading. While Merrill works<br />

primarily in Wyoming, Colorado, and Nebraska, they also rebuilt the<br />

Trailhead of the Bright Angel Trail at the Grand Canyon in Arizona and<br />

restored several historic buildings on the South Rim.<br />

That is quite a repertoire when you consider it all started when Merrill<br />

grossed $74,000 the first year and topped out at $13M in 2013.<br />

Merrill kept her day job to pay the bills and worked at Merrill, Inc.,<br />

at night. The firm grew slowly during the first fifteen years before<br />

experiencing a growth spurt that would make any business owner proud.<br />

During a four-year period, Merrill, Inc.’s contract revenues climbed<br />

nearly 250 percent from $912,992 in 2007 to $3,191,166 in 2009,<br />

and during the next four-year period contract revenues averaged more<br />

than $9 million annually. Merrill attributes her success to the many<br />

talented people who are part of the Merrill, Inc. team.<br />

For her efforts, Merrill was selected as the Wyoming Small Business<br />

Person the Year in 2014 and, in that same year, was a second runnerup<br />

for the National Small Business Person of the Year. With the excellent<br />

work ethic of Merrill and her employees, you can expect continued<br />

growth and accolades in the years to come.<br />

1 5 6 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y

Steil Surveying Services, LLC is a professional consulting firm that<br />

has provided customers with land, GPS and construction surveying,<br />

CADD drafting, and computer applications for more than twenty years.<br />

John A. Steil, managing partner, has more than forty years of experience<br />

in all phases of land and construction surveying and is licensed<br />

in Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Montana, Arizona, South Dakota,<br />

and Minnesota.<br />

Steil Surveying Services specializes in all types of boundary retracement,<br />

GPS, topographic, construction, subdivision, title and as-built<br />

surveys. The company employs the latest technology in surveying instrument<br />

and data collection. Technology—along with the ability to adjust to<br />

the market’s needs—plays an important role in the company’s success,<br />

giving it a huge advantage over competitors. Ninety percent of the<br />

company’s work is GPS and the other technological advances allow it to<br />

cover a large area and do so quickly and efficiently. Work now handled by<br />

10 to 12 employees would have taken 25 to 35 employees a few years ago.<br />

Steil Surveying Services uses technology and design skills to produce<br />

products that are accurate, easy to use, and aesthetically pleasing. This<br />

dedication to detail and meeting customer needs has earned the<br />

company national awards from the American Congress of Surveyors<br />

and Mappers (ACSM) and the National Society of Professional<br />

Surveyors (NSPS) for map and plat design work.<br />

Research is important to these designs, but the key is the quality<br />

and design of the actual presentation. Steil Surveying Services spends<br />

time and effort on the design aspects to make its maps readable and,<br />

therefore, easier to use. The presentation of its work is an important<br />

part of the quality the company provides its clients.<br />

Subdivision work has been a mainstay of the company, but its<br />

biggest jobs in recent years have been cross-country pipelines. For<br />

instance, the company surveyed half of the route for a 400-mile-long<br />

pipeline between Douglas, Wyoming, and Fountain, Colorado.<br />

Steil Surveying Services employs approximately ten people with<br />

increased staffing in the summer to meet the demands of the region’s<br />

prime construction period. Their employees provide the best possible<br />

service to their clients and strive to get the job done right the first time<br />

and to meet all deadlines.<br />

Steil Surveying Services is located at 1102 West Nineteenth Street<br />

in <strong>Cheyenne</strong> and on the Internet at www.steilsurvey.com.<br />

STEIL<br />



Top (from left to right): Partner<br />

Jeffrey Jones, Founder John Steil, and<br />

Partner Bradley Steil.<br />

B u i l d i n g a G r e a t e r C h e y e n n e ✦ 1 5 7


The Laramie County offices of First American Title Insurance<br />

Company provide customers with friendly, personalized service you<br />

would expect from a company with a long history in Wyoming, along<br />

with the products and services only available from one of the largest<br />

title insurers in the nation.<br />

First American Title, the largest subsidiary of First American<br />

Financial Corporation, provides comprehensive title insurance coverage<br />

and professional services for real estate purchases, construction,<br />

refinances, and equity loans through its direct operations and<br />

an extensive network of agents throughout the United States<br />

and abroad.<br />

Since the company’s formation in 1889, First American has been<br />

dedicated to maintaining the integrity of land records and delivering<br />

the information, products, and services needed with unparalleled service.<br />

For more than a century, First American has focused on serving<br />

customers with the most efficient, personalized services and products<br />

while adhering to its core values of integrity, commitment, service,<br />

leadership, and teamwork.<br />

This commitment continues as the company develops advanced<br />

technology solutions to speed processing, while providing accurate<br />

and complete information. With automated processes, advanced technology,<br />

innovative solutions, and a focus on long-term success, First<br />

American continues to be an industry leader.<br />

First American entered the Wyoming market in 1968, when it gained<br />

a controlling interest in Title Guaranty Company of Wyoming, Inc.,<br />

which had been a leading title company in the state since the early 1900s.<br />

Until the turn of the century, property ownership was agreed upon<br />

by word of mouth, but the growth of cities, such as Casper and<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong>, spurred a need for property records. By the early 1900s,<br />

Casper had progressed from the status of a village, where everyone<br />

knew the history of each lot and block, to a city where property transactions<br />

were more frequent and complicated.<br />

To address the changing needs of the community, C.H. Townsend,<br />

proprietor of the general store, joined with rancher B.B. Brooks and a<br />

handful of other prominent men to form Natrona County Abstract &<br />

Loan Company in 1914. Four decades later, after the state legislature<br />

changed laws barring domestic title insurance firms, leaders sold their<br />

interest in the company and Title Guaranty Company of Wyoming,<br />

Inc. was formed in 1955. Title Guaranty became a wholly-owned<br />

subsidiary of First American in 1969, and later changed its name to<br />

First American Title Guaranty of Wyoming in 1980.<br />

First American continued to grow, and by 1982 was serving every<br />

region of the nation. Today, First American is one of the largest title<br />

insurers in the country. Even though First American provides the<br />

benefits of a large national underwriter, the company emphasizes<br />

the personalized customer-focused service that First American’s local<br />

offices are known for. With offices in 18 of Wyoming’s 23 counties,<br />

First American’s Wyoming operations are the result of combining<br />

19 local abstract companies whose roots go back to statehood. As<br />

Wyoming’s pioneer title company, each office maintains real estate<br />

records from sovereignty.<br />

First American was built more than 125 years ago on a foundation<br />

of integrity and service. The company’s philosophy of providing<br />

customers the respect they deserve and the services they need endures.<br />

It is a commitment the company continues to emphasize with its<br />

clients every day.<br />

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HollyFrontier <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Refining LLC (<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Refinery) is a<br />

subsidiary of HollyFrontier Corporation (HFC). HFC is an independent<br />

petroleum refiner and marketer that produces high-value, light products<br />

such as gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel and other specialty products.<br />

The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Refinery was founded in 1934 when two entrepreneurs<br />

formed the Capitol Oil and Refining Company. It had an initial<br />

processing capacity of 700 barrels per day. In 1940, the refinery was<br />

purchased by M. H. “Bud” Robineau, and its name was changed to<br />

Frontier Refining Company. In 1945, through the joint effort of<br />

Robineau and Wyoming Senator Joseph C. O’Mahoney, an $8 million,<br />

forty-acre facility adjacent to the existing refinery was constructed to<br />

produce 100-octane aviation fuel for the Army Air Forces as part of<br />

the WWII effort. At the end of the war, Frontier purchased the<br />

additional facility and converted it to produce automotive fuel and<br />

other petroleum products. Once in operation, twice as much crude oil<br />

was purchased for processing from oil fields in Niobrara and Natrona<br />

counties, and an additional 165 workers were employed—this was an<br />

estimated $328,500 annually that was added to the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> economy<br />

(today’s equivalent would be more than $4 million). By 1966, the refinery’s<br />

production capacity reached 20,000 barrels per day. From 1968 to 1986,<br />

the refinery was owned by subsidiaries of Husky LTD. During that<br />

time, a $60 million modernization and expansion program was initiated,<br />

and by 1979, a new crude unit, vacuum unit, and sulfur recovery<br />

unit was completed. In 1986, the refinery was purchased by a group of<br />

independent investors and renamed Frontier Oil and Refining<br />

Company. In 1988, construction was completed on a state-of-the-art<br />

$2.9 million Wastewater Treatment Plant. In 1991, Wainoco Oil<br />

Corporation purchased the refinery and subsequently changed its name<br />

to Frontier Oil Corporation. In 2011, Frontier completed a merger of<br />

equals with Holly Corporation and changed the refinery’s name to<br />

HollyFrontier.<br />

The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Refinery currently has a crude oil capacity of<br />

52,000 barrels per day and produces 1.5 million gallons of gasoline<br />

and diesel per day. It employs 270 local residents full-time with<br />

an additional 100 to 500 contract employees working any given day.<br />

On average each year, it spends almost $40 million in payroll and<br />

benefits, over $3 million in local, county and state taxes, and over<br />

$170 thousand in charitable contributions.<br />

HFC understands that it is a privilege to conduct its business in the<br />

communities where it operates. This is why it is committed to minimizing<br />

environmental impacts by reducing wastes, emissions and other releases.<br />

The <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Refinery works closely with state and federal regulatory<br />

agencies to guarantee it is operating in a way that keeps <strong>Cheyenne</strong> safe,<br />

healthy and beautiful.<br />

For more information, please visit www.hollyfrontier.com.<br />

B u i l d i n g a G r e a t e r C h e y e n n e ✦ 1 5 9


ENERGY<br />

Black Hills Energy is proud of our more than<br />

130-year history in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>, Wyoming. We are a<br />

customer-focused, growth-oriented energy company<br />

with a mission of improving life with energy and<br />

a vision to be the energy partner of choice.<br />

What began with a few streetlights in Deadwood,<br />

South Dakota, in 1883 evolved into 1.2 million<br />

electric and natural gas customers in 790 communities<br />

throughout Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas,<br />

Nebraska, Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming.<br />

Today, we provide customers with electricity and natural gas while<br />

mining for coal and operating power plants and exploring for and<br />

producing oil and gas.<br />

Black Hills Energy entered the <strong>Cheyenne</strong> market in January 2005<br />

when we purchased <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Light, Fuel & Power. Despite several<br />

ownership changes before we bought the utility, employees maintained<br />

continuity and commitment to providing customers with reliable,<br />

dependable gas and electric service.<br />

We are proud to be active members of our communities. We provide<br />

leadership, knowledge and the resources to help our communities create<br />

jobs, help fuel local business expansion, and help build a platform to<br />

grow. We are building not only today but for the future as well.<br />

Social responsibility plays a vital role in helping fulfill our vision<br />

and mission, and we embrace the following core values:<br />

• Agility: We embrace change and challenge ourselves to adapt quickly<br />

to opportunities.<br />

• Communication: Consistent, open, and timely communication<br />

keeps us focused on our strategy and goals.<br />

• Creating Value: We are committed to creating exceptional value<br />

for our shareholders, employers, customers, and the communities<br />

we serve—always.<br />

• Customer service: We are committed to providing a superior<br />

customer experience every day.<br />

• Integrity: We hold ourselves to the highest standards based on a<br />

foundation of unquestionable ethics.<br />

• Leadership: Leadership is an attitude. Everyone must demonstrate<br />

the care and initiative to do things right.<br />

• Partnership: Our partnerships with shareholders, communities,<br />

regulators, customers, and each other make us all stronger.<br />

• Respect: We respect each other. Our unique talents and diversity<br />

anchor a culture of success.<br />

• Safety: We commit to live and work safely every day.<br />

1 6 0 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y



CO.<br />

Founded by Charles S. “Chuck” Thompson on January 1, 1965,<br />

and incorporated on September 10, 1968, Addison Construction Co.<br />

has provided outstanding manpower and unparalleled service as<br />

an electrical substation contractor across the United States. Wellknown<br />

as one of the best substation builders in the business and<br />

often finishes jobs under budget and ahead of schedule, employees<br />

have long believed in and followed the motto of their company:<br />

“To give a little bit more than the customer pays for.”<br />

Nearly twelve years of experience in the construction industry,<br />

working primarily in the field of transmission construction, Chuck<br />

created Addison Construction Co. with $6,000, a pickup truck, one<br />

trailer, and a second-hand line truck originally owned by Southern<br />

Cal Edison. The first bid was made on an addition to the <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Substation, Stage 02, for the Department of Interior, Bureau of<br />

Reclamation. The contract date was February 12, 1965, in the amount<br />

of $96,697, and with this first success, Addison was up and running.<br />

From this simple beginning, Addison Construction Co. now has<br />

projects extending from the East Coast to the West Coast and from<br />

near the Canadian border, down near the Mexican border. Current<br />

owners: CEO Gary D. Bindert, President Bobby D. Bindert, and Vice<br />

President Michael M. Kaiser oversee substations ranging from 12.47kV<br />

to 500,000 volts. Seven employees are in the main office in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>,<br />

Wyoming, and 5 superintendents with crew sizes ranging from 2 to 10<br />

can be found completing projects across the U.S.A. The average gross<br />

revenue of the company tops $10 million annually with forty percent<br />

of the revenue coming from the federal government, the Department<br />

of the Interior through the Bureau of Reclamation, and the Department<br />

of Energy through the Western Area Power Administration and<br />

Southwestern Power Administration, as well as other local entities like<br />

Black Hills Energy, Hi-West Energy, and Carbon Power & Light, Inc.<br />

Addison Construction Co. remains active in its support of the<br />

community and surrounding areas through the Salvation Army,<br />

Special Olympics, Wyoming Open, <strong>Cheyenne</strong> ARC of Laramie<br />

County, Frontier Lion’s Club, Multiple Sclerosis Society, Scleroderma<br />

Cure Research, Ducks Unlimited, Pheasants Forever, and <strong>Cheyenne</strong><br />

Police Protection Association.<br />

Above: <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Prairie Substation<br />

in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

Below: Two views of the King Ranch<br />

Substation in <strong>Cheyenne</strong>.<br />

B u i l d i n g a G r e a t e r C h e y e n n e ✦ 1 6 1


16th Street Mercantile ............................................................................................77<br />

Addison Construction Co.....................................................................................161<br />

Black Hills Energy ................................................................................................160<br />

Blue Federal Credit Union......................................................................................80<br />

Budd-Falen Law Offices, L.L.C. ............................................................................105<br />

Capitol Roofing, Inc. ............................................................................................146<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Downtown Development Authority......................................................106<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Frontier Days TM ....................................................................................138<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> LEADS .................................................................................................113<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Regional Medical Center ......................................................................118<br />

<strong>Cheyenne</strong> Symphony Orchestra............................................................................133<br />

Coldwell Banker The Property Exchange ..............................................................150<br />

CollegeAmerica ....................................................................................................131<br />

Duke Energy Renewables .....................................................................................142<br />

Dyno Nobel, Inc...................................................................................................153<br />

Ellenbecker Oil, Inc. ............................................................................................154<br />

First American Title Insurance Company..............................................................158<br />

First <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Federal Credit Union .....................................................................98<br />

Frontier Oral Surgery & Implant Center...............................................................128<br />

Greater <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Chamber of Commerce............................................................100<br />

High West Energy ................................................................................................148<br />

Holland & Hart, LLP..............................................................................................77<br />

HollyFrontier <strong>Cheyenne</strong> Refining LLC..................................................................159<br />

KGWN-TV ...........................................................................................................107<br />

Laramie County Abstract & Title Co. ...................................................................155<br />

Laramie County Commission ...............................................................................134<br />

Laramie County Community College....................................................................124<br />

Laramie County Library System............................................................................130<br />

Laramie County School District 1.........................................................................132<br />

Lathrop & Rutledge, P.C.......................................................................................115<br />

Life Care Center of <strong>Cheyenne</strong>...............................................................................126<br />

Little America Hotel & Resort ................................................................................96<br />

Meridian Trust Federal Credit Union....................................................................114<br />

Merill, Inc. ...........................................................................................................156<br />

Moore Insulation Company, Inc./Moore Foam Systems, LLC ................................152<br />

Nagle Warren Mansion Bed & Breakfast ...............................................................110<br />

National Center for Atmospheric Research ...........................................................122<br />

The Nomadic Northern Arapaho ............................................................................92<br />

The Plains Hotel.....................................................................................................88<br />

Pointe Frontier Senior Living Community ............................................................127<br />

Preiss Enterprises, Inc. .........................................................................................112<br />

Protection & Advocacy System, Inc. .....................................................................136<br />

Reiman Corp........................................................................................................144<br />

The Romano Insurance Agency ............................................................................111<br />

Romsa Law Office, P.C..........................................................................................108<br />

Saints Constantine and Helen Greek Orthodox Church ........................................129<br />

Searing Industries...................................................................................................77<br />

Sierra Trading Post .................................................................................................90<br />

Simon Contractors ...............................................................................................151<br />

Skils’kin ...............................................................................................................137<br />

SMART Sports Medicine Center............................................................................139<br />

Spradley Barr <strong>Cheyenne</strong> .......................................................................................109<br />

State of Wyoming.................................................................................................135<br />

Steil Surveying Services, LLC ...............................................................................157<br />

STRIDE Learning Center ......................................................................................120<br />

Sundahl, Powers, Kapp & Martin, LLC ................................................................104<br />

Taco John’s ® .........................................................................................................103<br />

Visit <strong>Cheyenne</strong> .....................................................................................................101<br />

Western States Asphalt, LLC...................................................................................77<br />

Western Vista Federal Credit Union .......................................................................94<br />

Wyoming Lottery Corporation................................................................................84<br />

Wyoming Stock Growers Association ...................................................................102<br />

1 6 2 ✦ C H E Y E N N E : A S E S Q U I C E N T E N N I A L H I S T O R Y


Rick Ewig<br />

Rick Ewig recently retired from the American Heritage Center at the University<br />

of Wyoming. He served many years as the Center's associate director and a UW faculty<br />

member. Before his tenure at the AHC he worked for the Wyoming State<br />

Archives, Museums and Historical Department. He has been a longtime member<br />

of the Wyoming State Historical Society and he served four years as the Society's<br />

president. He currently serves as the editor of the state's historical journal, Annals<br />

of Wyoming: The Wyoming <strong>History</strong> Journal.<br />


A b o u t t h e A u t h o r ✦ 1 6 3

For more information about the following publications or about publishing your own book, please call<br />

HPNbooks at 800-749-9790 or visit www.hpnbooks.com.<br />

Albemarle & Charlottesville:<br />

An Illustrated <strong>History</strong> of the First 150 Years<br />

Bakersfield: It’s the People, And a Whole Lot More<br />

Black Gold: The Story of Texas Oil & Gas<br />

Black Gold in California<br />

Carter County, Oklahoma: Then and Now<br />

Coastal Visions: Images of Galveston County<br />

Davis County: On the Move<br />

Fort Myers - City of Palms: A Contemporary Portrait<br />

Garland: A Contemporary <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Abilene: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Alamance County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Albany: City & County<br />

Historic Albuquerque: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Alexandria: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Amarillo: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Anchorage: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Austin: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Baldwin County: A Bicentennial <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Baton Rouge: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Beaufort County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Beaumont: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Bexar County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Birmingham: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Brazoria County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Brownsville: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Charlotte:<br />

An Illustrated <strong>History</strong> of Charlotte and Mecklenburg County<br />

Historic Chautauqua County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic <strong>Cheyenne</strong>: A <strong>History</strong> of the Magic City<br />

Historic Clayton County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Comal County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Corpus Christi: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic DeKalb County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Denton County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Edmond: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic El Paso: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Erie County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Fayette County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Fairbanks: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Gainesville & Hall County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Gregg County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Hampton Roads: Where America Began<br />

Historic Hancock County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Henry County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Hood County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Houston: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Hunt County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Illinois: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Kern County:<br />

An Illustrated <strong>History</strong> of Bakersfield and Kern County<br />

Historic Lafayette:<br />

An Illustrated <strong>History</strong> of Lafayette & Lafayette Parish<br />

Historic Laredo:<br />

An Illustrated <strong>History</strong> of Laredo & Webb County<br />

Historic Lee County: The Story of Fort Myers & Lee County<br />

Historic Louisiana: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Mansfield: A Bicentennial <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Midland: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Mobile:<br />

An Illustrated <strong>History</strong> of the Mobile Bay Region<br />

Historic Montgomery County:<br />

An Illustrated <strong>History</strong> of Montgomery County, Texas<br />

Historic Ocala: The Story of Ocala & Marion County<br />

Historic Oklahoma: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Oklahoma County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Omaha:<br />

An Illustrated <strong>History</strong> of Omaha and Douglas County<br />

Historic Orange County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Osceola County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Ouachita Parish: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Paris and Lamar County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Pasadena: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Passaic County: An Illustrated <strong>History</strong><br />

Historic Pennsylvania An Illustrated <stro