Garis Panduan Penggunaan Gelaran Profesor - English

majlisprofesornegarampn

2013

National Library of Malaysia

Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

National Professorial Council

Prime Minister’s Department

d/a Ministry of Education

Level 3, No. 2, Menara 2, Jalan P5/6, Presint 5

62200 Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya

Tel: 03-88706308/6309 Fax: 03-88706837

www.majlisprofesor.gov.my

First edition, 2014

Copyright © written permission of the publisher, the National Professorial Council

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Designed by:

My Global Ideas

No. 20 Jalan Semarak

51400 Kuala Lumpur

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EDITORIAL BOARD

Advisor

Prof. Tan Sri Zakri Abdul Hamid

Prof. Ulung Datuk Dr. Shamsul Amri Baharuddin

Prof. Datuk Dr. Raduan Che Rose

Chief Editor

Prof. Dr. Nik Ahmad Kamal Nik Mahmod

Coordinator

Puan Hazizah Wahab

Editor

Prof. Dato’ Dr. Abdul Razak Salleh

Prof. Dr. Durrishah Idrus

Author

Prof. Datuk Dr. Raduan Che Rose

Prof. Dr. Nik Ahmad Kamal Nik Mahmod

Prof. Dato’ Dr. Halimah Badioze Zaman

Prof. Dato’ Dr. Ahmad Darus

Prof. Dr. Ghizan Saleh

Prof. Dr. Durrishah Idrus

Prof. Dr. Noor Inayah Yaakub

Prof. Sr. Dr. Khairuddin Abdul Rashid

Prof. Dr. Mohamad Khan Jamal Khan

Prof. Datuk Abdul Halim Sidek

Prof. Dato’ Dr. Hassan Basri bin Awang Mat Dahan

Prof. Ir. Dr. Ahmad Faizal Mohd Zain

Prof. Dr. Jayum Anak Jawan

Puan Hazizah Wahab

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Welcome Remarks

Chairman

National Council of Professors

Assalamualaikum wbt and greetings.

I wish to express my heartfelt gratitude to Allah SWT

for the publication of the Guidelines on the Usage of the

Professorial Title. My appreciation also to all those involved

directly and indirectly in the preparation of these guidelines,

particularly the Cluster of Governance, Law and Public

Management.

The National Council of Professors is constantly

focused on improving the image and quality of academics in

Malaysia. As such, various initiatives have been undertaken

from time to time to strengthen the existing initiatives and one

of them is the publication of these guidelines.

The Guidelines on the Usage of the Professorial Title

is intended to provide a clearer explanation on the use of the

title and to avoid the confusion that often arises, particularly

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among media practitioners and the public. These efforts are

expected to increase public understanding of professorial titles

in Malaysia as well as their accurate usage and

address. Congratulations and thank you to the Cluster of

Governance, Law and Public Management, and all who were

involved directly and indirectly, in spearheading the

publication of these guidelines.

Wassalam.

PROF. TAN SRI ZAKRI ABDUL HAMID

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Foreword

Head

Cluster of Governance, Law and

Public Management

Assalamualaikum wbt and greetings.

The prominence of a system and that of a higher

educational institution of a nation depends on the credibility

and integrity of the professors. Malaysia should take

appropriate steps to ensure that Malaysian academics are

respected by local and international scholars. Thus, the

Guidelines on the Usage of the Professorial Title have been

prepared to preserve and uphold the credibility of academics

and scholarship of professors in the country.

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The Guidelines on the Usage of the Professorial Title

published by the National Council of Professors provide

detailed guidelines to be applied in all related aspects and

writings. The public is often confused about the various

professorial titles and how professors should be addressed, as

well as a person’s eligibility to be accorded the title.

The main components of these guidelines are

described under ‘Various Professorial Titles in Malaysia’ and

the qualifications and sample name cards are provided

according to the relevant categories. Additionally, accurate

and inaccurate usages of the designation are also appended. I

hope that these guidelines will be implemented at all levels of

society and the Malaysian higher educational institutions in

order to preserve the integrity of professors in our country.

In closing, my heartfelt thanks to all my colleagues in

the Cluster of Governance, Law and Public Administration, as

well as in other clusters who persevered tirelessly to complete

these guidelines.

Wassalam.

PROF. DR. NIK AHMAD KAMAL BIN NIK MAHMOD

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CONTENTS

GLOSSARY 11

SCOPE OF THE GUIDELINES 16

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 17

INTRODUCTION 19


Confusion about Usage of the Professorial Title

PURPOSE OF THE GUIDELINES 24

DEFINITION OF THE TITLE OF PROFESSOR 25

APPOINTMENT AND PROMOTION 26

TO THE POSITION OF PROFESSOR

VARIOUS PROFESSORIAL TITLES 28

IN MALAYSIA

1. Royal Professor

2. Distinguished Professor

3. Professor

4. Clinical Professor

5. Laureate Professor

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6. Chair Professor

7. University Professor

8. Practice Professor

9. Visiting Professor

10. Emeritus Professor

11. Adjunct Professor

12. Honorary Professor

13. Associate Professor

14. Assistant Professor

INAUGURAL LECTURE 51

CORRECT USAGE AND APPLICATION

OF THE PROFESSORIAL TITLE

Accurate Usage 52

Inaccurate Usage 53

SPECIAL CASES 58

TITLES OF ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR 58

AND ASSISTANT PROFESSOR

CONCLUSION 59

BIBLIOGRAPHY 60

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GLOSSARY

NO. TERM DEFINITION

1. Academic

Member

2. Adjunct

Professor

(Profesor

Adjung)

3. Assistant

Professor

(Penolong

Profesor)

4. Associate

Professor

(Profesor

Madya)

An individual who is appointed as an

academic staff member in a higher

educational institution and has

expertise in his/her core area and own

standing on knowledge and its usage in

carrying out tasks and in teaching and

learning, as well as in sourcing and

disseminating knowledge, research and

publications, community service and

consultancy.

An individual appointed by the

university from the public /private

sector/industry who has the experience

to contribute to specific areas of

knowledge and is involved in the

advancement of knowledge in the

university.

An academic member in a university

who is one level below the position of

Associate Professor.

The post of an academic member who

has demonstrated academic excellence

in his/her substantive duties, in

accordance with the lecturers’

promotion scheme. It is the final level

prior to appointment as a full

professor.

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5. Chair Professor

(Profesor Kursi)

6. Clinical

Professor

(Profesor

Klinikal)

7. Distinguished

Professor

(Profesor Ulung)

8. Emeritus

Professor

(Profesor

Emeritus)

A position where an eminent academic

is appointed from among personalities

respected for their erudition to a chair

in the relevant faculty and in which

he/she plays an important and specific

role for which the chair is established

and for the development of the

university.

An academic award to a member of a

profession associated with the

university and who is involved in

practical instruction of professional

students.

An award for an academic member

who is recognised for his/her

outstanding scholarship and expertise

as well as inter-disciplinary

knowledge, and who fulfils public

advocacy demands, whose views have

impacted society. Appointment is in

accordance with the guidelines

established by the Ministry of

Education.

A lifetime award to a professor who

has retired from service but continues

to contribute to the field of knowledge.

Appointment guidelines are

determined by the higher educational

institution.

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9. Expert An academic who is an expert in a

particular field of knowledge, often

referred to and recognised for his/her

expertise as well as by his/her peers

(peer group acceptance).

10. Honorary

Professor

(Profesor

Kehormat)

11. Laureate

Professor

(Profesor

Laureate)

An award for an individual who is not

a professor. It may be given to anyone

including politicians and corporate

citizens. This title is not accompanied

by any duties or obligations.

An award which recognises a

university professor who has high

academic distinction and is

internationally acknowledged.

12. Master A credible academic in his/her own

area of expertise as well as interdisciplinary

knowledge and who

13. Professor

(Profesor)

14. Practice

Professor

(Profesor

Praktis)

displays intellectualism/rational

thinking.

The position given by a higher

educational institution to an academic

who has achieved excellence and

expertise in his/her field of knowledge,

and who is well recognised and

respected by his/her peer group. The

title is awarded during his/her service

with the particular institution.

A post created for an academic or

professional member who is highly

skilled in a specific field but which is

not bound to a contract.

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15. PRIVATE

HIGHER

EDUCATIONAL

INSTITUTIONS

16. PUBLIC

HIGHER

EDUCATIONAL

INSTITUTIONS

Private higher educational institutions

are universities or institutions

established under the provisions of the

Private Higher Educational Institutions

Act 1996 (Act 555). They can be set

up by individuals, companies, state

governments or government-linked

companies (GLCs).

Public higher educational institutions

are universities publicly funded by the

government and established under the

Universities and University Colleges

Act 1971 (Act 30). Public higher

educational institutions in Malaysia are

categorised into three (3) groups,

namely research universities, focused

universities (technical, educational,

management and defence) and

comprehensive universities.

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17. Royal Professor

(Profesor Diraja)

A lifetime and honorary award

bestowed on an eminent scholar and

intellectual with proven contributions

to the repository of knowledge and

who has displayed exceptional

leadership as a university professor

and in society at large.

A Royal Professor is appointed by the

University Chancellor after receiving

the royal consent of the Yang di-

Pertuan Agong.

The procedure of appointment is in

accordance with the guidelines of the

higher educational institution/Ministry

of Education.

18. UUCA The Universities and University

Colleges Act 1971 (Act 30) provides

for the establishment, maintenance and

administration of public universities

and university colleges and other

related matters.

19. University

Professor

(Profesor

Universiti)

20. Visiting

Professor

(Profesor

Pelawat)

Awarded to an academic who excels in

more than one field or discipline.

A position awarded by a university to

individuals from within or outside the

country to advance knowledge in a

specialised field of study in accordance

with the interests of the faculty and the

development of the university.

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SCOPE OF THE GUIDELINES

The title of professor is prestigious both within and

outside the academic world. Confusion has arisen through

certain individuals who aspired to have their scholarship

recognised as being equivalent to a professorship. Therefore,

these guidelines are designed to explain not only to the public

but also to public and private higher educational institutions in

Malaysia the meaning of the title of professor and the criteria

required for an individual to be awarded the title.

These guidelines can be used by the media and in

publications if confusion arises on the status of the title of

professor that appears before an individual’s name, in either

mainstream or alternative media.

It is hoped that individuals who do not adhere to these

guidelines will refrain from using the title of professor before

their names. In addition, it is hoped these guidelines can clear

misconceptions on the use of the title to maintain harmony

and excellence among Malaysian scholars and to ensure that

all higher educational institutions comply with these

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guidelines by the Higher Education Department on the

appointment of professors.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The appointment and title of professor in a higher

educational institution is very prestigious and those who have

received the award are considered to have achieved the

pinnacle of their academic careers. Apart from full

recognition, a professor is considered as an authority in his or

her field. Every higher educational institution has its own

principles and practices in this respect because the

appointment and the title of professor are not governed by the

laws of the country. Differences also exist in principles and

practices among public and private higher educational

institutions. The Higher Education Department has issued

these guidelines for the appointment of and promotion to the

post of professor to ensure that certain similarities exist in the

practices and principles of professorial appointment in all

local institutions (Guidelines for the Appointment of

Professors for Public and Private Higher Educational

Institutions, 2012).

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Generally, the use of the title of professor on the basis

of promotion is not a major issue because those who are

appointed have the right to use the title in and out of campus.

The problem arises with incorrect and inconsistent practices in

the use of honorary titles, for instance, Adjunct and Honorary

Professors.

Appointment to the post of professor is advantageous

to both the institutions and the appointee. Higher educational

institutions can increase the number of their prestigious staff,

while such staff members can enjoy promotion and achieve a

higher status in the academic world. Through Adjunct and

Emeritus Professors, institutions receive services in the form

of lectures and consultancy as well as close relations with

highly reputable public figures. The recipients, on the other

hand, are honoured by a prestigious institution such as a

university.

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INTRODUCTION

The word ‘professor’ is derived from Latin meaning

"a person who professes". A person bearing the title is an

expert in his/her field.

At the global level, including in Commonwealth

nations (such as the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand

and South Africa) and northern Europe, the title of professor

is awarded only to the most senior academics in a university.

The title is also awarded to experts with emoluments

commensurate to the position of a university professor.

Specifically, a professor is an eminent scholar who is

recognised for his or her distinction and scholarship amongst

academics and the society. The title is typically granted after a

long period of involvement and expertise in the field. As an

expert, professors generally have four additional obligations:

1. To give lectures and conduct seminars in their field

of knowledge, be it science, arts or other disciplines,

such as design, music, medicine, law or business;

2. To conduct research in their field of knowledge and

publish the findings in books or refereed journals;

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3. To improve the well-being of society, including to

offer consultancy services (in either the field of

governance or other non-profit areas);

4. To train capable young academics/students to take

over by becoming leaders in their fields.

In principle, the title of professor is awarded for

academic excellence among university staff. Non-academic

staff members are not eligible to receive the title of professor

except if they are conferred an honorary title. In terms of

services, 'professor' is a designation in an academic scheme,

starting from tutor, lecturer, senior lecturer, associate

professor and professor.

In Malaysia, similar to other services, professors are

ranked according to grade levels beginning with Grade VK7

which is equivalent to posts in the Public Service Superscale

(Jusa C), Grade VK6 (Jusa B), Grade VK5 (Jusa A), and so

on. Private higher educational institutions may use specific

grades depending on the capabilities and agreement within the

organisation.

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Almost all universities around the world use the peer

review method to verify the academic achievement of

potential candidates for professorship. The main assessment is

focused on the academic contribution in terms of publications

in high-impact journals, books, citations, supervision of

master’s and PhD students, research programmes, intellectual

property and commitment to international scholarly activities.

Administrative contribution is also evaluated but is

not a primary measure. This aspect should be noted as

academic excellence is to a greater extent influenced by

expertise, commitment and the reputation of the professor in a

university.

In terms of tradition and institution, the reputation of

a university is not dependent on physical aspects such as the

buildings, laboratories or computer facilities. A university is a

community of intellectuals led by a group of professors who

together learn, develop and advance a field of knowledge. The

more reputable the professors at the international level, the

higher the reputation of the university.

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Confusion about Usage of the Professorial Title

Confusion about the usage of the title of professor

includes vagueness about the position or hierarchy of the title.

Confusion often arises amongst the public about the academic

hierarchy at university level, more specifically about the titles

of Professor and Associate Professor. Typically, society

addresses academic staff with the rank of Associate Professor

as a professor when the accurate designation should be "Dr" if

he or she has a PhD or equivalent. There are also cases where

the post of Associate Professor is considered to be higher than

that of a Professor. Associate Professors who are called

professor by reporters in the electronic or print media can be

construed as misleading. The lack of sensitivity of the

academic staff concerned to rectify the situation may also be

misinterpreted by various parties.

Confusion can also arise in the use of the professorial

title before the full name in the business card of an Adjunct

Professor. The Adjunct Professor title should be placed only

after the full name with the full title, "Adjunct Professor". The

title of Adjunct Professor cannot be used outside the

university that has awarded the title. However, this practice is

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inconsistent while some higher educational institutions

provide specific guidelines on the use of the title in their letter

of appointment, most universities do not. Based on practices

observed in foreign institutions, the title of Adjunct Professor

is not to be used as a normal professorial title.

Another form of confusion arising is the use of the

title of professor outside academia. There are certain

professions that also use the title of professor before an

individual’s name although the use of the title is exclusive to

academia and related fields.

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PURPOSE OF THE GUIDELINES

The purpose of these guidelines are to:

1. Explain the meaning of the title of professor and

honorary titles.

2. Provide procedures on the usage and standardisation

of the usage of the term professor for the general

public, academic community and relevant institutions

to enhance their understanding and subsequently,

promote the proper and accurate usage of the term

professor in line with the image, credibility and

qualification of the professors.

3. These guidelines contain the following:

(a) Introduction to the post of professor and

honorary titles that exist in Malaysia;

(b) Definition of the title of professor and

honorary titles that exist in Malaysia;

(c) Duties and responsibilities of persons who

hold the title of professor and honorary titles;

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(d) Issues related to the misuse and confusion

pertaining to the inaccurate usage of the title

of professor and the implications;

(e) Guidelines on Appointment and Promotion to

the Post of Professor at Higher Educational

Institutions in Malaysia issued by the

Ministry of Education;

(f) Ethics practised by the individuals who hold

the title of professor or honorary titles.

DEFINITION OF THE TITLE OF PROFESSOR

The title of professor is awarded to academic staff of

a university who exhibit academic distinction and excellence

through contribution of knowledge in publications, teaching,

research and industry and community involvement, which

have a high impact on the nation. The depth and breadth of

scholarship of an academic member are evaluated through a

multi-level vetting process specified by the university,

including the involvement and acknowledgement by academic

peers within and outside the country.

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APPOINTMENT AND PROMOTION TO THE POST

OF PROFESSOR

Appointments and promotions in all higher educational

institutions must be in accordance with the guidelines issued

by the Ministry of Education (Ministry of Higher Education,

2012). A professor must have a proven track record in

scholarship through:

(a) Productivity in academia, specifically in research and

publications in his/her field of expertise;

(b) Peer group esteem at national and international levels;

(c) Breadth and depth in national and international

networking within peer groups;

(d) Outstanding performance, both as academic leader and

academic administrative leader;

(e) Display of collegiality in his or her academic

community.

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There are five criteria to be applied in the guidelines for

appointment and promotion to the post of professor at higher

educational institutions in Malaysia, namely:

(a) Research and publications;

(b) Teaching and supervision;

(c) Academic honours and academic leadership;

(d) Service to the university and society; and

(e) Consultancy/industrial/clinical networking

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VARIOUS PROFESSORIAL TITLES IN MALAYSIA

The title of professor is generally held by career

professors and those with honorary titles. Career professors

include the Royal Professor, Distinguished Professor,

Professor, Clinical Professor, Laureate Professor, Chair

Professor, University Professor, Practice Professor and

Visiting Professor.

Honorary titles include the Adjunct Professor,

Emeritus Professor and Honorary Professor. The Associate

Professor and Assistant Professor are positions in higher

educational institutions which are outside the range of the post

of professors and those holding honorary titles.

1. Royal Professor

The highest title awarded to a professor by His

Majesty the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. It is used

specifically in Malaysia.

The Royal Professor title can be placed in front of the

recipient's name in the business card. An example of this

is as follows:

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2. Distinguished Professor

Recognition given for the ability and capability of a

scholar who must fulfil three main criteria, namely

recognition and acclaim; research and publications with

high impact and which mark a quantum leap.

The Distinguished Professor title is a prestigious

award granted by a learning organisation, and recognition

is given to the recipient for his/her academic and

professional contributions in the form of scholarly

leadership. The appointment and promotion to the

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position of Distinguished Professor is open to professors

in Special Grade A or its equivalent.

The Distinguished Professor title is placed after the

recipient's name as shown in the following example:

3. Professor

The title of Professor is given to academics who have

achieved heights of excellence and expertise in their field

of knowledge, and are recognised and honoured by their

peers.

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The criteria to be considered for appointment and

promotion to the post include research and publications,

teaching and supervision, academic acclaim and

leadership, service to the university and society and

consultancy/industrial/clinical networking.

Holder can use the title of Professor before their

name. An example of a business card of such a professor

is as follows:

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4. Clinical Professor

A Clinical Professor is an academic appointment of a

professional member associated with a university who is

involved in practical instruction of professional students.

This title can be awarded to individuals who serve the

university either on a full-time or part-time basis, and the

focus is on practical skills as compared to theoretical

aspects.

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The title of Clinical Professor should be printed after

the name as shown in the following example:

5. Laureate Professor

The title of Laureate Professor is awarded to

recognise a university professor who has attained a very

high level of academic distinction and is acknowledged

internationally.

For example, the University of South Australia has

laid down as criteria for appointment of a Laureate

Professor, publications in international journals, acclaim

received, awards and recognition attained at the highest

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level. This position can be held for five (5) years or more

depending on performance and achievement during the

tenure of the appointment.

An example of a business card for a Laureate

Professor is as follows, in which the title is printed after

the name of the recipient.

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An example of a business card for a non-professorial

academic member:

6. Chair Professor

A Chair Professor is an academic appointed and

assigned to the faculty in which the chair has been

established. The holder is appointed from amongst

prominent academics and can use the title of professor

throughout the tenure. The professorial title ends when

the tenure expires.

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The main objective of establishing a Chair in a

university is to obtain the expertise of eminent professors

or individuals to conduct research, the findings of which

can be utilised by the authorities to develop the socioeconomic

status and the relevant area of learning.

The title of Chair Professor should be printed after the

name of the recipient, as shown in the following

example.

An example of a business card for an academic

professor:

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An example of a business card for a non-professorial

academic member:

7. University Professor

The University Professor title is awarded to honour an

individual who has achieved excellence in various fields

of study. Harvard University has been awarding this title

since 1935. Appointments are primarily made from

amongst individuals with mastery of a university level

course offered to all students, and not specifically to a

particular faculty only.

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The title of University Professor should be printed

after the recipient's name as shown in the example below:

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An example of a business card for a non-professorial

academic member:

8. Practice Professor

A qualified individual specifically from the industry

who makes significant changes in his or her field and

discipline and assists significantly in the development of

university programmes is eligible to hold the post of

Practice Professor in a university. This position does not

require him or her to be contractually bound.

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The title of Practice Professor should be printed after

the recipient's name as shown in the example below:

An example of a business card for a non-professorial

academic member:

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9. Visiting Professor

A Visiting Professor is an individual who is invited to

teach or lecture at another university for a specific term.

Visiting Professors may be appointed on a full-time basis

by other higher educational institutions.

For academics with the title of professor or not a

professor who is awarded with the position of Visiting

Professor, the title should be printed after the name on

the business card, as shown in the following examples

below:

41


An example of a business card for a non-professorial

academic member:

10. Emeritus Professor

The Emeritus Professor title is awarded to a renowned

former professor who has completed his/her tenure at a

university. The university will set the terms of service for

such a professor, normally for a minimum period of 10

years. The Emeritus Professor title should be given to a

professor who has retired from the awarding institution,

and the basis of the award is to recognise the significant

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contributions of the appointee in his or her field of

knowledge.

Terms of appointment for the Emeritus Professor are

based on the contributions, tenure, record of service and

an impeccable reputation. Academic leadership and

appreciation are also part of the criteria for appointment

of an Emeritus Professor, in addition to research,

publications, consulting and conferences attended.

Nevertheless, the title of Emeritus Professor is

conferred automatically after the retirement of professors

in a number of countries such as Sweden and Denmark.

An Emeritus Professor usually no longer serves the

institution that awards the title.

An example of the title of Emeritus Professor in the

business card is as follows:

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11. Adjunct Professor

The Adjunct Professor title is awarded to nonacademic

staff who have vast experience in their

profession or in an industry and have contributed

significantly to the development of a field of knowledge.

The title is usually awarded to consultants, researchers

and administrators who have helped the university in an

initiative or special programme pertaining to knowledge

development. This title is not to be used before the name

of the recipient.

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The title of Adjunct Professor should be printed after

the name of the recipient as shown in the example below:

An example of a business card for a non-academic

member:

45


12. Honorary Professor

This title is awarded to a public figure who does not

serve as a professor, and can be awarded to anyone,

including politicians and corporate figures. This title is

not tied to any duties or obligations. As with Adjunct

Professors, this title is not to be used before the name of

the recipient.

The title of Honorary Professor must be positioned

prior to the recipient’s name. The following are examples

of business cards of professors, non-professorial

academic members and non-academic members:

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47


13. Associate Professor

The title of Associate Professor is for academics who

have demonstrated academic excellence according to the

service scheme for lecturers in their substantive roles.

The title is the highest level prior to appointment as a

professor.

The title of Associate Professor may be printed before

the recipient’s name, as follows:

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14. Assistant Professor

An Assistant Professor is a senior lecturer appointed

on the basis of his/her qualifications. Evaluation is based

on the level of excellence specified by the university or

institution. The individual must have served the

university or institution for a prescribed period of time

and also meet the evaluation criteria such as teaching and

supervision of students, research and publications,

consulting and expertise, conferences, services, acclaim

and academic leadership and professional qualifications

as an added bonus.

For example, the International Islamic University of

Malaysia (IIUM) appoints Assistant Professors from

amongst its academic staff who have obtained their

PhD. The Assistant Professor title is one level below

that of an Associate Professor in a university or

institution.

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For the position of Assistant Professor, an example of

the business card is as follows:

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INAUGURAL LECTURE

In the academic and knowledge-based fields, a person

who has attained high scholarship will present a speech or

lecture as an indication of his or her eligibility to have

received the award. This is practised by recipients of the

Nobel Prize, members of academic bodies, recipients of an

honorary doctorate degree, etc. The lecture will include details

of his or her research which enabled the appointment.

Normally, the speaker will recapitulate outstanding research,

publication and findings throughout his/her tenure as a

researcher or academic. This practice is normally not carried

out when a person who has delivered his or her inaugural

lecture moves to another university.

In several local universities, the inaugural lecture is

one of the criteria for promotion from VK7 Professor to VK6.

It is also a requirement for the appointment of a professor on a

contract basis after retirement.

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CORRECT USAGE AND APPLICATION OF THE

PROFESSORIAL TITLE

Correct Usage of the Title

The usage of the title of professor before an

individual’s name is allowed for a professor who is awarded

the title of Royal Professor, Distinguished Professor, Emeritus

Professor, Clinical Professor, Laureate Professor, Chair

Professor, Practice Professor or University Professor.

Appointment to a full professor’s post by promotion in a

higher educational institution is based on merit and done in

accordance with the prescribed guidelines. This title cannot be

used after retirement. The title of Royal Professor is awarded

to a professor by His Majesty the Yang di-Pertuan Agong,

while the appointment of Distinguished Professor is based on

recognition of the capability of an individual as a scholar. An

Emeritus Professor title is awarded to individuals who have

contributed academically. It is a lifetime title.

The Clinical Professor title is awarded to academics

who give practical instruction to professional students. A

university professor who has attained high academic

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achievement and is internationally recognised is made a

Laureate Professor. The holder of the title of Chair Professor

comes from amongst academics appointed with the intention

to obtain expertise in his/her field of study.

Inaccurate Usage

The most common misuse of the title of professor is

when the title is conferred based on contribution/recognition

by an institution, such as Adjunct Professor, Honorary

Professor and Visiting Professor.

The appointment of an Adjunct Professor is made

according to the guidelines of the university concerned. In this

case, the title of professor is not to be used in official letters.

For use in business cards, the title of professor is not to be

placed at the beginning of the name but the title Adjunct

Professor is to appear at the end of the name. This title can be

used only during the period of appointment, while performing

activities of the university, and also for official matters and

certain university functions with the permission of the

university that appointed the individual.

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Conferment of the Honorary Professor title is a sign

of respect and honour for the expertise and contributions in

the individual’s field of specialisation. The use of the title of

professor is not allowed in all matters except those relating to

the university that awarded the title. The use of the title in

business cards is the same as that for Adjunct Professors.

A Visiting Professor can use the title only in the

institution that appointed him or her throughout the tenure of

appointment. This title can be used in official matters and

certain university functions with the permission of the

university that appointed him or her unless he or she is a

substantive professor in his or her university. Examples of the

inaccurate use of the title of professor in which the title is

placed in front of the name of the recipient:

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SPECIAL CASES

The professor title can be maintained in cases where

the professor is seconded to another organisation so long as he

or she does not give up his or her position at the university.

TITLES OF ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR AND

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR

As mentioned in the glossary, Associate Professors

and Assistant Professors are not full professors. Thus,

Associate and Assistant Professors cannot be called

professors. The proper usage is as follows:



The designation for an Associate Professor and

Assistant Professor is "Dr" if he or she has a PhD or

equivalent.

If the individual does not have a PhD or equivalent,

sir or madam is used instead.

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CONCLUSION

These guidelines must be adhered to although they are

not binding on any party as they are not law. Nonetheless, to

ensure the professorial title is exclusive and prestigious and to

ensure the integrity of the title and consistent usage, these

guidelines must be adhered to in totality.

In future, it is hoped that a registry of professorial title

can be developed and enforced by the Ministry of Education.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Private Higher Educational Institutions Act 1996 (Act 555)

Universities and University Colleges Act 1971 (Act 30)

Buletin Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

(2010, June). Prof. Dato’ Dr Lokman Saim Terima Gelaran

“Clinical Professor” Dari Universiti Terkemuka Australia.

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. http://www.ppukm.ukm.my

Kelly Farrell (2009, August). The Use of the Title ‘Professor’.

University of Melbourne.

Ministry of Higher Education of Malaysia (2012). Garis

Panduan Pelantikan dan Kenaikan Pangkat Ke Jawatan

Profesor Di Institut Pengajian Tinggi Di Malaysia, 2 nd edition

2012. UiTM Press

Policies and Procedures (2009, September). University of

South Australia. http://w3.unisa.edu.au/

Institute of Islam Hadhari Portal (2011, March). Lawatan

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Utusan Malaysia Online (2013, June). Rosmah Terima

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http://www.utusan.com.my/

University of Virginia, Policy: Professor of Practice,

Retrieved on February 3, 2014, from

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https://policy.itc.virginia.edu/policy/policydisplay?id=PROV-

014

University Professorships, Harvard University, Retrieved on

February 3, 2014, from http://www.harvard.edu/universityprofessorships

Wan Mohd Saophy Amizul Wan Mansor (2007, July). Kursi

Pengajian Melayu di New Zealand. Berita Harian.

Zaini Ujang (2009, June). Profesor Penentu Kecemerlangan

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