CPT International 02/2018

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Think global – act local!

How will smart automation solutions change the face of the foundry industry,

and how is digitalization progressing within the sector? Questions that Thomas

Rathner, a manager at foundry machine manufacturer Fill from Gurten in

Austria addresses in an interview with our magazine. He urges quicker digitalization

– despite the great efforts being made by some in the sector to exploit

the advantages of networked plant technology to make production considerably

more efficient in the long term (from P. 6).

Global solutions are more important than ever in the situation currently facing

the world – in which shared trade policies are suffering setbacks. “Think global,

act local”, however, still counts for something. Undeterred by trade policy

disputes, European companies are therefore working on technologies that are

suitable for use all over the world. One example is the Danish molding plant

manufacturer DISA, which has developed an affordable and universally applicable

molding machine for small foundries. On the basis of numerous examples

from all over the world, our authors Michael Colditz and Thomas Feng

show what the plants are capable of. They have now been installed in India

and China (from P. 10).

At the same time, a major task in the sector is to improve quality assurance and

reduce costs – day in, day out. Smartt, an innovative process control system for

degassing rotors on aluminum smelters, offers automotive casters, in particular,

quality assurance and the traceability of production data (from P. 20). The

fully automatic PUMA Pro 1500 casting machine used in an Italian foundry

near Florence promises improved yields, less waste, and thus lower costs (from

P. 24).

That globalization is far from at an end, despite all the disputes, is shown by

our company feature on the opening of GF-Linamar LLC in Mills River in the

US state of North Carolina. The heads of the Swiss foundry group GF Casting

Solutions and the Canadian Linamar Corporation met recently in order to

celebrate the start of their joint venture for the production of die-cast structural

components. In addition to the newly created jobs at the works, the US

workforce profits from a brand-new foundry training center, whose construction

was massively supported by GF Linamar (from P. 38).

Have a good read !

Robert Piterek

e-mail: robert.piterek@bdguss.de

Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018 3


Rathner, Thomas


Colditz, Michael; Feng, Thomas


Küttner GmbH & Co. KG

Alfredstr. 28

45130 Essen


+49 201 7293 114

More than sand reclamation





Schweizer, Matthias


Simon, Ronny; Feng, Thomas


Hartmann, Jens; Voss, Thomas

10 30

The Danish molding machine manufacturer DISA offers

an affordable molding line for small foundries worldwide

(Photo: DISA)


2 | 2018




Gröning, Peter


Kalkunte, Badarinath


Pfeiffer, Markus; Dankwort, Volker

Editorial 3

News in brief 42

Brochures 46

Fairs and congresses / Ad Index 48

Preview / Imprint 49



“The foundry industry is lagging

behind in digitalization”

Downsizing, CO 2

emissions, reductions in weight and waste gas – these are the most important

points in modern foundry technology. Fill optimizes processes and develops new technologies

stability in tough everyday foundry work. Thomas Rathner, Manager of the Foundry Technology

Competence Centre at Fill, uses this interview with CP+T to explain the company’s view of how

smart automation solutions will change the entire foundry process in future

Mr. Rathner, what effect do you think

Industry 4.0 will have on the foundry


Machines and plants will be networked

with one another from the

first to the last process step. The

quality of the products manufactured

will be traceable all the way to

the end-user. Plant flexibility will

enable OEMs to actively plan and

control just-in-time deliveries.

Is the digital transformation a revolutionary

or more evolutionary process?

Definitely an evolutionary process

– we cannot, and do not want to,

change all processes from one day

to the next. It is important that we

gradually integrate changes in existing

processes and plants, taking ecological

and economic aspects into

account, e.g. energy efficiency and


Machine assembly in a works hall (Photos Fill)

affected by the digital transformation?

The digital transformation has already

reached us and will change all

areas of corporate activity. Both internal

processes and communication

with customers and business partners

will be completely different in

the coming years. Those who do not

follow this trend will definitely lose

out. Though I see particular potential

in the areas of service, support

and maintenance, where recorded

data (the so-called history) and their

analysis will play an important role.

6 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018

Personal details:

Thomas Rathner (43) is a qualified mechanical engineer with a master’s certificate.

He started as a trainee at Fill Maschinenbau in 1990 and has continued

learning ever since. After working as a designer, as well as a project

and product manager, Rathner is now responsible for Fill’s Foundry Technology

Competence Centre and for the subsidiary Fill China.

How do you assess the speed with

which digitalization is progressing in

the foundry industry?

Moderate. We have to be active – it will

not be enough to simply react. Enormous

quantities of data will be generated

and collected. Only a fraction

of it is currently being exploited. The

foundry industry must move more

quickly in order to keep up with other

industrial sectors.

What do you think are the decisive

factors for the successful digitalization

of foundry processes?

On the one hand, the foundries

must open up and make their data

accessible. This is an inhibition affecting

most operations, and only

a few have overcome it. It will also

be important that both processes

and plant do not become even more

complex as a result of digitalization.

Machine and plant constructors

must score here with smart features.

By which I mean solutions that provide

a reproducibly stable process

and support foundry employees in

their daily work.

Do you also see risks, or real disadvantages,

brought about by the digital

transformation in the intelligent

networking of foundry processes?

Regarding IT security, say?

Data protection is already a crucial

topic and will remain so in future.

Networking between business partners

means that it is essential that secure

platforms are created and, above

all, that they are trusted. The digital

transformation is in full swing. We

just have to be prepared to go with

the flow and improve the wide variety

of conditions involved.

Where do you see the most urgent

need for action regarding the implementation

of smart automation solutions

in the foundry industry?

Most production plants are highly automated

and provide a wealth of information.

Machine and plant constructors

must enable processing of this information

so that it provides customers with

maximum benefit. Customers must be

prepared to motivate their personnel to

undergo specialized training in order to

carry out the new tasks and properly exploit

the processed data. At Fill we are also

constantly developing new features that

we are gradually integrating in our plants

and making available to our customers to

meet specific demands or needs.

What will change as a result of Industry

4.0 and the intelligent networking

of foundry processes?

Intelligent networking makes it possible

to react quickly to changes in a process

– if the plant has not already recognized

them and optimized the system.

The individual machines will report any

maintenance and servicing work that is

necessary to a central computer in advance.

When properly used, this information

will largely prevent unplanned production

downtimes. And managers will

be able to call up the most important information

in consolidated form via apps

– absolutely up-to-date, of course.

Fill Maschinenbau’s company headquarters in Gurten, in Upper Austria

What role will the human factor or

employee play in future?

At the moment it appears that humans

will be informed decision-makers and,

for example, implement measures for

improving processes. There will be some

cases where humans no longer influence

decisions. Expertise in data analysis

coupled with process knowledge will

be decisive. Whether this is covered by

individuals or a team remains to be seen.

Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018 7


Our ‘Virtual Production Assistant’ project

is aimed at enabling process or casting

experts to obtain information about

process and machine states via data exploration

and thus take action, without

training to become data analysts – the

‘expert in the loop’ as they say.

How do you assess the current state

or progress of the foundry industry

regarding digitalization and Industry


The foundry industry is definitely lagging

behind and must, above all, be prepared

to invest in digitalization. Fill is

working with partners on digitalizing

casting machines and the corresponding

casting process in the BOOST 4.0 project,

the EU’s largest project in this area

(you can find out more about it at www.

boost40.eu). More speed is required here

in comparison with other sectors.

Do you think that the foundry industry

can learn anything from digital pioneers

such as Google, Amazon or Uber?

These big players grew up in the B2C

field. Different rules still apply in the

case of B2B, and particularly in foundry

technology. There is definitely a major

need to catch up – and the learning

curve is very steep – in technologies

such as web services, clouds, and so

on, as well as 3-D printing.

Is it possible that there will be completely

new competitors in the foundry

industry in future? Perhaps even

from other sectors? Regarding 3-D

printing, for example?

Completely new competitors will

have a hard time in Fill’s area of activity.

3-D printing is an up-and-coming

technology that is already quite widespread

in foundry technology, e.g. for

printing sand cores. The direct printing

of components is, in my opinion,

still too time-consuming to really

take root for larger serial production.

The designs of machines and components

must change in order to make

3-D printing a sensible path for industrial

production – this is already taking

place to some extent. In fact, the

foundry industry is still being influenced

by e-mobility.

If you had to describe the ‘foundry

would they be?

Plants are highly automated but easy

for workers to operate. So-called ‘easyto-use’

plant operation will increasingly

gain in importance because it is

a basic prerequisite in view of the complexity

of the plants – and anything

else is no longer permissible. Energy-efficient

systems and plants reduce

costs for the operator – the ‘foundry

of the future’ will already take this

important aspect into account when

making investments. Smart features

simplify operation and maintenance

for personnel using the plant. The

global networking between the partners

participating in the process enables

the latest information on unit

numbers and component quality to

be called up. Self-learning systems react

to empirical values and prevent

plant downtimes by exploiting targeted


How is Fill handling the challenges of

the future?

Fill has already been working on its

digital strategy for several years, and

is continually developing it. Fill’s

product portfolio already includes

digital products for connectivity,

data management and analysis, as

well as for autonomous production

control. Fill uses development projects

to ensure constant further development

in this area – projects focusing

on fog/edge computing and

cloud services for example, such as


What does this mean for Fill’s customers?

What features or services can

customers look forward to in future?

More sensors, more data and better

process monitoring. Data access will be

possible at any time and at any place

(with mobile devices). 100 % traceability

and target-oriented reporting will

round out the range at Fill.

play in the medium and long term?

Fundamentally, artificial intelligence

is a very exciting topic. The first feasibility

studies are being carried out to

assess designs using neural networks.

AI will become a fixed element in

quality assurance and image processing

in the short and medium term. AI

is, or will be, of decisive importance

for analyzing big data, as well as for

predictive analytics and predictive


A fully automatic conveyor and processing plant from Fill

8 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018





FRP – the digital transformation

of metal casting industry

CP+T International

The technical journal for the global

foundry industry

Please contact us for further information

CP+T Headquarters

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Phone: +49 211 6707- 563

E-Mail: katrin.kuechler@stahleisen.de

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Giesserei-Verlag GmbH

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Disamatic C3 (Photos: DISA)

Michael Colditz, Duisburg/Germany and Thomas Feng, Beijing/China

An affordable molding line for small foundries worldwide

Global casting production continues

to grow. In percentage terms, the

growth rates for aluminium castings

are certainly higher than those for the

other alloys, but more than 70 % of all

castings are still produced in iron: nodular,

malleable and grey iron. In the

major countries, this part of the market

has been subject to a continuous

concentration process. Large foundries

and foundry groups expand their

capacities to adapt to the cost pressures

from the automotive industry.

Production is automated, continuously

optimized and the number of operators

minimized. The foundry equipment

industry is actively involved in

and supporting foundries in this development.

Large-scale production is

being optimized, production lines are

getting ever more complex. However,

these high-performance lines will only

reach their break-even point, if they

are run for 15 shifts or more per week.

And there is another side to the

foundry industry: the many small and

medium-sized, often family-owned

foundries that supply customers in

their immediate regions with the everyday,

small-series castings that are

also needed all around the world.

These small and medium-sized operations

can be found anywhere, not just

in industrialized countries. They’re

the overwhelming majority of foundries

and contribute to the smooth running

of life everywhere ().

But what kinds of machines and

plants do these foundries use in their

production? DISA figures indicate

that, in China, there currently are

around 50,000 to 60,000 jolt-squeeze

machines in operation. Until now,

the leading foundry equipment manufacturers

have had no specific approach

for equipping these customers

with more efficient, cost-effective

and flexible molding lines. In Central

10 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018

in t

Amount of




China 45,000,000 26,000 20,000 12,000

Brazil 3,300,000 700 653 633

Thailand 2,500,000 220 200 160

Indonesia 670,000 57 36 31

Vietnam 250,000 85 83 80

Foundry structure in selected countries

Chaplets can be used despite the vertical parting of the mold

Europe, this market segment was covered

by less flexible, mostly mechanized,

tight-flask high-pressure molding

systems with heavy foundations.

This approach does not scale globally,

as the price of a single flask is equivalent

to around three monthly wages

of, for example, a Thai foundry worker.

Thus, most of the foundries listed

in table 1, with an annual production

of less than 5,000 t/y, and even parts

of the


boost in Claeys’ foundry. The easy accessibility

of the two mold surfaces (-

), the direct manual insertion of

the cores and the possibility of placing

exothermal feeders away from the

parting line have expanded the application

range of vertically parted molding

enormously (). The ability

to insert cores into both mold halves

increases the achievable complexity of

castings. And the foundry is not afraid

to stretch the limits of vertical molding,

as is shown in . The core, weighing

11 kg, is placed on the bottom plate

of the mold chamber and pushed into

the mold. Despite the vertical parting,

the core construction and green sand

quality avoids iron bottom run-outs.

The Disamatic type DISA 130-B, the

predecessor of the new Disamatic D3-

365, with dimensions of 535 x 650 mm,

is manufactured in Copenhagen, Denmark,

and has a total length of 60 m, including

pouring and cooling section.

The molds are poured with drum ladles,

which currently prevent the plant

from achieving its maximum possible

molding speed. The foundry is in production

7.5 h per day, with 10 to 15 pattern

changes per shift. Depending on

daily output targets, between 700 and

900 molds are poured in these 7.5 h.

For coreless jobs, a molding capacity of

150 molds per h is achieved – due to the

manual pouring. The cycle time for the

production of cored castings, using the

sliding doors system shown in figures 1

to 4, is circa 30 s, resulting in an output

of around 120 molds per h.

Claeys is convinced that investing in

the Disamatic molding line was the right

decision. He is very pleased with the low

downtime of the sliding door system

and he had not expected the much reduced

spare parts requirement. However,

the investment costs have been significant

for a molding line that has a

capacity of up to 350 molds per h, but

that is used only up to 150 molds per h.

As already mentioned, Claeys’ business

is not the only foundry faced with

this situation. In Europe, there still are

many foundries with a similar profile.

While there are no doubt many foundries

who are interested in further increasing

their current maximum

performance, a high level of output

doesn’t apply to everyone. The global

community of foundries is as diverse as

their total number: each one is unique.

Cores in both sides of the mold; no limitation for core prints

Stretching the limits of vertical molding: The core, weighing 11kg, is placed

on the bottom plate of the mold chamber and pushed into the mold. Despite the vertical

parting, the core construction and green sand quality prevents iron from escaping

at the bottom of the mold

The same is true with customers in

Southeast Asia or South America. Foundry

requirements are similar to those in

Europe, but the headroom for investment

is tighter. Building on learnings

from Claeys’ foundry in Belgium and acknowledging

the growing demand from

other parts of the world for a cost-efficient

solution that is manufactured locally

and can be supported by local service

technicians, the development of a

new vertical molding line began.

The new development, the Disamatic

C3, is now available for the two most

commonly purchased molding chamber

dimensions, 480 x 600 mm and 535

x 650 mm, in three different molding

speeds (). The solution for up to

150 molds per h can be supplied with a

sliding door for core setting. This version

and the molding machine for up

to 250 molds per h are manufactured

in India. The faster version can be

equipped with an automatic core setter.

A version for up to 350 molds per h,

12 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018




D3 555 485 120 to 395 Denmark Automatic core setter

425 380 120 to 395 Denmark Automatic core setter

365 333 120 to 395 Denmark Automatic core setter

or sliding door(s) on


C3 350 300 120 to 340 China Automatic core setter

250 220 120 to 340 India and China Automatic core setter

150 120 120 to 340 India Sliding door

Available plant types

optionally with automatic core setter,

will be made in China. For comparison,

table 2 also shows the molding speeds

for the Disamatic D3 lines

In the first two years of production

of the C-type molding lines, sales were

limited to China and India. As of 2018,

the equipment is available worldwide.

The machines are robustly designed

and their guaranteed machine-related

mismatch of 0.25 mm equals that of

the former Disamatic 2013 series. The

double-sided squeezing of the mold

has an advantageous effect on the uniform

hardness of the green sand molds,

and thus on casting quality. Up to 40 %

of the maximum squeeze pressure can

be covered by the swing plate. Both

squeeze and move distance can be adjusted

up to 70 mm to the mold chamber

front. Because of its excellent value

for money, the C-type molding line has

been very well received by the foundry

market. The total number of machines

sold will reach around 75 this year. This

is hardly surprising, considering the

sale price is roughly 50 % of the price

of a high-performance vertical molding

line from Europe. But it has been

the consistently positive experience of

customers that has contributed to the

success of this new molding machine.

Since having the idea for this article,

a number of visits have been made

to a range of foundries using the new

solution – to hear directly from equipment

users about their experience and

see proof of the good result they have

achieved with the new machine. The

process of switching production to this

new type of molding line will be shown

in the following using real-life examples

of four foundries from India and

China. As part of this, we will cover a

move from the furan-resin process to

the green sand molding system in the

production of smaller castings. We will

also see the current state of technology

at a foundry that started producing automotive

castings only four years ago.

We will visit a Chinese foundry that has

switched from jolt-squeeze to vertical

molding, and last but not least we will

look at a foundry that has moved from

vertical molding plants from a domestic

supplier to production on Disamatic.

OM Metal Cast is a new foundry facility

that was built only 18 months ago and is

Casting at OM Metal Cast, Rajkot/India

Casting Plant & Technology 2 2018 13


use at Linyi Fuzhong Machinery Co. Ltd, China

from drying out and ensures the quality of the mold

located near the town of Rajkot in Western

India. The company itself has a long

tradition and, before moving to the new

site, was located in the center of Rajkot.

Here, it ran as a jobbing foundry, producing

castings using the furan-resin process.

The move saw the installation of two new

cupola furnaces with a capacity of about

2 t/h which are in production twice a

week for up to 6 h. At the moment, the

liquid iron is being divided between a new

Disamatic C3 with a chamber size of 535 x

650 mm for up to 150 molds per h and the

furan-resin molding operation. With the

installation of the new vertical molding

line, the foundry has started converting

patterns from furan-resin molding to the

new equipment. Currently, pouring on

the vertical line is still provisionally carried

out with fork ladles, which are lifted

manually for pouring (). However,

the installation of an induction furnace

facility as well as a crane system for

the transfer of ladles to the molding line

is almost complete and will soon be ready

for production. Following this, it will be

possible to extend production considerably.

The foundry’s owners are already very

satisfied with the results of their investment.

From the outset, the aim has been

to increase production gradually. As operations

are becoming more profitable, proceeds

can be reinvested immediately. The

foundry funds its own, organic growth.

The switch from furan-resin production

to such an effective molding line

requires a continuous learning process.

Every day, new sets of pattern plates are

transferred to the vertical process. As

part of this process, the foundry has

gained so much experience that the

vast majority of pattern plates get the

required casting quality right first time

The sliding door system for core

manual setting has proven to be highly

useful, as this foundry too mainly

produces small-series castings. This

is mainly done using mixed pattern

plates, with up to four different castings

produced in one mold. The cores

come from the in-house cold box core

shop, made up of five core shooters

from an Indian manufacturer.

DISA’s sand plants have been adapted

to the local climatic conditions. After

mixing, the green sand is emptied

14 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018

directly into the sand supply unit of

the molding machine and stored there

for only a short time (). Subsequently,

green sand is fed directly to

the molding machine via a short conveyor

belt. These short distances significantly

slow down the drying out

of the sand and hence contribute to

a consistent, good sand quality and,

consequently, mold quality. This concept

of short distances from the mixer

to the molding machine has been applied

successfully in many foundries.

The example of this foundry proves

every day that it maximum utilization

of the molding line is not everything.

During the 6 hs of production of the

cupola furnaces, about 50 to 70 molds

are poured per h. What counts is that

the castings meet customer requirements

and that the foundry runs at a

profit. If these two conditions are met,

production will continue to grow.


Based near the city of Chennai in India,

this 100 % nodular iron foundry manufactures

automotive castings () -

and stands comparison with any foundry

of similar type in Europe. Both its foundry

technology and its quality management

system are state of the art. The foundry

produces up to 250 molds per h with

a Disamatic C3 (). Integrated in

the molding machine is an automatic

core setter, which ensures a production

of up to 220 molds per h with cores. Directly

after pouring and cooling, castings

move onto a conveyor and into a cooling

drum to separate the sand from the castings.

An apron conveyor then transports

the castings to the shot blast machines.

Due to the range of castings produced, it

was decided not to integrate a continuous

through-fed shot blast machine. The castings

are fed either to a batch-type barrel or

to a hanger-type shot blaster.

The foundry is using an induction

melting shop, an automatic and mobile

Mg-treatment station that was

developed in-house, and an unheated

pouring device with camera-controlled

stopper pouring unit.

Vehicles castings made of spherioidal graphite cast iron manufactured by Madras

Engineering Castings

The foundry has been in production

for just over four years, running

in three shifts, six days a week. Approximately

90 % of production are cored

jobs. The average production speed

when using the core setter is 185 molds

per h. This figure takes into account

material shortages, extended pouring

times for individual products and plant

downtime due to faults. The molding

line produces around 4,000 molds per

day with roughly four pattern changes

per shift. To date, the molding line has

produced 2.9 million molds.

After each and every fault or disruption

to the line, the maintenance lead

carries out detailed root cause analyses.

The status of machines and systems is

can be viewed on a large display panel in

the maintenance manager’s office. The

team is 100 % committed to preventive

maintenance. Uptime of key machines

was 95.46 % in November 2017, for auxiliary

machines the uptime was 99.37 %.

Times for essential repairs are recorded

and evaluated in order to shorten them

for the next recurrence. Since the molding

line in operation is one of the first of

its kind to go live, the foundry is in continuous

contact with the design team in

order to jointly work on optimizations.

When speaking to both management

and employees, the sense of pride in their

foundry is palpable, as well as a strong believe

in their ability to continue improving

production. There’s no need to ask

whether they would make the decision

again and how satisfied they are with the

line. The foundry has already decided to

get another Disamatic line of this type,

which is currently being installed parallel

to the first production line.

In the south of the China – near Macau

– the Guangdong Yangjiang Desheng

Metal Company is based, along with

Disamatic and unheated pouring



its own foundry. The main focus of production

is rollers and wheels for various

types of containers and furniture,

which means mainly rotating symmetrical

parts. The foundry was established

in 1992, with ten pairs of jolt-squeeze

machines for approx. 130t/month of

good castings, which were in operation

until 2015. In April 2015, a DISA 030 –

precursor of the Disamatic C3-250 (-

) – was installed. Since then the

foundry has been producing grey iron

and nodular iron castings for the company’s

own use in one shift per day, four

days a week. There are three to five pattern

changes per shift and a total number

of 200 different living pattern plates.

Depending on the pattern, 10 to 20 kg

of liquid iron are needed to pour each

mold, with a yield of 71 %. On average,

210 molds per h are produced and

poured for coreless jobs, and 150 molds

per h for cored jobs. During about 50

% of production time cores have to

be inserted via the automatic core setter,

with between five and 40 cores per

mold. The core weight varies between

10 and 800 grams. The foundry is clearly

structured and very clean. Currently,

200 t of good castings are produced per

month and the company is very satisfied

with the many advantages of the

new plant compared to the initial setup.

In addition to a reduced scrap rate

and the very high uptime of the line,

they are particularly pleased with the

significantly improved surface quality.

The company logo on cast parts is now

clearly legible ().


This foundry produces a high casting

output. Employees of the foundry are

very experienced and have been working

with vertical molding technology

for many years.

Last year, saw the installation of one

of the first Disamatic C3 molding lines

with a maximum molding capacity of

350 molds per h. It is running side-byside

with two domestic lines, enabling

the foundry to make a direct comparison.

According to their experience, a major

advantage of the Disamatic C3 is the

use of a quick-lock system for changing

pattern plates. While the other lines still

require the pattern plates to be screwed

into the molding machines, the DISA

machine ensures pattern changes can

be carried out very quickly and precisely.

The foundry specializes in the production

of compressor housings for

the use in white goods. With the new

molding machine, there are no problems

with casting mismatch. Production

is very stable and high uptime is a

clear advantage of the Disamatic.

In order to meet constantly rising

cost pressures, production has been expanded

to seven days a week with three

shifts per day, which means 23 hs production

per day. That leaves only one h

per day for repairs and maintenance of

the molding line. The average number

of molds produced and poured is 330

molds per h for the C3. Due to the high

performance of the line, 900,000 molds

have been produced in just six months.

At this point the chamber plates had to

be changed for the very first time. To

date, the line has produced 2.25 million

molds in approximately one year.


The inexpensive and fast production

of high-end cast products in large series

on vertical molding machines with very

short cycle times has been the state of the

art for many years. This article has looked

at foundries producing castings in small

series, sometimes with the intensive use

of cores. In addition to the use of automatic

core setters, which require the use

of core masks, the use of automatic sliding

doors, which allow the direct setting of

cores into the mold, has been described in

detail. For this application, a new type of

vertical molding machine has been developed.

Built at Norican Group facilities in

India and China, it can be offered at competitive

prices – around 50 % lower, compared

to traditional Disamatic technology.

These systems are not designed for

high output, but for use in small and medium-sized

foundries for which a move

to vertical molding technology has previously

not been economical.

The company logo of the Guangdong Yangjiang foundry is clearly legible on

the castings.

Disamatik molding line in operation

in China


16 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018


Matthias Schweizer, Filderstadt

Perfect grinding for aluminum

framing components

A tier-1 die-casting supplier in Slovakia manufactures complex aluminum framing components

for premium vehicles. A state-of-the-art system delivered by automation specialist SHL AG,

headquartered in Böttingen, Germany, provides these components with perfect grinding. Eight

robots feed the parts into each processing station and then deposit them for further processing

of quality and the system operates with complete reliability. SHL has delivered an entire manufacturing

line for handling, loading, processing, unloading, and extraction processes

With the construction of a new hall,

the supplier also put its production to

the test in order to optimize processes.

In conjunction with this, the company

was searching for a solution for the automated

grinding of body panels that

have complex geometrics, known as

suspension seatings. The requirements

were clearly defined: the parts needed

to be free from burrs and fire cracks in

order to then be able to adhere them

without issue. On top of this, the system

needed to operate reliably with a high

output: a pair of left and right suspension

seatings needs to be finish-ground

every 140 seconds (Figure 1).

One of the largest systems in

the company’s history

A total of eight competitors took part

in the call for tenders. Ultimately, SHL

The handling robot moves on a transfer track measuring roughly 26 m long and loads the processing cells (Photos: SHL)

Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018 17


AG came out on top. “We quickly developed

a basic idea and presented it.

We were ahead in terms of technology,

and those in charge were persuaded

by the concept,” explains Wilhelm

Tillinger from SHL’s technical sales and

distribution (Figure 2). Another advantage

of the Swabian company was

the positive experience that the supplier

had in earlier projects with SHL.

This was the starting point for one of

the largest systems the automation

specialist has built in the history of its


The project takes up a considerable

amount of space in the new hall. The

total length of the system is 35 meters.

The handling robots move on

two axes measuring roughly 26 meters

in length, and they load the grinding

cells, a total of four of which are located

on each side (Figure 3). On one of

these axes, the components are processed

to be installed on the left side

of the passenger vehicle, and on the

other, they are processed for use on the

right side. Two are combined for each

cell unit. This means that the system

can grind two parts at the same time

on each side. “This allows us to ensure

high output,” says SHL project manager

Daniel Welte. In order to have a continuous

process, the six-axis industrial

robots always load the front unit first,

which is further away from the point

of withdrawal. The interior side of the

framing components is first processed

in one cell, and the exterior side is processed

after it is moved to the next cell.

SPS controls the system

Forklifts carry the suspension seatings

to the three-zone loading section

after heat treatment in the heat

treatment frames. A safety system ensures

that the robot safety fence only

opens if the operator area is closed.

Every part is identified using a data

matrix code. Information is transmitted

to the MES. This ensures traceability.

“The system is controlled by

SPS. It transmits the data to the robot,

which then selectively picks the right

parts and feeds them into the cells,”

explains Daniel Welte. This solution

prevents parts from being processed

incorrectly. The SPS also specifies

Figure 1: The aluminum framing components are ground perfectly and meet the

demands for surface quality

Figure 2: Daniel Welte (left), Project Manager at SHL, and Wilhelm Tillinger, Technical

Sales and Distribution at SHL, were heavily involved in the execution of the system

which of the three boxes the parts

are to be picked from.

The handling robot deposits each

part as specified. The machining robot

then grabs it and carries the 8.5 kg

component first to an SHL FKS 250/450

ROB free belt and contact wheel grinding

machine and then to a second machine

of the same type for further

processing. Afterwards, the robot accurately

guides the component to an SHL

DP 550/100 dual-brush unit. A deburring

spindle handles work on parts of

the seatings that are difficult to access.

If all processes run successfully, the robot

hands the component over to its

“colleague” in the second cell unit via

a “handshake” (Figure 4). The same

machine types now work on the exterior

sides of the components.

Handshake challenge

The robot subsequently places the finished

part on a belt where it is made

available for further processing. SHL

has identified seven potential sources

of errors based on the MES. These include

a tear in the belt or motor over-

18 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018

Figure 3: View of SHL’s entire plant for grinding aluminum structural parts at a tier-1

supplier in Slovakia

Figure 4: The robot guides the aluminum framing components to each processing

station and then passes them on to robot number two in the next cell via handshake

loading. If the process goes smoothly,

the part ends up on the compliant belt.

Otherwise, the robot uses the parallel

deposit station, and the part has to be

reworked. The seamless handover of

the components between processing

of the interior and exterior sides was

a particular challenge. “When passing

them on via handshake, the two robots

are directly dependent on each other.

There is no room for error. So the cycle

times need to match perfectly,” explains

Daniel Welte.

SHL supplied a complete manufacturing

line in Slovakia. It includes part

handling, loading, unloading, processing

steps, and dust extraction (Fig-

). The first line was delivered in

October 2016 and the second in February

2017. Maximum output should

be achieved in 2018. The unit operates

in four shifts around the clock. SHL

designed its solution to be flexible.

The operator has the option to manufacture

only left or right components

on both sides, and hybrid formats are

also feasible. SHL broke the component

down into 20 processing areas.

Die-casting molds can deteriorate with

extended use. This can sometimes lead

to larger fire cracks located in different

places. If this happens, the operator

can have specific regrinding work carried

out. The program created by SHL

clearly shows the operator where this

is needed.

The tier-1 supplier is completely satisfied

with the SHL system. It works

without issues and provides the surface

quality required for further processing.

Commissioning was also quick and

went off without a hitch. Wilhelm Tillinger

describes the collaboration with

their Slovakian colleagues as always being

eye-to-eye, cooperative, and solution

oriented. The supplier’s leadership

had high praises for SHL’s overall

performance. “The legwork, support,

and implementation from the entire

SHL team during this extensive project

were always exemplary and professional

in setting targets and execution.

We received top-notch support,” says

an engineering head.

SHL has supplied a complete production line for the handling, loading, processing,

unloading and exhaust processes


Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018 19


Ronny Simon, Non Ferrous Technology Manager, Vesuvius GmbH, Borken, Germany

The production of Aluminium castings globally is dominated by the automotive industry. To ensure

that the correct casting quality is achieved, a more effective and technically sound melt

treatment is essential, followed by a well-designed and controlled pouring practice. Automotive

industry requests process reproducibility and so any melt treatment adopted must be capable of

achieving consistent levels of cleanliness and hydrogen control. Many quality management systems

also require a 100 % record of production data, so again a sophisticated melt treatment

with data storage capabilities becomes more attractive

Process control in general refers to

the way in which foundries maintain

a tight control over the various components

and steps involved in making

castings. The importance of process

control is derived from the way

in which a strict adherence to process

control helps a foundry avert potentially

costly mistakes. Considering

the fact, that process control requires

a complete monitoring of the various

parameters, any potential problem will

be spotted early, before it becomes a

significant problem later.

The intelligent use of process control

technologies within the manufacturing

process has beneficial effects far beyond

the traditional aspects of quality


» Increase throughput from existing


» Increase automation and reduce human


» Reduce rework, concessions and scrap

» Enhance production capability and

take on more work.

In rotary degassing we differentiate between

factors that are almost constant

over longer periods of time and variable

factors. Alloy composition, vessel geometry

and target melt quality are often well

known and do not change remarkably.

Smartt process control for an FDU degassing device (Photos & Graphics: Foseco)

20 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018

Usually several programs are set in the

PLC, defining treatment time, rotor speed

and gas flow rate. The operator selects a

program following given instructions.

The number of programs is limited, the

programs need to be changed manually

in case of process variations, and the operator

might choose the wrong program.

Other factors such as ambient conditions

and melt temperatures often vary in much

wider ranges. The influence on degassing

is usually underestimated or operators

change parameters based on their experiences.

Variations in these starting conditions

may cause inconsistent results.

The hydrogen concentration in the

melt during degassing for various ambient

conditions and melt temperatures

has been calculated using the

Degassing Simulation for the following

widely common set of parameters.

Variations of the parameters illustrate

the influence on the degassing result

and the final hydrogen content in the

melt after every single treatment.

in ml/100 g







in atm

0,005 0,010 0,015 0,020 0,025

0,030 0,035 0,040 0,045 0,050


660 680 700 720 740 760 780 800

in °C

(0,005 atm = 5 °C / 50 % rH; 0,050 atm = 35 °C / 90 % rH)

The melt forms an equilibrium with

the water in the surrounding atmosphere;

a warm and humid climate results

in a much higher hydrogen content

in the melt than a dry and cold

climate ().

During rotary degassing the melt is

in interaction with the atmosphere.

The degassing simulation shows the

effect of different ambient conditions


Likewise, the use of forming gas – a

N2-H2 mixed gas - for upgassing procedures

ends up with different hydrogen

levels (Figure 2b).

The melt temperature influences the

equilibrium with the atmosphere as







0 2 4





0 2 4

85 % rH 45°C

50 % rH 25°C

30 % rH 15°C

6 8 10




6 8 10







0 5 10







0 5 10

85 % rH 45°C

50 % rH 25°C

30 % rH 15°C

15 20




15 20

a) Degassing curves for different ambient conditions; b) Upgassing curves for different ambient conditions; c) Degassing

curves for different melt temperatures; d) Upgassing curves for different melt temperatures



Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018 21


Schematic setting of Smartt

well; melt at higher temperatures dissolves

more hydrogen (Figure 2c).

The variations in final results for use

of forming gas are even higher at different

melt temperatures (Figure 2d).

A full description of the development

work of “Batch Degassing Simulation”

is given in Foundry Practice 256 (2011).


Smartt is an acronym for self-monitoring

adaptive recalculation treatment and an

innovative process control that analyses

all incoming parameters and calculates

the treatment parameters for the rotary

degassing process just before each treatment.

The target for the optimization is a

constant melt quality after each treatment.

The Smartt software is installed on a

Windows PC, input and output of data

is carried out on a comfortable touch

screen panel with a LAN connection to

the SIEMENS PLC that finally controls

the degassing unit.

Relative humidity and outside temperature

are measured by a standard

Treatment parameters for different ambient conditions

humidity meter, mounted next to the

control cabinet in the area where the

treatment takes place. The actual readings

are on-time transferred to Smartt

and recorded over time.

A full report on Smartt is given in

Foundry Practice 264 (2015).

For different ambient conditions (-

) Smartt calculates treatment parameters

to reach a target hydrogen

content after each treatment. With

increasing air temperature and relative

humidity, rotor speed and inert

gas flow rate increase to compensate

the higher moisture content in atmosphere.

The optimization always starts

at minimum time, a time that allows

sufficient oxide and inclusion removal

as well. If flow rate and rotor speed

are at its specific limit, the software

starts prolonging the treatment time

to reach the target (). Process

parameters for Smartt upgassing are:

» BU 600 with 530 kg melt

» 0,06 ml H2 / 100 g Al target

» AlSi8Cu3

» Standard optimization

» 750 °C melt temperature

» 240 s minimum time

» XSR 190 rotor

» 500 s maximum time

A maximum treatment time limits

temperature loss or melt shortage in

the following casting step.

Variations in melt temperature before

degassing are compensated by

Smartt in a similar way. Finally, every

process is started with different rotor

speed, inert gas flow rate and treatment

time to achieve the same hydrogen

content in the melt at the end of each

treatment. Foundry trials have shown

that the target was always reached regardless

of starting conditions.

Some applications in foundries require a

defined hydrogen content such as in the

casting of wheels. It is common practice

to run very short treatment times

to avoid too much hydrogen removal;

often oxide removal is not sufficient.

The use of a N2-H2 mixed gas improves

oxide removal due to longer treatment

times but the variations in hydrogen at

end of treatment are still high.

Smartt now runs an inert gas treatment

followed by a two stage upgassing.

The 1st stage runs with N2-H2

mixed gas only reaching about 90 % of

the target hydrogen; during stage 2 a

mix between N2-H2 and inert gas provides

a defined hydrogen content in

treatment gas and ends in an equilibrium

between treatment gas, aluminum

melt and atmosphere ().

Hydrogen transfer into melt becomes

easier at higher temperatures

which reduces 1st stage time. In this

way 2nd stage is influenced as well;

the effective hydrogen level in purge

gas gets lower. This value is exactly the

equilibrium between degassing the

melt, hydrogen pickup at melt surface

and upgassing by N2-H2 mixed gas.

Under given conditions those parameters

keep the final hydrogen content

in the melt at constant level; a dwell

time of 30 – 45 s is sufficient to get into

that equilibrium. Process parameters

for Smartt upgassing are:

22 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018

Degassing 315 16 0 360 0

1st Stage 400 0 35 28 20

2nd Stage 400 26 9 45 5,3

Degassing 303 25 0 360 0

1st Stage 400 0 35 22 20

2nd Stage 400 28 7 45 3,8

Degassing 309 30 0 360 0

1st Stage 400 0 35 17 20

2nd Stage 400 30 5 45 2,8

Treatment parameters for different temperatures for upgassing

» ATL 1000 with 850 kg melt

» 0,08 ml H2 / 100 g Al target for degassing

» AlSi7Mg

» 0,15 ml H2 / 100 g Al final target

» 50 % relative humidity

» 360 s minimum time

» 25 °C outside temperature

» 600 s maximum time

» FDR 220 rotor

» 45 s dwell time (2nd stage)

» Standard optimization

» 20 % hydrogen in N2-H2 mixed gas

in ml H 2

/100 g Al







The mass flow controller for inert gas

and N2-H2 mixed gas blends the correct

effective hydrogen content without

operator involvement. The differences

in effective hydrogen in purge

gas ( ) and resulted treatment

times illustrate the complexity of upgassing;

it is obvious that a computer

based simulation only can handle all

variations in starting conditions.

The latest Smartt version communicates

with either an external temperature

source or a handheld thermal

couple. An external source can

be a temperature reading that is already

available from treatment crucible

or ladle and sent by ethernet

or analogue signal to the Smartt software.

Alternatively, the operator uses

a handheld thermal couple which is

connected directly to Smartt and measures

right before every rotary degassing;

the reading is used for optimization.

A report system is part of the Smartt

software package. All treatment data


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

Stages of an upgassing procedure

are stored and available in Excel file


Smartt - innovative degassing control -

offers a comfortable interface to program

all necessary treatment steps, it

reads or measures the starting conditions

before every rotary degassing and

predicts the best treatment parameters

for different schemes. An integrated

report system stores all data per treatment

in Excel format and enables the

melt shop manager to run further analysis

on the process.

The use of Smartt for degassing

processes provides a melt on a constant

hydrogen level independent

from inconsistent starting conditions

in a foundry. Smartt enables

in s

the foundry to always reach this in

a cost-effective way, there is no need

for compensating these variations

in overrunning the treatment which

wastes time, inert gas and graphite


In upgassing – often used in wheel

foundries – even small changes in environmental

conditions or melt temperature

have an enormous impact on

the hydrogen content after the treatment.

These complex relationships

can only be managed by a mathematical

model. Smartt, based on the batch

degasser software, is an intelligent

solution to handle data for rotary degassing.

Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018 23


Fully automatic pouring system PUMA Pro 1500 in use at Palmieri

(Photos & Graphics: Otto Junker)

Jens Hartmann, Calenzano, Italy, and Thomas Voss, Simmerath, Germany

Fully automatic ladle pouring

system PUMA Pro

Italian foundry Fonderie Palmieri gains from vastly reduced rejects rate and improved yield

Fonderie Palmieri S.p.A., based near

Florence/Italy, has been successfully

serving the Italian and European markets

as a contract foundry for more

than 40 years, utilizing a wide range of

materials and a flexible pouring program.

Thus, sophisticated castings are

made of lamellar graphite cast iron

(grey cast iron), spheroidal graphite

cast iron (SG iron), SiMo, bainitic cast

iron (ADI), abrasion-resistant chromium

and chromium-nickel alloyed cast

irons (Ni-Hard), and austenitic lamellar

or spheroidal graphite cast iron (Ni-Resist)

to the most exacting quality standards.

The pouring program accommodates

parts weighing 5 to 250 kg, made

in lot sizes from 10 to 800 molds.

The necessary flexibility and high

melt composition accuracy is provided

by the existing medium-frequency

melting system supplied by Otto Junker

of Simmerath/Germany, a 5-tonne

Duomelt installation rated at 4000 kW.

With its throughput of close to 6 t/h,

this system ensures a stable iron supply

to the molding line. The advanced

molding line sourced from Savelli of

Brescia/Italy, with flask dimensions of

900 x 750 x 350/350 mm and an output

of 80 molds/h, equivalent to a cycle

time of 45 s, is built to meet these specifications

and provides loss-free product

changes. With a pouring line length of

27 m, corresponding to 30 flasks, and a

long cooling section, it affords highly

flexible production control.

The objective: automation of

the pouring process

It was therefore only logical that an adequate

solution had to be found for the

pouring operation as well, given that

the hitherto employed manual pouring

technology was fraught with an

24 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018

Figure 1: Schematic diagram of the entire pouring line

Figure 2: Components of the PUMA Pro 1500 pouring system

elevated rejects rate and insufficient

metering precision. Specifically, this

meant finding an advantageous solution

for the entire spectrum of pouring

parameters, i.e. pour times from

5 – 26 s with melt outputs in the 5 to

15 kg/s range, and with very short-notice

product and material changeovers

at that. The level of worker safety on

the pouring line was to be improved at

the same time.

Working closely together, the experts

from Fonderie Palmieri and Otto

Junker/Induga developed a concept

for the redesign of the pouring process.

It was clear in this context that

an induction-heated pouring furnace

would not be able to meet the exacting

demands regarding speedy material

changeover. On the other hand,

a quality-assuring automation of the

pouring process (and specifically, of

the molten iron metering function)

was a stated objective, despite the

very small lot sizes and resulting shortterm

material changes. By opting for

a PUMA Pro 1500 fully automatic ladle-pouring

machine refined by Induga

and SMB Swisspour of Wildau/Germany,

the project partners arrived at

the optimal solution for this task.

The essential advantage of a ladle

pouring system is that with every ladle

change, the material to be poured

can change as well. It is even possible to

pour from different-sized ladles in the

same machine. A generally important

specification is that a ladle change can

be performed in minimum time and

with no, or minimal, loss of production.

The maximum ladle capacity in a

pouring machine of this type is approx.

3.2 t. This implies that, depending on

the pattern, the ladle will be empty after

approx. 10 – 15 min. and must then

be replaced. Due to temperature loss

in the ladle, a prolonged holding time

may have a negative impact on product

quality. In all, it is realistic to expect 4 –

6 ladle changes per hour, so an optimization

of the ladle change procedure is

a priority objective.

Another advantage of the ladle

pouring machine is that the pouring

ladle may double as a transport

ladle, eliminating melt transfers

that inevitably result in temperature

loss. Molten metal from the

melt furnace is tapped directly into

the pouring ladle, and in the case

of SG iron the magnesium treatment

can be carried out in this ladle

as well. The round shape of the

ladles used in this application promotes

a homogeneous magnesium


Equipment technology

The pouring system comes in two sizes

with a maximum capacity of 1600

and 3200 kg (iron), respectively. Fonderie

Palmieri opted for the smaller

version. In all, the projected pouring

system comprised the following subassemblies

(Figure 1):

» Rail track system

» PUMA Pro 1500 pouring machine

» Pouring ladles

» Ladle cover handling system

» Ladle change station

» Inoculation system

» Safety fence

The PUMA Pro 1500 pouring machine

(Fig. 2) has the following main parts:

Casting Plant & Technology 2 2018 25


Figure 3: PUMA Pro pouring ladle built by Induga

» Main frame

» Lifting column with integrated tilting

axis and weighing system

» Ladle support with ladle locking system

The main frame, comprizing the longitudinal

drive and the infeed table, provides

the positioning along the x-axis

(parallel to the pouring line) and y-axis

(transverse to the pouring line). The

alignment of the pouring machine

along the pouring line is by wheel

blocks integrated into the main frame

and a rail track system. The infeed table

is guided by sectional rails and is positioned

on the y-axis. The infeed table is

also where the swing-out motion of the

lifting column for the ladle change takes

place, realized via a swivel drive. The rail

clamping system keeps the pouring machine

in form-fit engagement with the

rails. Upon a ladle change, a safe outward

swiveling operation of the ladle

about its lifting axis is ensured.

The lifting and tilting system consists

of the tower and the lifting carriage

with the integrated tilting axis

and weighing system. The lifting carriage

is positioned along the tower

in the z-axis (height) by means of a

chain mechanism. A weighing system

mounted between the lifting carriage

and the tilting motor determines the

amount of melt already poured.

The lifting carriage carries the ladle

support which can be tilted for the

melt pouring operation. This design

ensures that the weighing cells remain

vertically aligned throughout the tilting

operation, resulting in maximum

weighing accuracy.

The shape of the pouring ladle (Figure

3) and the design of the ladle cover

are optimized to minimize temperature

loss. By combining this with a special

refractory lining sourced from Dörentrup

Feuerfestprodukte of Dörentrup/

Germany and by adopting a round ladle

shape, it became possible to reduce

the temperature loss to below 3 K/min.

This would not have been feasible with

a rectangular ladle geometry given the

higher losses associated with its specifically

larger surface area. The temperature

loss achieved had been simulated

beforehand and was optimized

through a number of iteration loops in

cooperation with Dörentrup.

The use of a slag brick extending almost

to the bottom of the spout, like

a weir, creates a siphon-type discharge

passage through which only slag-free

iron will get poured. A special design of

the pouring spout formed by a prefabricated

spout brick makes for a laminar

pouring stream in all pouring speed

ranges used.

Opti-Stream inoculation device

For an optimum metallurgical effect

of the inoculant it must be possible to

add this agent into the pouring stream

in a defined and repeatable manner

throughout the pouring process. Furthermore,

quality assurance requires

that the inoculant input should be

logged and documented.

The inoculation device (Figure 4) is fitted

on the platform of the pouring machine

and serves to meter the required

inoculant directly into the pouring

stream during mold filling. On the underside

of the platform, the swing-out

assembly feeding the inoculant granules

to the sprue cup via a system of

pipes is attached. The inoculation device

is Otto Junker’s new “Opti-Stream” system,

which operates as follows: Following

predosing into an intermediate hopper,

the inoculant is precision-dosed by

a frequency-controlled screw drive that

delivers it onto a fine weighing scale for

26 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018

accurate control and data logging of the

inoculant quantity. This system permits

a precise adjustment of the inoculation

rate. For every pour, the weighed amount

of inoculant is recorded and stored in

memory. While control is ensured by a

PLC system, a touch panel provides the

associated visualization and operating

functions. All parameters can also be

viewed and adapted via the pouring machine

control system. Stored data can be

extracted through an appropriate interface

Ladle cover handling

The ladle cover handling system (Figure

5) serves to remove and hold the

cover of an emptied pouring ladle

before placing it on a newly filled ladle.

The system essentially consists

of a baseframe, a swinging arm, and

the cover pick-up device with locking

mechanism at the end of the

swinging arm. The swinging arm, attached

to a bearing assembly in the

baseframe, moves its pick-up device

towards the ladle cover. Once in position,

the pick-up device safely engages

the cover and the swinging arm

lifts the cover off as it swings back.

The cover is then held with the arm

in a vertical position until a full ladle

arrives and the swinging arm with its

pick-up device transfers the cover to

this new pouring ladle.Aufzählung

Safety fence

As the pouring system runs fully automatically,

its motions would be

hazardous to persons entering the

machine’s operating range without

authorization. This is to be prevented

by the safety fence, which also keeps

vehicle traffic away and marks this as

an area to be kept clear of pallets or

other objects. The fenced-in zone can

only be entered through appropriately

controlled guard doors. In the ladle

change area, access is monitored by a

multi-beam safety light barrier fitted

locally in each case.

Operation of the pouring


The pattern number and the position

of the respective sprue cup are

transmitted via data interface from

the molding line to the PLC. The database

in the pouring machine contains

the pouring parameters – e.g.,

pour weight, pour time, pouring speed,

melt temperature, inoculant quantity

– associated with the pattern number.

The pouring machine advances to the

sprue cup and starts pouring according

to these data.

Based on the sprue cup coordinates

transmitted by the molding line, the

pouring machine automatically moves

to that cup position and begins pouring.

Using the pouring machine’s lifting

and tilting functions, the pouring

ladle is positioned and tipped in such

a manner that its axis of rotation lies

in the center of the spout brick. This

ensures that with a constant pouring

height the pouring stream will continue

to enter the sprue cup at essentially

the same point, causing a level of

molten iron to form in the cup at once.

This iron level is controlled to the preset

value and the pouring stream position

is kept constant on the x- and

y-axes, even with changing pouring


In order to control this process two

measuring systems are used, i.e. a

weighing system and a camera system.

The weighing system monitors the current

pour weight and determines the

end-of-pour in cooperation with the

advanced controller. The system employed

delivers a precise and highly

accurate weight reading. This is due

in large part to the optimum arrangement

of the weighing system, with

its minimum tare weight, and the invariably

vertical position of the measuring

cells. In addition, an advanced

control technology contributes to this

accurate metering of the poured melt

quantity. A pattern-based controller

stabilizes the process and all but neutralizes

any accelerations imparted to

the system.

During the pour phase, when the

iron level in the cup needs to be controlled,

a camera system with two cameras

measures the bath level and the

position of the pouring stream in two

dimensions. The Belysense image processing

software (made by Belysa Co.),

which for years has been performing

reliably on stopper-controlled pouring

Figure 4: Opti-Stream inoculation device

made by Otto Junker

systems at Otto Junker as well, delivers

the information needed for the pouring


Accurate continuous temperature

readings of the molten iron in the

pouring stream are obtained with the

aid of an infrared camera system. The

temperature is determined over a large

area using an imaging process so that

a temperature measurement remains

guaranteed irrespective of any pouring

stream movement. The analysis

software transmits the current pouring

temperature to the man/machine

interface (HMI).

Once the ladle is emptied the pouring

machine moves to the ladle change

station and puts down the empty ladle

at a defined outfeed location. It

then picks up a previously supplied

new ladle and continues the pouring

sequence. Meanwhile, at the ladle

change station, the cover handling system

lifts up the cover of the empty ladle

from the unloading position and

holds it in a vertical position until the

newly filled ladle arrives at the filling

station, whereupon it sets the cover

down on this ladle.

The entire ladle change operation

normally takes no more than 1 – 2 cy-

Casting Plant & Technology 2 2018 27


cles, depending on cycle time. Throughout

the ladle change, the molding line

remains in production as before. In most

cases the pouring machine can make up

for the “loss” of flasks in the pour phase

again, and the present system is no exception.

To this end, the pouring machine

advances along the pouring line,

against the mold conveying direction,

by pouring twice per cycle.

Process automation and process

data analysis

The basis for all monitoring, control

and visualization of the system’s processes

and operations is a type S7 1500

softPLC integrated into a Siemens industrial

PC with a 22” touch panel and

an appropriate operating system. All

component assemblies forming part of

the system, including their software,

are integrated into this architecture.

The installed HMI comprises operating,

fault management and diagnostic

functions, in addition to data management

capabilities (recipe or production

data). Figure 6 shows the operating

panel (access to the HMI by remote

maintenance module).

The pouring system can be run both

in automatic and manual mode. The

automatic system controls and monitors

the ladle receiving and set-down

operations, the pouring process, the

inoculant supply, the disposal of residual

melt into pig molds, and the ladle

cover handling sequences. In manual

mode, all individual motions can

be controlled by the operator via appropriate

keyboard input.

To control the pouring process, the

system relies on a number of technical

parameters determined beforehand

which are also indicated on the display.

For example:

Ladle information

» net ladle weight determined upon

receipt of ladle (starting weight)

» residual iron quantity currently


» acceptable maximum fading time of

this iron

» current fading time for the ladle in

the machine

Ladle in use

» ladle code currently in the machine

» achievable pours, calculated on the

basis of the current pattern

» pours already performed with current

ladle charge

» target weight (recipe)

» pour weight

» target pouring time

» actual pouring time

The HMI specifies the pour weight

according to the current pattern.

Temperature measurement

» average peak temperature during pour

Figure 5: Ladle cover handling system and safety fence

Figure 6: HMI operating panel of the PUMA Pro 1500 (accessible by remote maintenance


After each pouring operation the production

data are automatically updated

and stored in a database. By selecting

the “Productivity” page, the last

database entries can be viewed.

The following information is kept

permanently available for each pour.

» pattern number

» mold counter (consecutive)

» time stamp of pour

» code number of ladle used

» in-batch pour counter

» target weight

» pour weight

» net pouring time

» iron fading time

» end-of-pour residual iron quantity

» mean temperature

» maximum temperature

» inoculant (target flow)

» total inoculant quantity

28 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018

Advantages at a glance

The advantages of the PUMA Pro 1500

ladle pouring system in use at Palmieri

can be summarized thus:

» maximum accuracy of the mold filling

process due to a precise weighing

system and sprue cup melt level

detection based on image analysis of

the output of two cameras

» prevention of melt spatter to the

maximum possible extent through

bidirectional control of the pouring

stream position in the sprue cup

» pouring spout design and ladle geometry

promoting the formation of

a laminar pouring stream

» low in-ladle temperature loss of under

3 K/min through optimized ladle


» full documentation of all quality-relevant

pouring process parameters

» data interface with the molding line

» integration of all automation components

into Induga’s online service


Following delivery of the PUMA Pro

1500 ladle pouring system in late

2016, the equipment was commissioned

in January 2017. It has since

been in continuous production service

and has fully met all specified objectives.

Thus, the scrap rate of castings requiring

a high pouring accuracy in

terms of speed and constancy was cut

by almost half. Yield has improved by

8 % on average as a result of reduced

returns and melt spatter. This is attributable

mainly to the higher metering

accuracy and superior pouring

stream control. The result achieved

is an outcome of the close cooperation

with the experts from Fonderie

Palmieri, whose know-how and practical

experience were pivotal in refining

the automation of the pouring

process. The stable and reproducible

process management and the process

data analysis form a good basis for an

optimization of the melting/pouring

cycle and further upgrading towards

Industry 4.0.

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Casting Plant & Technology 2 2018 29


Peter Gröning, Hüttenes-Albertus Chemische Werke GmbH, Düsseldorf

Specialized binders improve

resource conservation in foundries

Natural resources are the cornerstones of our daily lives. The exploitation of the increasingly

scarce resources and with it the global competition for them is steadily growing. Against this


and responsible handling of natural resources, more sustainable business activities, and

raw material recovery and recycling have become guiding principles in almost every industry today

– including the foundry industry

In the foundry industry, resource conservation

has been on the agenda for a

long time and has become a living reality.

Foundries have always recovered

and reused their process materials,

such as metal and sand, in order to produce

recyclables or casting products.

Foundries are experts at turning scrap

and residues into new cast parts, re-introducing

them into the value chain.

The same applies to molding sand,

which is widely regenerated and reused.

After all, silica sand is also a

scarce and finite resource, which is

used in large quantities in a variety of

industries. As the third major raw material

after air and water, sand is used

in more than 200 different manufacturing

applications – from concrete

and glass to porcelain and computers.

And, of course, it is used as a molding

material in the foundry industry. As a

result, the average person “consumes”

around two metric tons of sand per


Reclamation of foundry sand

The regeneration of used molding materials,

and in particular core-making

sands, is an important and deci-

Resource conservation is an important

guiding principle in practically all industries

– including the foundry industry’s

molding materials (Photos & Graphics: HA)

30 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018

sive factor if foundries are to continue

to operate successfully in the future.

It is foreseeable that in future silica

sand will not be available in the

same quantities and qualities that we

are accustomed to today. Our top priority

is therefore to keep as many recyclable

materials in circulation as

possible (Figure 1). Today, there are

effective, proven systems for regenerating

most molding materials. Depending

on each customer’s specific

requirements, mechanical, thermal

or thermal-mechanical regeneration

processes are available.

The mechanical reclamation process

involves crushing and grinding

the used foundry sand in order to remove

the binder. Thermal regeneration

employs temperatures of between

700 and 950 °C to burn away

binding agents, which, depending on

the binding system, can produce new

sand quality.

Key parameters for reusable, regenerated

sand are:

» pH values as close to neutral as possible

» low and uniform electrical conductivity

» low loss on ignition

» low fines content

» low and uniform clay content

» uniform and low degree of oolithisation

» uniform grain distribution

Case study: HA regenerates

bauxite sand for

foundry reuse

Regeneration processes

may alter the properties

of some sands.

In such cases, special

binder systems

may be

required, depending

on the

application and

type of regenerated

sand. The

following case

study shows how



by developing a modified

binder system, was

able to help a foundry regenerate

and reuse bauxite

sand in its core production processes.

Bauxite sand is a synthetic special

sand made from mullite-rich raw

materials. These raw materials are first

melted and then sprayed. This process

results in highly uniform, spherical

grains that have high binding efficiency,

which reduces the amount of

binding agents required. In addition,

bauxite sand has much lower thermal

expansion characteristics than silica

sand. It also features excellent refractory

and flowability. These properties

mean that bauxite sand is particularly

suited to specialized applications. As

Figure 1: Resource conservation in

foundry operations

this special sand is quite expensive, its

regeneration and reuse is economically


There was an unpleasant surprise

waiting for a foundry that tried exactly

this: their thermally regenerated bauxite

sand did not behave as expected.

Once mixed with their standard Cold-

Box binder, the sand could only be processed

for a very limited time.

















500 °C




500 °C




600 °C




600 °C




700 °C




700 °C




800 °C




800 °C




900 °C




900 °C


Figure 2: impact of regeneration temperature on the pH value of bauxite sand

Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018 31


The foundry approached Hüttenes-

Albertus with their problem to have

the regenerated sand examined in

the laboratory. HA’s test results confirmed

the situation: It took just two

hours for the casting sand to become

unusable after the sand and binder

were mixed. What was the reason for

this? When analysing the behaviour

of the bauxite sand during the thermal

regeneration process, HA found

that the pH value of the regenerated

sand rose to above 10 within the usual

temperature range of the reclamation

process (Figure 2). The reason for this

behaviour seems to be that the alkaline

constituents of the bauxite sand

are activated by the high temperatures,

which causes them to migrate

to the grain surface.

On the chemical level, the shortened

functional lifespan and reduced

strength of the sand caused by the impact

of metal ions on the grain surface

can be explained as follows: Tertiary

amine stimulates the reactivity of the

isocyanate NCO groups with the phenolic

OH groups.

Where metallic ions are present

(high conductivity), the metals’ anions

activate the NCO groups, acting

as catalysts of the PU reaction.

Special additives can be used to neutralise

the interfering anions. The following

schematic is an example of conventional


Na(+)(OH)(-) + H(+)Cl(-) = NaCl + H2O

(pH =14) + (pH=1) (pH =7)

The additive amount is adjusted according

to the number of interfering


» An increased additive amount impacts

the reactivity of the system.

» An increased additive amount impacts

the storability of the system.

» The additive amount is determined


Solution: multi-stage additivation

in the CB System

The commonly used Cold-Box system,

which requires a pH value as close to

neutral as possible, does not work as

usual in the alkaline environment. To

solve this problem, HA successfully developed

a Cold-Box system for highly

alkaline sands. A special additivation

now ensures the reuse of regenerated

bauxite sand in core production.

The solution developed by Hüttenes-Albertus

makes it possible to reintroduce

a valuable foundry raw material,

thought to be “lost” until now,

back into the material cycle. This case

study is an impressive demonstration

of how research and development help

to achieve the aim of resource conservation

in practical operation – with

positive ecological and economic outcomes.

disposal of foundry residuals

Any consideration of resources used

within the foundry industry must inevitably

have an eye on the development

of statutory regulations. After a

number of “quiet” years, governments

have once again started to considerably

tighten regulations on the landfill

disposal of foundry residual waste.

On the one hand, landfill space is becoming

increasingly scarce, while on

the other hand more stringent legislation

has increased foundries’ waste

disposal costs. Another factor not to

be underestimated is the influence of

the improved analytical devices used

by the waste management companies.

Significant parameters include, for example,

the phenol index, TOC, DOC

and BTEX. These parameters, too, required

the development of suitable


BTX (benzene/toluene/xylene) emissions

have been subjected to extensive

examination. BTX emissions result

from the pyrolysis of organic substances

during casting. Appropriate

measurement methods for these gaseous

emissions are already available.












CB ystem 0,6 / 0,6 GT

CB ystem 0,6 / 0,6 GT

mg/kg 0,538 0,945

mg/kg 0,492 0,891

thylbenz mg/kg 0,435 0,583

mg/kg 1,571 2,304

mg/kg and 3,036 4,723

Figure 3: BTEX comparison with CB systems

32 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018

Figure 4: Environmentally compatible Cold-Box product

lines from Hüttenes-Albertus in detail

These gaseous emissions are already


Over the last few years, the issue of

BTEX emissions has increasingly

come to the fore. This parameter, too,

required the development of suitable

procedures. BTEX relates to the elutable

fraction of the emissions; i.e. the

share that remains in the sand to be

sent to landfill.

By further reducing the organic content

of the newer siliceous Cold-Box

systems, Hüttenes-Albertus has already

been able to significantly reduce BTEX

levels in used sand. (Figure 3).

Since January 1, 2016: Reclas-

Another important issue for the foundry

industry is the reclassification of

formaldehyde. Standards introduced

on January 1, 2016 require all relevant

parties to guarantee the safe and lawful

application of formaldehyde. Initially

– and in consultation with industry

bodies – this meant an optimisation

of analytics. The analytical determination

of formaldehyde is governed by

DIN EN ISO 11402. The measurement

procedures previously employed have

been accurate to ≥ 0.1 %. As a result

of the available analytics and insufficiently

accurate measuring technology,

it was therefore not possible to confirm

a formaldehyde content of < 0.1%.

In close cooperation with the German

Trade Association for Foundry Chemicals

(IVG) and the German Institute of

Casting Technology (IfG), a joint strategy

was launched to develop an appropriate

measurement procedure. It was

aimed at modifying the DIN EN ISO

11402 standard for determining formaldehyde

contents. In addition, work

on developing a resin with a free formaldehyde

content of < 0.1% was intensified.

It has since been possible to develop

and apply a sufficiently precise

measurement procedure for the determination

of formaldehyde. As a result,

it is now possible to demonstrate compliance

with statutory requirements.

Work has also been intensified to reduce

the volume of formaldehyde

used during various core making processes.

Hüttenes-Albertus, for instance,

has successfully developed a solution

to reduce the formaldehyde content

across a range of processes and products,

thereby guaranteeing full compliance

with statutory limits.

Summary: Novel solutions required

as foundry environment


Increased specialisation and growing

complexity coupled with more stringent

environmental regulations also

require the use of specialised binders.

The wide variety of applications means

that it is important to have a correspondingly

extensive range of products

on hand (Figure 4).

The development of more environmentally-friendly

product lines is directly

aligned to customer demand.

HA has long been committed to integrating

inorganic components into

the organic Cold-Box system. The latest

generation of the silicate Cold-Box

system, the Sipurid System, has an inorganic

content of around 23%. This

has led to a dramatic reduction of the

gasifiable fraction in the Cold-Box system

which resulted in significant life

cycle assessment benefits.

Unfortunately, simply reducing the

phenol content does not decrease all

important emission parameters in

the foundry. BTX emissions in the gas

phase, TOC, DOC, the quantity of gas

and condensate as well as odour pollution

cannot be lowered by a reduction of

the phenol content alone. For this reason,

Hüttenes-Albertus has developed a

low-emission, organic resin system with

a phenol (monomer) content of < 1.0 %.

This new Cold-Box resin is based on a

special formulation and manufactured

using proprietary production technology.

The resin helps to reduce the foundry’s

most important emission parameters

– including the phenol index. This

also reduces the pollution load in used

sand. A reduction in the proportion of

free phenol and formaldehyde has a

positive impact on the used sand’s suitability

for landfill disposal.

In order for foundry operators to remain

successful in an ever more difficult

environment, specialised and application-specific

binder systems need

to be available. Hüttenes-Albertus offers

its customers solutions that combine

the positive properties of a variety

of systems and offer significant

advances in terms of environmental


Peter Gröning is Regional Product Manager

EMEA / Cold Box at Hüttenes-Albertus

Chemische Werke GmbH, Düsseldorf


Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018 33


Badarinath Kalkunte, ESI Group, Paris, France

The State-of-Art Simulation of

High Vacuum and High Performance


ESI’s Virtual Manufacturing Solution for Castings

Investing in casting technology and

optimizing to the right process conditions

has never been as important

as it is today. Foundry businesses are

suffering due to the high costs of production

and the challenges of choosing

the perfect fit from a variety of

processes such as Sand Casting, High

Pressure Die Casting (HPDC), Gravity

Casting and Low Pressure Die Casting

(LPDC), as well as ensuring sound

choice of methodology and process

conditions. One process of particular

interest is the HPDC process: an

advanced technology which can give

added leverage to the foundry to improve

quality, save costs, and reduce

scrap rate. A special feature of HPDC

based on an evolution of the traditional

process is maintaining a High Vacuum

during the metal injection. Software

editor ESI Group has proven to

foundries the strategic value of its virtual

manufacturing solution in simulating

the performance of the High

Vacuum HPDC processes: ESI ProCAST

empowers foundries to get the methodologies

and process conditions

right, to deliver high quality castings

while minimizing cost and time.

Higher expectations

The automotive industry (including

OEMs and their supply base) is recognized

as the leading market for

Die Casting. They demand high-per-

ESI Simulation software allows die casting

foundries to optimize methods and

process conditions (Photo: A. Bednareck)

Competence in

Shot Blast Technology

We offer a complete service in surface preparation technology,

not just as machine designers and manufacturers.

Our emphasis is on providing reliable service on:

• Wear and Spare Parts

• Repair and (remote) maintenance

• Inspection and process advice

• Machine upgrades and performance


• Upgraded used machines


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Temperature control made simple

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formance castings from foundry suppliers

and expect the best quality in

terms of structural integrity, sound

mechanical properties and good

welding and heat treatment performance.

These requirements are typically

obtained via gravity and LPDC

processes more often than with

HPDC, because of its inherent limitations.

More specifically, HPDC requires

Heat Treatment T6 and special Al alloy

grades to increase mechanical properties.

In the case of T6, gas porosity inside

the component can form blisters

during solubility heat treatment (at

520-530 °C for 8-12 hours for example)

decreasing the component performances.

Special alloy grades have

high viscosity due to low Si, which can

cause filling issues and hence decreasing

mechanical component properties.

High Vacuum technology enables

the casting of structural parts and cast

components with T6 and special alloy


This relatively new technology has improved

in the recent years to offer two

levels of vacuum: standard vacuum

and high vacuum. Today’s innovations

in HPDC mainly happen in relation to

High Vacuum technology developed

by Fondarex, St.-Légier-Chiésaz, Switzerland.

MetaI Pressure, P (bar)










MetaI Pressure vs Flow Rate (Squared)

Maximum Metal Pressure Constraint

Minimum Metal Pressure Constraint

Static Pressure Constraint

Machine Line at Design Pressure

Machine line at Operating Condition

Die Line at Operating Condition

Maximum Filltime constraint

Operating Zone

Operating Point

1 2 3 4 5 6

Flow Rate, Q2 ((m^3/sec)^2) (E-03)

Figure 1: Pressure(P)-Flow Rate(Q)² Graph, as seen in ESI ProCAST

Simulation of vacuum die


A second trend in the automotive

industry is the development of

high-performance die-casting machines

(DCM). The integration between

the machine and vacuum

can deliver top quality castings.

This means that a gas evacuation

curve, in phase with the injection

curve and the flow rate, can control

both the aluminum and air during

casting. The key to success in implementing

High Vacuum using DCM

is to move from the traditional approach

running casting trials based

on experience to the full numerical

simulation of the Vacuum HPDC

process. Simulation is used to define

the design of the die with the best

gating system and evacuation layout.

All these conditions are finally

achieved with the right choice of

process parameters, verified with the

casting simulation solution, while

considering real DCM hydraulic injection


Such innovation has been applied

on real industrial cases, such as the

manufacturing of an automotive

oil pump casted by Italian foundry

F.A.R. The new virtual simulation

approach has been instrumental

in helping F.A.R. reduce production

costs for the oil pump, prompting

them to switch from 1-cavity to

2-cavity dies. The one cavity die was

used on a 560 t machine. Standard

approach using the empirical injection

nomogram on Flowrate and Injection

Pressure showed the necessity

to use a 1000 t-1200 t DCM to

produce this oil pump on 2 cavities.

However, F.A.R. had selected a specific

DCM named PFO 750 Green Line,

developed by Italian manufacturer

COLOSIO to reduce energy cost and

increase efficiency with an inverter.

The challenge for F.A.R.’s technical

& management teams was therefore

to develop this new 2-cavity die on a

750 t – and not 1000 t, DCM. F.A.R.

also elected to use High Vacuum on

the 2-cavity die to solve gas porosity

problems and reduce the injection

force by sharply decreasing air

counter-pressure during filling, in order

to reach the final quality targets.

Development of a virtual die

casting machine

Today, the HPDC market is equipped

with the right devices and technologies

to produce high performance

parts, but until recently there was a

lack of casting simulation solutions

to take real DCM performance into account.

ECOTRE Valente SRL and ESI

Group collaborated to develop the

new ProCAST toolset for casting simulation:

V-DCM (Virtual-Die Casting

Machine) to see if DCM has enough

hydraulic injection force to fill the die

cavity while maintaining the second

phase velocity to achieve the expected

filling time (Figure 1).

The hydraulic injection force calculated

by ProCAST includes geometrical

and gas counter-pressure inside

the chamber and cavity. This opposes

the high resistance to the part filling.

A fully integrated simulation including

the virtual hydraulic power and

vacuum machine has been completed.

ESI’s Software Solution ProCAST

has the ability to create a customized

simulation by including technical

datasheets, such as for Hydraulic

Injection Force, Hydraulic Cylinder

Diameter as well as Hydraulic Inline

Pressure to save costs and time. The

speed and pressure profiles also have

been virtualized and enable the import

of the best injection profiles,

from the casting simulation solution

36 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018

Figure 2: ESI ProCAST simulation results using the new Real Time Piston Control feature

straight into the DCM PLC system.

ProCAST calculates real-time pressure

and injection force needed by

the DCM to maintain plunger velocity.

Figure 2 shows ESI ProCAST simulation

results using this Real-Time

Control. This calculated value is then

compared against the power limit of

the DCM.

All empirical evaluations of the discharge

coefficient performed without

simulation to choose the size of DCM,

are far off and cannot deliver significant

cost reduction and casting quality,

as shown for the case of the F.A.R.

foundry. Thanks to ProCAST however,

it is possible to optimize the gating and

evacuation system to use less hydraulic

injection force. Usage of a vacuum system

reduces even further the required

hydraulic injection force. The casting

simulation solution ESI ProCAST is the

best way to determine the right DCM

to produce a prospective cast part.


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Katrin Küchler

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Giesserei-Verlag GmbH

Sohnstraße 65 · 40237 Düsseldorf, Germany · www.cpt-international.com

Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018 37


Markus Pfeiffer, Partner at Projektingenieure mbH, Icking, and Volker Dankwort, Strategic Purchasing of Investment,

GF Casting Solutions, Mettmann

Opening ceremony in Mills River

GF-Linamar LLC, a joint venture between GF Casting Solutions and Linamar Corporation recently

opened a new die-casting plant for structural parts in Mills River, North Carolina, USA. In this

joint project the two companies combined extensive casting competence of GF Casting Solu-

After two years of planning, preparation

and constructing, the time has

now come: GF-Linamar opened ceremonially

the new die-casting plant in

USA. It all began at EUROGUSS exhibition

some years ago, when Josef Edbauer,

President of GF Casting Solutions,

Schaffhausen, Switzerland, und

Linda Hasenfratz, CEO of Linamar

Corporation, Guelph, Ontario, Canada,

met and decided to found something

new. Out of this, Joint Venture

GF-Linamar LLC came into being,

where casting competence of GF Casting

Solutions and diversified manufacturing

expertise of Linamar Corporation

was combined. Josef Edbauer:

„The opening of GF Linamar LLC is

an important milestone for us to serve

our global customers even better“. GF

Casting Solutions is well known for

die-casting and sandcasting solutions.

Complex die-casting products made

of Aluminum or Magnesium will be

produced at German Werdohl plant,

Austrian plants in Herzogenburg and

Altenmarkt or Chinese plant in Suzhou.

(Figure 1).

Location in the USA

In Mills River near Asheville, North

Carolina (NC), an unrivaled stateof-the-art

production facility was

established within 16 months construction

time. With invest of 100

million US dollars (86 million Euro),

GF Linamar provided on 57 acres

space for the biggest die-casting machines

actually available on the market.

Asheville is a famous tourist region

with beautiful landscape and a

wide range of cultural and leisure activities.

But all that or neighborhood

to famous Sierra Nevada Brewery

have not been alone key for selecting

this place. Especially when it comes

to production of voluminous structural

parts, short distance to custom-

38 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018

Overview of the new plant in Mills River, NC, USA (Photo: PI)

Figure 1: dashboard panel, made of die-cast by GF Casting Solutions (Photo: GF)

ers is important and BMW, Daimler

und other OEMs are close by. Local

authorities supported this project intensively

from the very beginning to

attract this technology driven company

to settle down in Henderson

County. Also very helpful was proximity

to existing Linamar plants in

this region, providing knowledge

of local conditions, but also office

rooms or manpower during the first


Skilled personnel

Another important location factor is

industrial expertise in the planned

region. „We know from experience,

that workforce in North Carolina

will exceed our expectations in precision

and quality“, says Carlos Vasto,

General Manager of GF-Linamar

(Figure 2). But for a more specific diecasting

knowledge, special training

measures are necessary. Therefore

GF Linamar supported intensively

implementation of a completely

new casting-training-center at Blue

Ridge Community College in Flat

Rock, NC.

In May last year, Southeastern Advanced

Molding Technology Education

Center (SAMTEC) was opened

here. With a program, specially designed

for the needs in the die-casting

industry, specialists will be trained,

that GF Linamar needs to run their

production. SAMTEC-Teachers were

instructed by GF in Austrian and Swiss

sites. In addition, machine suppliers

installed a fully functional die-casting

cell and local authorities provided financial

support for ongoing operation.

(Figure 3).

Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018 39


Figure 3: Casting cell at Blue Ridge Community College (Photo: PI)

Figure 2: Carlos Vasto, General Manager of GF-Linamar in

Mills River, NC, USA (Photo: GF)

Figure 4: Ribbon cutting ceremony: Carlos Vasto, General

Manager GF Linamar LLC; Chairman Michael Edney, Henderson

County Board of Commissioners; Jim Jarrell, President

& COO Linamar Corporation, Linda Hasenfratz, CEO

Linamar Corporation, Secretary of Commerce Tony Copeland,

North Carolina, and Josef Edbauer, President GF Casting

Solutions (left to right, Photo: GF)

Structural parts made of Aluminum

und Magnesium

Structural parts were the main driver

for installation of this new plant. First

products are shock towers for a European

OEM, which will be produced in

parallel in Europe, China and now also

in Mills River. GF staff is very proud on

Figure 5: Aerial picture of

site during the 16 months

building phase(Photo: GF)

a recently achieved purchase order.

With a total contract volume of 300

million US dollars (258 million Euro)

large structural magnesium parts for

car interior, called „cross car beams“,

will be produced beginning in 2020. A

US manufacturer requires high volume

of these complex and very lightweight

parts for new Pickup trucks. Awarded

orders already fill most of planned capacity

within the next years. Increasing

demand for more lightweight solutions

in aluminum and magnesium

casting requires already planning of a

Phase 2 in Mills River.

Success factor people

Until the opening ceremony could take

place (Figure 4), it was a long and often

not easy path (Figure 5). In parallel

to the erection of the new green

field plant, the joint venture between

the Canadian and the Swiss company

had to be established. As there was no

casting expertise available on site in the

beginning, a multi-national team was

brought together, which had to consider

locally different regulations, dif-

40 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018

Figure 6: Employees of GF-Linamar at casting

cell (Photo: GF)

ferent languages, cultures and a tough

time plan. „Our success factor were our

people (Figure 6)“, says Volker Dankwort,

responsible for strategic purchasing

of investment at GF Casting Solutions

and Senior Project Manager in

Mills River. He is convinced: „An intentionally

small core-team and a close

collaboration with casting experts in

Herzogenburg and Altenmarkt were

essential for this project“. Besides Carlos

Vasto as General Manager, Volker

Dankwort was one of the leading characters.

From his former time as plant

manager at GF in Werdohl, he exactly

knows requirements for such a plant.

And as a strategic buyer, he was the

right person for negotiation with suppliers.

„Although both joint venture

partners have long lasting relationship

to suppliers – There was no custom and

practice“, he emphasizes.

Support by planning experts

Together with the GF colleagues in

Herzogenburg and Altenmarkt, planning

and consulting company „Projektingenieure“

(short: PI) was responsible

for all factory planning topics. PI is an

experienced factory planning company

and well known in casting business.

Project manager in this GF-Linamar-

Project was Markus Pfeiffer, partner

Figure 7: Heat treatment plant at

GF Linamar (Photo: PI)

at PI. He also was responsible for the

new Audi green field casting plant in

Münchsmünster, for the expansion of

Volkswagen foundry in Kassel, for new

casting lines at Daimler in Mettingen, or

the green field plant for Bocar in Huntsville,

Alabama. Since a long time, PI is

partner of GF. „Since Audi A2 project, 20

years ago, we deal with structural parts.

Lots of parts of its aluminum structure

have been produced back then at BDW

and GF in Munich“, Markus Pfeiffer remembers.

„We are proud to be a partner

for GF since such a long time. Here at

Mills River, we designed the plant, focused

on a clear material flow and a flexible

structure to fulfill budget needs and

provide maximum flexibility for future

expansion“. The layout allows to expand

flexibly in single production areas

like melting, casting, heat treatment

(Figure 7) or machining, depending on

future needs. In total, layout concept

enables doubling of production capacity.

With that, there is enough room for

future development of GF Linamar in

Mills River, even if actual capacity will

be filled soon.


Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018 41



Cooperation for foundry business announced

Ferrum AG, Rupperswil, Switzerland,

world market leader in the can seaming

industry and focused niche provider of

separation technologies, has decided

to withdraw from manufacturing iron

cast parts. „During the last few years

our iron casting business has contributed

less than 10 % to our group’s annual

sales but has continuously caused

concerns. The Swiss market for iron cast

parts has been declining for many years

and structural adjustments are overdue

since a long time. Ferrum has been trying

to play an active role in this consolidation

but was not successful in doing

so. In order to be able to concentrate our

efforts on the growth opportunities in

our two core businesses, we have decided

to close our foundry in Schafisheim

and to cooperate with Benninger Guss

AG for our foundry business“, states

Beat Bühlmann, President of the Board

of Directors of Ferrum AG.

„Numerous employees have received

offers to work for Benninger Guss AG and

several staff have the opportunity to continue

working for Ferrum AG”, says Andreas

Kunzmann, CEO of Ferrum AG. A

number of employees may benefit our

from early retirement plan. “Nevertheless

we deeply regret that today we needed to

lay off 12 workers. We support them financially

and will help them looking for

new jobs”, assures Andreas Kunzmann.

Ferrum’s foundry will continue to operate

in Schafisheim until the end of August

2018. This allows clients to properly

plan their iron cast orders. For a smooth

transfer of client’s iron cast business Ferrum

AG has signed a cooperation agreement

with Benninger Guss AG from

Uzwil, Switzerland. During the coming

months, clients will have the opportunity

to take advantage of a secured knowhow

transfer. Benninger Guss AG will in

cooperation with Ferrum AG offer interested

clients specifically customized

transfer solutions. Clients will be able to

enjoy a seamless transition of iron cast

part manufacturing as well as services.

Manfred Ladurner, long-standing Head

of Ferrum’s foundry, says: „With Benninger

Guss AG we found an ideal partner.

Benninger Guss AG is known as

Switzerland’s leading cast iron producer.

With their highly-skilled engineering

specialists, their profound material and

manufacturing know-how as well as

their state-of-the-art production facilities

including an industrial sand casting

3-D printer, Benninger Guss AG is a perfect

new home for our customers. Eric

von Ballmoos, CEO of Benninger Guss

AG since many years, is an industry expert

and will assure that our clients will

be profiting from a simple and smooth


Benninger Guss AG has been operating

as a successful family-owned business

since 1873. Currently Benninger

Guss AG employs more than 100 staff

and operates cutting-edge facilities.

Benninger Guss AG serves its European

clientele with highest quality iron casting

and is specialized on small and medium

batch production. Charles Peter,

entrepreneur and President of the

Board of Directors of Benninger Guss

AG, says: „We have for many years enjoyed

a friendly and close relationship

with Ferrum AG. We will ensure that

their clients will at Benninger Guss AG

experience the same high-quality services

as before.”



Metal treatment specialist buys alloy producer

Elkem ASA has acquired the UK company

TM Technology Ltd and its production

of the foundry alloy Tenbloc.

Tenbloc is used for in the mold inoculation

of ductile and grey iron. Elkem

ASA is based in Norway, and is one of

the world’s leading companies for environmentally

responsible production of

materials. Elkem manufactures a wide

range of inoculants, MgFeSi alloys and

preconditioners for the production of

cast iron.

The company is a specialist in metal

treatment solutions to the cast iron industry

and a supplier of high quality ferrosilicon

to the steel industry. This acquisition

will strengthen Elkem’s position in

this market and the ability to provide

customers a wider range of specialized


“Our customers need different solutions

for their metal treatment processes.

At Elkem we want to support our customers‘

success with reliable premium products

and by sharing our experience in process

improvement. With Tenbloc in our

portfolio Elkem is able to extend the offering

and meet customer demands even

better.” says Roland Hennigfeld, Global

Sales and Marketing Director in Elkem.

The TM Technology Ltd plant is located

in Dronfield UK, and will be rebranded

as Elkem Dronfield Ltd. The acquisition

was completed on 16 March 2018.


Elkem ASA has acquired the UK company

TM Technology Ltd. and its production of

the foundry alloy Tenbloc (Photo: Elkem).

42 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018


Aluminium trade fair increasingly

attracts industry leaders

This year’s Aluminium China exhibition

and conference in July will provide

a platform for China’s rapidly changing

and expanding aluminium industry

and showcase new state-of-the-art processes

and products. Since the launch

of the “Made in China 2025” strategy

more than two years ago, China has

made great strides towards becoming

the world’s leading manufacturing hub.

And it is against this backdrop that the

Chinese aluminium industry is shifting

its focus from speed to high-quality

growth and gearing up for technological

advances, driven by demand from

global industries such as aerospace, automotive,

building and construction,

transportation and consumer durables.

The success of this strategy is demonstrated

by Chinese company Nanshan

Aluminum that has started manufacturing

high-end aluminum materials

for Boeing and Airbus.

Aluminium China 2018 will focus on

global innovation and put the spotlight

on aerospace and automotive materials

and new processing technologies, along

with innovative, smart and green manufacturing

trends, helping to open up a

new chapter in the aluminium industry.

With overcapacity easing and strong

environmental protection measures put

in place in 2017, domestic and international

aluminium prices have risen

sharply, causing demand for new facilities

and the need to recover capacity,

which currently lies idle. In 2017, China’s

electrolytic aluminium output was 36.5

million tons, representing an increase of

12.2 %; while downstream processed

output, including aluminium sheets, extrusion,

foils, wires, powders and casts,

was 38.2 million tons, a year-on-year increase

of 8.5 %. At the same time, aluminium

consumption has continued to

rise, thanks to new emerging markets.

According to Reed Exhibitions China,

the organizer of Aluminium China,

this year’s event will feature a larger exhibition

area than in 2017 and the

number of trade visitors is expected to

surpass 20,000. International visitors


your profit

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cores & molds.

Our experts

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Exhibitor booth at Aluminium China 2017

(Photo: Reed Exhibitions)

will come mainly from Southeast Asia,

with Thailand providing the largest

contingent. Reed is working with the

Thai government, industry associations

and other bodies to invite industry

spokespeople to join discussions on

industrial policy, in-depth analysis of

the aluminium processing and consumption

market, as well as putting the

spotlight on topics such as the impact

of new tariffs imposed on aluminium

imported to the US.

Aluminium China 2018 will play its

part in boosting industry growth as the

event continues to attract more and

more industry leaders. Confirmed exhibitors

include leading local giants such as

Chalco, Zhongwang, Weiqiao, Nanshan,

Conglin, Nannan, Zhongfu, Nanping,

Lufeng, Mingtai, Mingde, Fenglu, Yunhai,

Yuhang, and Hesheng. International

players like UACJ, Constellium, Danieli,

Pyrotek, Tenova, Fronius, AP&T and

Panasonic will also be there.

The event takes place in the Shanghai

New International Expo Center (SNIEC)

from July 11 to 13, 2018. Collocated with

Aluminium China this year will be the

trade fair Lightweight Asia 2018. This

event will feature advanced lightweight

auto materials for whole vehicles and automotive

parts and combine a one-stop

procurement platform for lightweight

auto solutions with insights into advanced

processing technologies.



Be sure before you pour

DISA MAC in action: The high-precision measuring device captures mold-related mismatch,

mold gaps, mold steps and parallelism for each mold before pouring (Photo: DISA)

The big foundry technology provider

DISA is launching the “Mould Accuracy

Controller (DISA MAC)”, a new

high-precision measuring device that

captures mold-related mismatch, mold

gaps, mold steps and parallelism for

each mold before pouring.

DISA MAC helps identify issues

around mold alignment before they

become a problem – that is, before they

result in unnecessary rework or scrapping

of one, more or many castings.

The unique device consists of a

bridge-like scanning bracket that is

mounted across the mold string between

the molding machine and the

pouring unit. This bracket is equipped

with laser sensors that continuously

scan along the mold string, tracing specifically

designed impressions on each


Clever software then uses these readings

to calculate key alignment parameters

and identify issues according to

customer pre-set limits. A warning

light on top of the bracket alerts the

operator to any issues via a simple traffic

light system.

Kasper Paw Madsen, Global Product

Manager Digital Solutions at DISA,

comments on the launch: “The DISA

MAC allows foundries to keep a constant

eye on the mold string, collecting

key dimensional data and flagging issues

before it’s too late. The DISA MAC

ensures that only good, perfectly

aligned moulds are poured. The potential

reduction in rework and scrap as

well as the improvement in casting precision

is significant. It’s a simple device,

but thanks to the software behind it, it

could well revolutionize the casting

process for our customers.”

In addition to the warning light on

top of the DISA MAC bracket, operators

can access more detailed DISA

MAC data at the operator panel of the

molding machine, viewing real-time

data in dashboard, table or graph

views. For even deeper analysis of historical

DISA MAC data, the system

comes with a free version of the DISA

Foundry Cockpit, a powerful new data

platform for foundries.

Kasper continues: “There’s great potential

in the dimensional data captured

by the DISA MAC, that can be analyzed

over time and correlated with other

data, to get an ever deeper understanding

of your process. The DISA Foundry

Cockpit creates the foundation for this

type of analysis, not just for DISA MAC

data, but for any type of foundry process

data. Watch this space.”

The DISA MAC is available now, either

as an option for all new Disamatic

D3 molding lines or as retrofits for existing

Disamatic D3 equipment.


44 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018


Vibra Drum Sand and Casting Conditioner installed

Eisengiesserei Baumgarte from Bielefeld

is the first German foundry to decide to

install a Vibra Drum castings cooler and

sand conditioner. The system, which

also includes two mold transfer conveyors

as well as one each of a reversible

feeder/shake-out, a transition feeder and

a sand separator will be delivered by GK

Europe GmbH, the European Headquarter

of General Kinematics Corporation

along with Cyrus, a German manufacturer.

The two companies have entered

into a strategic cooperation to offer the

maximum flexibility and the most innovative

solutions to their customers.

To begin with, says Eckhard Winter

“we were set on a classic system.” The

Managing Director at Eisengiesserei

Baumgarte is referring to various casting

cooling options. In deciding for the Vibra

Drum, his company has selected a

system used by no other foundry in Germany.

In a traditional system, hot castings

are separated from the sand before

the cooling process. In the new system,

castings are cooled and sand is conditioned

at the same time and in a single

machine. The experts at Eisengiesserei

Baumgarte were, however, initially concerned

that this method would not be effective

or provide the desired results. It

was not just a matter of whether or not

the castings could actually reach the correct

temperature within the sand. Winter:

“We were also worried that the castings

would get stuck or catch into the

drum, and that by using a very short

shake-out/sand separator after the drum,

an aggressive action would be needed to

separate the residual sand sticking to the

castings, which would cause damages”.

But these reservations turned out to be

completely unfounded. The turning

point was a visit to two Italian foundries

that have been using the Vibra Drum for

years, enjoying excellent process results

and castings quality. “That put an end to

our doubts,” says Winter. “It left a very

positive impression. Without those visits,

we would never have taken this step.”

After all, this was a “huge investment in

the future” for Eisengiesserei Baumgarte.

Winter: “We have reached a milestone.”

The cooling line is manufactured and

delivered by GK Europe GmbH (General

Kinematics). The company, with its European

headquarters in Düsseldorf, Germany,

has sold more than 100 of these

machines to companies around the

world, according to Managing Director

Davide Gado. The deal with Eisengiesserei

Baumgarte marks the introduction

of the Vibra Drum technology in

the German market. In order to expand

on this success, the company has entered

into a cooperation at European level with

Cyrus GmbH, another German specialist

in the field of vibratory technology.

Gado: “We are happy to cooperate with

other companies whenever we can find

good synergies and complementary lines

of products.” In this case, since GK is

largely active in the heavy-duty industry,

that would be when it comes to smaller,

middle-sized and value engineered solutions,

which are, ultimately, Cyrus’ specialty.

“What we want to do” says Dr. Michael

Schulte Strathaus, Managing

Director at Cyrus, “is offer our customers

the best of both worlds.”

And the ball is already rolling. In addition

to the Vibra Drum and two 8.5°

inclined and balanced (avoiding transmission

of vibrations to the floor) mold

transfer conveyors, delivered by GK,

the Eisengiesserei Baumgarte system

features a two-way feeder/shake-out, a

feeder to transfer sand and castings

from one mold transfer conveyor to the

other, and a separator installed behind

the Vibra Drum, all provided by Cyrus.

“We believe the Vibra Drum has what

it takes”, says Schulte Strathaus. The

technology has significant advantages

over traditional casting coolers: the

highlight of the process is that castings

and sand are processed together, with

the castings constantly protected from

impacts during the cooling process and

therefore avoiding surface damages,

compared to other traditional shakeout

and cooling systems. The use of a

proprietary Moisture Addition System,

together with the proper air exchanges,

ensures a very controlled cooling of the

most delicate castings and at the same

Vibra Drum – process optimization for


two-mass principle (Photo: General


time a constant moisture and temperature

level of the sand at the discharge

of the Vibra Drum. Trough heaters are

used at the infeed end of every piece of

equipment to prevent the moist sand

from sticking and building up in critical

transition points. And there is one

final advantage: the constant movement

of the castings within the sand

surrounding and protecting them performs

a sort of pre-cleaning of the castings

surface by polishing the surface of

the castings. The result, explains Gado,

is that shot-blasting operations performed

downstream are drastically improved

and contribute to lower the

overall running costs. In addition, the

core sand is completely removed from

the cast parts and can be easily separated

where required.

But the Vibra Drum has more to offer

for Eisengiesserei Baumgarte. Up until

now, says Managing Director Winter,

“the cooling period for our castings was

too short.” However, in order to reach

temperatures required for further processing,

it was often necessary to maintain

specific cooling times. Which kept

causing delays in the production process.

“Which is why,” Winter continues “this

new system improves not just the quality

of our products, but also our productivity.”

He is certain that there will be no

more production delays once the machine

is installed.


Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018 45



Fully automatic feed of two shot blast machines

ConviTec, Offenbach/Main, Germany,

does not only offer individual machines

but also complete solutions for all industrial

and procedural tasks of vibrating

and special machine construction all

over the world. The core competences include

planning, manufacture, assembly

and commissioning of complete conveyor,

screening, cooling, drying, dosing and

control systems for different bulk materials

and unit loads. The range of services

also includes functional service with vibration

analyses, maintenance, service

works and spare parts supply.

For a German customer ConviTec projected,

delivered, installed and commissioned

a fully automatic feeding and conveyor

system with weighing device for

two belt shot blast machines and a container

station for transport boxes that are

filled fully automatically.

The buffer feeder for blast machines is

used for the automatic filling of blast machines.

A recipe management system ensures

variable filling, blasting and unloading

of the blasting material.

Using transport boxes, a forklift operator

puts the material in a lift-tipping device.

The boxes are recorded via container

detection. While the fork is retracted the

lift-tipping device is automatically put

Visualization with recipe preselection and monitoring (Pho-

into operation, the blasting

material is fed through

a funnel into the moveable

loader and weighed at

the same time, provided

that the moveable loader

is in loading position. According

to the preset filling

cycle the loader moves

into the open and empty

blast machine. After complete

unloading and/or

reaching the maximum to: Convitec)

filling quantity of the blast

machine, the loader is driven back into

home position in order to start the loading

process again.

After successful filling of the blast machine,

the hood is closed and the blasting

process starts according to the given recipe.

Once the blasting process is completed,

the blasting material is discharged in

portions from the troughed belt of the

blast machine onto the feeder. In a plant,

it is possible to transport the blasting material

from the conveying trough into a

container provided at the container station.

A free container is chosen automatically

by means of a laser level control device.

The two systems communicate with

each other via ProfiNet.

The electric control consists of a control

cabinet where a Siemens-1500-PLC control

is integrated together with several

SEW frequency converters. The recipes are

created on a 15“-Touch IPC, which also

monitors the plant. In addition, a

10“-Touch IPC each is installed in the respective

lift-tipping devices where the recipes

can be preselected by the forklift operator.

In the inspection glass of the lift-tipping

device, an infrared camera monitors

the temperature of the blasting material

prior to feeding.



Feedex K VAK spot feeder

Foseco from Borken in Germany announces

the product launch of the

new spot feeder. The concept is a further

development of the well-proven

Kompressor spot feeder technology.

The current advantages, such as

minimum footprint area, smallest contact

area and optimum molding sand

compaction beneath were adopted

from the existing Feedex K concept.

From the first idea to the serial stage,

extensive tests were carried out. Prior

to casting tests, solidification simulations

were conducted for verification

purposes. Within the new concept, a

large part of the compressor core is

heated by the highly exothermic

feeder sleeve material.

» This significantly reduces the contact

area of the compressor plate to

the green sand by 50 % compared to

the Feedex VSK feeder. The result is

an improved feed performance.

» Feedex K VAK feeders are used where

smallest footprints and minimum

contact areas are required.

» The application is as simple as with

the VSK product line. The self-centring

geometry eases the application

of the feeder sleeve onto the fixed pin.

Furthermore, the feeder residue can

be easily knocked-off with little force.

The Feedex K VAK feeder series is based

on the proven Feedex V-feeder product



More on Feedex K VAK spot feeders


46 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018

Giesserei-Verlag Dictionary

German – English / English – German

1. Auflage · 1st Edition

ISBN 978-3-87260-186-5

39.00 €




















Gießen | Casting



Verein Deutscher Gießereifachleute e. V. (VDG)

2018 · 616 pages · 10.5 x 14.8 cm


Wörterbuch · Dictionary

Deutsch – Englisch

Englisch – Deutsch

German – English

English – German

This Giesserei-Verlag Dictionary is the extensively revised and updated version of the “Foundry Dictionary” that

has been used and appreciated both in Germany and abroad since the 1st Edition in 1971.

The Dictionary contains the specialist vocabulary used in the science and practice of foundry technology: from

molding materials, mold and core production; through melting and casting (including die-casting technology);

to the processing of raw castings, quality assurance and the use of castings.

The Dictionary includes about 18,000 entries per language.

Giesserei-Verlag GmbH

Sohnstraße 65 · 40237 Düsseldorf, Germany · Phone: +49 211 6707- 0 · Fax: +49 211 6707- 597

E-mail: giesserei@stahleisen.de · www.giesserei.eu


Industrial furnaces

8 pages, English, German

This brochure describes the range of industrial thermoprocessing equipment designed

and supplied by E-Therm TZ, e.g. heating furnaces for forging shops, furnaces for

rolling mills, and equipment for heat stability testing and stress-relief annealing for

products as sophisticated as steam turbine shafts or rotors.


Handheld XRF detector

12 pages, English

A brochure featuring the S1 TurboSD handheld alloy and light element analyser


Measuring systems for melting, holding and treatment

12 pages, English

continuous measurement of remaining lining thickness, measurement of hot spots,

moisture measurement, leakage detection, insulation monitoring and temperature

distribution measurement.


Hose technology

4 pages, English

indicating the degree of abrasion. The brochure includes a list of the technical details of

this hose type.


48 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018

Virtual prototyping

12 pages, English

and transportation industries, aeronautics and aerospace, electronics and consumer


Melting, holding and heating solutions for aluminium

8 pages, English


pusher-type furnaces as well as pit and car bottom furnaces for aluminium ingot

reheating and homogenizing.


Automatic used-sand pre-moisturizing

4 pages, English

Sensor Control supplies pre-moisturizing systems. This brochure explains the set-up

of automatic pre-moisturizing lines for used sand. The lines include moisture control

systems at coolers, cooling drums and mixers, temperature measuring systems as well as

automatic sand testing systems for compactibility.


Lubrication systems

8 pages, English

stamping and forming tools.


Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018 49


Fairs and Congresses

Advertisers´ Index

Aluminium China 2018

July, 11-13, 2018, Shanghai, China


China Diecasting

July, 18-20, 2018, Shanghai, China


73rd World Foundry Congress

September, 23-27, 2018, Krakow, Poland


Admar Group 29


September, 25-27, 2018, Kielce, Poland


50 Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018


Preview of the next issue

Publication date: September 2017

The main works of the foundry company Kutes Metal in Çorlu, Turkey, from above (Photo: Kutel Metal)

Selection of topics:

K. Vollrath: Construction of a modern iron foundry for Kutes Metal

Leading edge technology is crucial for Turkey when it selects suppliers of capital goods. Therefore German providers had

good chances when Çorlu-based Kutes Metal build a modern foundry to double the capacity and expand the portfolio.

M. Vorrath: Centrifugal casting coating for structured cylinder liners

A casting with a rough surface is not usually what the caster wants. However, this is just one of the specialties at Bergmann

Automotive GmbH. The company manufactures cylinder liners with a structured surface in the centrifugal casting process.

M. Fuchs: Systematic approach to process optimization of a die casting cell

Efficient processes are crucial for the economic success of die-casting foundries. Producers are therefore constantly trying

to optimize their processes to increase product quality and profit. But the production process is influenced by many factors.



German Foundry Association

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Casting Plant & Technology 2 / 2018 51

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