atw 2018-07


atw Vol. 63 (2018) | Issue 6/7 ı June/July

[5] History of the Werkfeuerwehr, Technical

University of Munich, Garching,


[6] S. Thierfeldt et. al. (Brenk Systemplanung),

March 2013, „Sicherheitsbericht

zur Stilllegung des Forschungsreaktors

München (FRM) der Technischen

Universität München”.

[7] K. Kugel, K. Möller (BfS), 20.2.2017,

„Anforderungen an endzulagernde

radioaktive Abfälle (Endlagerungsbedingungen,

Stand: Februar 2017) –

Endlager Konrad –”.

[8] C. Lierse et. al., 28.12.2010, Abschlussbericht

FKZ02S7951: „Entsorgung von

Beryllium/Berylliumoxid und Cadmium

aus Forschungsreaktoren“.







Freimessanlage (Release

Measurement Facility)

Highly Enriched Uranium

Kerntechnischer Ausschuss (Nuclear

Safety Standards Commission)

Polychlorinated biphenyl

Spent Nuclear Fuel

StMUV Staatsministerium für Umwelt,

Gesundheit und Verbraucherschutz

(Bavarian state ministry of the

environment, health and consumer



Technical Safety Organisation


While You Were Sleeping:

The Unnoticed Loss of Carbon-free

Generation in the United States

Chris Vlahoplus, Ed Baker, Sean Lawrie, Paul Quinlan and Benjamin Lozier

M. Sc. Ulrich Lichnovsky

Fachbereichsleiter Stilllegung und

Rückbau FRM(alt)

B. Sc. Julia Rehberger

Ingenieurin Dokumentation und

Änderungsdienst FRM(alt)

Dr. Axel Pichlmaier

Fachbereichsleiter Reaktorbetrieb


Dr. Anton Kastenmüller

Technischer Direktor FRM II

FRM II, Forschungs-Neutronenquelle

Heinz Maier-Leibnitz

Technische Universität München

Lichtenbergstr. 1

85748 Garching, Germany



The United States has embarked on actions to combat climate change by putting a focus on lowering the carbon

emissions from the electric generation sector. A pillar of this approach is to promote the greater use of renewable

resources, such as wind and solar. The past decade has seen significant growth in carbon-free energy from wind and

solar. Generation from these resources reached 333,000 GWh in 2017. However, unbeknownst to many who care about

climate change, most of the progress made to date through renewables is at significant risk due to the loss or potential

loss of more than 228,000 GWh of nuclear carbon-free generation.

Renewables growth:

Investment in carbon-free


Over the past decade, wind and solar

have grown in large part due to

policies such as renewable portfolio

standards, federal tax incentives, and

in some cases state tax incentives. Few

would argue that the addition of

renewable generation is a critical

element of a comprehensive carbonreduction


Since 2008, the policy focus on

renewables has attracted hundreds of

billions of dollars of investment for

the development of wind and solar.

The results have been significant – in

the past decade 90 % of the current

operating wind and solar capacity was

added, roughly 75 GW of wind and

52 GW solar. [1] Another result of

these investments has been to help

wind and solar drive down the cost

curve reaching a more competitive

position. The policies promoting

renewables have clearly contributed

to the addition of a meaningful

amount of carbon-free electricity as

well as to jump-starting an industry in

the United States.

Early retirement: Nuclear

generators face challenges

In the same timeframe, natural gas

prices have driven down power prices,

causing difficulties for both renewables

and existing generation. The

nuclear industry in particular has

been challenged by low natural gas

prices and the lack of overall policy

support for its zero-carbon attributes.

As a result, the nuclear industry has

faced a wave of actual and announced

retirements. The most vulnerable

nuclear plants have been small, singleunit

plants and merchant facilities in

deregulated markets with low energy

and capacity values. Under these

conditions, existing nuclear plants are

having difficulty competing in bidbased

markets and in some regulated

as well. Some states have recognized

this issue and have explored zerocarbon

incentives to keep plants open

that would otherwise have shut down.

However, these incentives are being

challenged and still make these plants,

while technically “reprieved,” what

we categorize as “at risk.”

In 2016, the New York Public Service

Commission approved a Clean Energy

Standard (CES), which supported

the continuation of more than 3 GW

of nuclear capacity (i.e., Fitzpatrick,

Ginna, and Nine Mile Point nuclear

plants). [2] In the same year, Illinois

passed The Future Energy Jobs Bill

that provides nuclear plants with

$ 0.01/kWh, saving almost 3 GW of

nuclear capacity (i.e., Clinton and

Quad Cities nuclear plants). [3] The

actions in New York and Illinois

sustained more than 50,000 GWh

of carbon-free generation per year.

Meanwhile, Connecticut recently

estimated it would cost roughly

$ 5.5 billion to replace the carbon-free

generation from Dominion Energy’s

Millstone station with renewables. [4]

To understand the potential for

loss of carbon-free generation, Scott-

Madden identified four categories of

“at-risk” nuclear assets. Each nuclear

plant operating in 2008 (a date that

coincides with the rapid growth in

renewables) was reviewed and, if

applicable, placed into one of the

following “at-risk” categories:

• Retired – Any nuclear plant that

has ceased operations since 2008.

Some plants on the list had physical

Energy Policy, Economy and Law

While You Were Sleeping: The Unnoticed Loss of Carbon-free Generation in the United States ı Chris Vlahoplus, Ed Baker, Sean Lawrie, Paul Quinlan and Benjamin Lozier

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