ernabookXXL ENGLISH- 3.fass -



A Nazi-‘‘euthanasia‘‘-victim:



My laughter

is crying


english update| 06 | 2018 | 114 pages – DeepL Translator: german-english


Erna Kronshage – a Nazi-‘‘euthanasia‘‘-victim

Erna Kronshage –

Colored Photo-Portrait

with original signature -

around 1940




Where lies still lie

like unburied corpses

there is the way of truth

not easy to spot

and some are still reluctant

or find him too dangerous

The Truth Penetrates

and at the same time sends their seekers

back in history

and begins to tidy up

with the defamations

and with the hush-up

of the dead

A lot will hurt

make things awkward

but the truth is

the way of necessity

if the realm of freedom is not restored

should remain just an empty word

and only a laughing stock

for enemies and for the disappointed

Erich Fried –

translated with DeepL

from German into English

Resumes have a long memory. Personal

biographies as well as the common history. The

experiences stored in them can be

superimposed, hushed up, suppressed or

hushed up in the course of time, but not


Remembering is more than just taking note.

Those who remember or are remembered are

reminded of events and experiences of

personal and collective past, whether joyful or


The word says that remembering concerns us

internally, it concerns us. Some remembrance

requires courage and perseverance. Some

remembrance is a duty imposed upon us by the

will to justice and truthfulness towards guilt and


"Thinking about past matters," writes Hannah

Arendt, "means for human beings to go into the

dimension of the deep, to strike roots and thus

to stabilize themselves so that one is not

washed away by everything possible - the spirit

of the age, history or simply the temptation.

Dr. Hartmut Traub, Excerpt from the speech manuscript for

the memorial service for the victims of Nazi "euthanasia" on

27.01. 2017 in the German Bundestag

Childhood & School

Class photo - ca. 1930-32 - Erna 2 row from top left (white arrow)


The birthplace:



Senne II - a rural

community near


(Germany) –

House No. 6

Photo around 1940

Die Verortung: Ernas Welt


Erna was born 2 weeks before Christmas - on 12 December 1922 - in Senne II (today "Sennestadt").

She is the 11th and youngest child - and is "educated", and certainly “betüddelt” and spoiled, primarily by the

older siblings as nestling.

The Kronshage family lives on this farm, which they also manage with joint forces - their father still works 9 halfday

as a carpenter in a factory.

Entrance on the right - farmstead "Mühlenkamp"

visible in the background




Verler Straße 76 – 33689



The house - renovated - today


Hof Westerwinter

Erna Kronshages little world in

Senne II – with the "Mühlenkamp" as centre

of life... - on today's maps and aerial photos -

Nearby is the former station "Kracks“ / today

train stop “Sennestadt”


A 33

Erna Kronshages

little world:

Red grid square:

corresponds to the

"globe" - one page



Typical landscape of the “Senne” until the 1950s.....

This postcard motif shows the typical landscape of the "old" Senne - agricultural areas are streaked with small

scattered spruce forests, heathland, sand dunes, sand depressions. Until the construction of the "Sennestadt" in the

early 1960s, the Senne was sparsely populated - mostly with remote small farms........ Ernas Residence Senne II

was a small rural community on sandy roads - south of Bielefeld. with approx. 2,500 inhabitants …


Senne II - district "Kracks" - postcard from the 20s / 30s - the church and the inn Ramsbrock - bottom right - as village "Zentrum" 14


Senne II - excursion site on the southern slope of the Teutoburg Forest - with the former inn Ramsbrock - and the now crowded A2 motorway/Autobahn...


On New Year's Day 1923, Erna is

baptized Protestant-Lutheran in

the church of Senne II by

Pastor Jansen -

and on 21.03.1937 (Sunday

Palmarum) Erna Kronshage is

confirmed in the church of

Senne II by Pastor Holzapfel.

The confirmation ruling was:

"God is love; and he who abides in

love abides in God and God in

him." (1John, 4:16).


Die Familie Kronshage ca. 1930

The extended family Kronshage - photo around 1930

Top row from left: - Johanne/“Hanna“ *1913, Martha *1911, Frieda *1909, Emma *1906, Lina *1903,

Heini *1905, Willi *1917, Ewald *1919

Bottom row from left: - ERNA *1922 (also image section bottom left), Anna *1902, Mama Anna

*1879, Papa Adolf *1876, Adolf *1899 17

„In den Kugeln“ - In the bullets.- This painting by the painter Edgar Ende (1901-1965 - Father of the writer Michael Ende)

was created in 1932 - and on the eve of the Nazi disaster, it symbolically shows the wind of the

Industrial factory chimneys - and spherical cage globes around the doves of peace and around the spirit of man...-

a thoroughly humid and hopeless atmosphere...

Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of the “Reich” in Germany in 1933.


Planting a „Hitler oak“ at the square "Verler Dreieck" in Senne II - near the

"Mühlenkamp" (see map) on May 1, 1933 - Erna is 10.5 years old - and is certainly

one of them...

Illustrating pictorial material

Erna attends the

community school I in

Senne II 1929 - 1937


Illustrating pictorial material from the time:

A classroom from 1935 ...


Reproduction of the original school-leaving certificate for Erna Kronshage from 1937 - (grade cut 1.78) 23

Work as




Erna Kronshage works at home after school as a “housedaughter

in her parents‘ business”

At that time, the profession of "house-daughter" was the

professional title for a young woman who learned

housework until marriage - an activity that was "usual"

and widespread at that time.

She lives in her family - for pocket money,

accommodation, food and insurance - today this would

probably mean: "au pair", which usually also includes

childcare in the mostly foreign household.....

Adolf Hitler says about the role of women in Nazi Germany in

1934, among other things:

“We do not consider it right for women to enter the world of

men, into their main area, but we consider it natural for these

two worlds to remain divorced. (...) What the man uses in

heroism on the battlefield, the woman uses in eternally

patient devotion, in eternally patient suffering and bearing.

Every child she gives birth to is a battle she fights for the

existence or otherwise of her people."

Contemporary illustrative pictorial material


Erna goes with the handcart to fetch the "streussel" (cowshed bedding).

Erna and a little nephew...

Erna Kronshage grows up to be an adult woman...


The station "Kracks" - as it is still popularly

known today (train stop "Sennestadt" - now

demolished) - from the point of view of

Kronshagen's fields


illustrative visual material

At the "Mühlenkamp", the bicycles of commuters who travel by train from "Kracks" station to work in the

surrounding area are looked after from morning to evening... 28

Grammophone & radio "Volksempfänger" - plus the daily

newspaper and a few magazines - these are the

"entertainment media" of this time...

Illustrating pictorial material 29

The Kronshage siblings were normal "teenagers" of their time:

Ernas brother Willi plays the accordion at the Deelen door - and

brother Ewald looks almost like a "James Dean" blend - Erna

"adorns" herself with the military cap of one of her brothers.....


But then - during the war the "Mühlenkamp" serves to "secure

the food supply of the German people" in accordance with the

Nazi regulations - which is why Erna Kronshage as "housedaughter"

does not have to participate in other Nazi service

obligations for the youth - but is also "obligated to serve"...

The brothers are now soldiers, and the older sisters now have their own

families. Erna is pretty much on her own - with her old parents.

Erna "fights" herself with the handcart for an oak tree in the yard:

on the left of the bench seat we see the bicycles "parked" by the

commuters from the station "Kracks" to Paderborn and Bielefeld...


illustrative visual material

The bomb trauma


Illustrating pictorial material

Out of the clear sky: On June 2, 1940, a lonely English airman bombed the Westerwinter

estate on the opposite side of the road - 80 to 100 meters away from the Konshages...

Dieses Original-Foto

zeigt das Ausmaß

der Bombardierung …

… eine junge Nachbarin ... a young Ernas neighbor kommt is dabei killed ums - Leben –

ein junger a young Mann man dort there wird is seriously schwer injured verletzt - –

die the Hofgebäude farm buildings liegen in ruins...


This re-colored original photo

shows the extent of the bombing

of the neighbouring courtyard ...


A nocturnal inferno -

like out of the blue -

It hadn't bombed before.

in East Westphalia-Lippe...


The bomb craters

are about 80 - 120 m away

from the “Mühlenkamp”:

Circle of white: the "Mühlenkamp" - yellowish

marked in the foreground: one of the bomb craters ...

Translation of the press release from 04.06.1940:


Bombs on a senne farmstead

The sad heroic deed of a British aviator

In the night to Sunday a British aviator dropped several

bombs on the peaceful homestead Westerwinter in

"Kracks", which hit and partially destroyed a residential

house and an adjoining building. A young girl aged 22

was killed and a young man seriously injured by a

collapsing ceiling.

Ernas bomb trauma - out of the blue:

White circles: the "Mühlenkamp" - the red dots mark the bomb impacts

I don’t want anymore - I can’t anymore... …


In 1942 Erna Kronshage becomes sporadically unpunctual and

resists - she rebels against her parents and refuses her

cooperation - to which she is obliged.

Erna no longer wants to live and work at home - she feels tired and weak and overwhelmed -

and urgently needs a "break".

Erna finds herself in a kind of "goal-closing panic" to miss her life and sees no development for


She longs for "smarter people" and for appropriate social contacts that correspond to her age

and development...


At that time, Ernas mother turned to the Nazi social worker, "Brown

Sister" for short, because of Erna's unpunctuality and her disputes -

because of the brown costume of the Nazi sisterhood, who as the

"female elite troupe of the NSDAP" are to assess the respective

situations with their knowledge of hereditary and racial care in order to

report "behavioural abnormalities"...

And this "brown sister", eager for duty, sees in Ernas' arbitrary

dawdling real "behavioural abnormalities", for agriculture now has to

serve the "securing the food supply of the German people" in the war,

and only Ernas' unswerving duty there at home justified her exemption

from other Nazi compulsory events...

Erna Kronshage is therefore quoted for an examination by an official

doctor (comparable today to the examination of her ability to work by

the company doctor in the case of persistent unpunctuality at work...),

during which she then even asks herself to be admitted to the

provincial sanatorium in Gütersloh to become "fit" again - because she

has already been spurred on by her sister Frieda, who was

successfully restored there in only 4 weeks 3 years earlier after a "state

of arousal", without any hereditary health consequences..

Illustrating pictorial material:

A young Brown Nazi Sister

Erna now expects the same help so as not to disappoint her parents

any further....

And this initially confusing and seemingly naive desire to admit Ernas

to this "sanatorium", which she probably literally understood in this way,

is owed to the good experiences of Sister Frieda there...



Today’s explanations of the

causes of sudden

“insubordination” and

refusals to work:

• The progressive "loneliness" as formerly "betüddeltes" youngest child - as the "nest hook" of a 13-headed original family, which

has now gradually shrunk to a 3-member micro-family due to war missions of the brothers and sisters and the accompanying

departure of the older brothers and sisters from the parental home - with a big age and generation difference: Erna Kronshage

is still under 20 years old - her parents are already 66 and 63 years old...).

• The "moral dilemma": Erna Kronshage is torn between enjoying the nest warmth of the "Hotel Mama" on the one hand - and

age-appropriate aspirations for departure, separation and independence on the other...

• The trauma of war: the bombing of the neighbouring farm "out of the blue" - with the killing of a neighbour and the serious

injuries of a young man there and the almost complete destruction of this neighbouring farm as a whole... - the turmoil of war in

general - the fears for her 4 brothers at the front -

• the air-raid alarm and the bombing of a nearby factory...

• Summary of possible causes from today's perspective:

• physically overtaxed / intellectually undertaxed

• "unable to work" - needs a "time-out

• "Zero buck" phase (puberty - adolescence)

• Burn-out syndrome (physical overload)

• Depressive mood (no prospects for the future - no patience of friends of the same age - loneliness)

Post-traumatic stress disorder (bomb attack on neighbouring farm)

• Fear Syndrome (Fear of War - Worrying about the Brothers at the Front)


Erna wants to enforce this supposed "recreation"

stay against the will of her parents, who have


And so, probably on the advice of the "brown

sister", she makes "nails with heads" with a daring


To achieve this, she chats off her father's admission

papers from the public health officer - and hands

them over to a police patrolman who parks his

patrol vehicle nearby by chance.

In this way, she can undermine the consent of her

parents, because now, accompanied by the now

alarmed "Brown Sister", she spontaneously takes

the initiative - under the keyword: "Danger in delay!"

- as a "self and a person endangering the general

public" - direct into the sanatorium in Gütersloh.

Even if one is at first astonished about this "selfinstruction"

- but Erna tries for the first time actively

to take her person & health into her own hands -

and asserts herself for the first time against the will

of her parents...

illustrative visual material

On 24.10.1942 Erna Kronshage arrives at the provincial-sanatorium


- here are some contemporary postcards to illustrate the "culture shock" between such a "healing factory" in the spirit of Nazi

psychiatry and - for comparison - the rural and peaceful ambience of the parental "Mühlenkamp" farm...

Provincial-sanatorium Gütersloh

A real "culture shock": e.g. the comparison of your

sleeping chamber under the "roof-juchhe" at home

with the dormitory in Gütersloh, which permanently

smells of a mixture of sweat, vapours and sagrotan...

... and then the bare and sterile hospital corridors, in

which the voices of fellow patients echo...

illustrative visual material


Diagnosis: „Schizophrenia“


Erna’s first diagnosis is schizophrenia...

Upon arrival in Gütersloh, "schizophrenia" is surprisingly diagnosed, also due to the dawdling and the inexperienced

flapsy of the defensive attitude in the admission interview - but also the ominous 4-week stay of sister Frieda in the

sanatorium in 1939 is now given a new status in the family anamnesis by pedigree by the local Nazi psychiatrists - in

contrast, all external possible re-active or age and developmental trigger mechanisms for Nena's behavioural disorders

are simply ignored...

At that time, schizophrenia was understood to be a mentally conditioned hereditary disease that can develop slowly or

suddenly from within and without external causes.

According to today's understanding, schizophrenia is associated with an

• Loss of inner perception for what

• Reality or

• Dream or

• fantasy is and

• these different levels of time and realities flow into each other and intermingle.

The possibilities and channels to perceive oneself, to approach others and the environment - to be there for others or to

develop sympathies, to inspire oneself... -

... have suddenly and irretrievably fallen apart and fragmented in a schizophrenia as in many small snippets and shards

without a direct external cause...

And schizophrenia already at that time differs explicitly from all the temporary, sometimes peculiar states that are

"psycho-somatic", reflex-like without any action of their own, are physically triggered as protective-reactions when


external events present themselves as threatening or incisive for the soul...

Heredity (eugenics) was the "scientific" basis for exploring hereditary diseases - and was already taught in schools in

contemporary display boards at the time - and formed the basic theory for training in health, social and medical helper


illustrative visual material


By means of relevant diagrams, the theory of heredity was to be made accessible to the population...

illustrative visual material


The diagnosis "schizophrenia" was

then "alternatively" "calculated"

with the highly popular eugenics /

heredity and a family related

ancestor and clan table - often only

with the slightest "deviations from

the norm/conspicuousness" or in the

generation sequence far back in time

- and thus justified as "scientifically

proven" triggering possibility....

Especially the 4-week stay of Ernas

sister Frieda in Gütersloh three years

earlier now becomes Erna's "fate":

the "temporary state of excitement"

that was triggered at Frieda's

workplace at that time now becomes

a "psychopathic state of excitement"

in retrospect in the pedigree.

´- (Schizophrenia)" reinterpreted ...


Erna’s sister Frieda was released after 4 weeks stay

(25.02-25.03.1939) from the institution as cured:

In Frieda's medical history, the following criteria

are explicitly underlined on a routing slip:

2. Discharge promising

2. b) not toxic for reproduction

2. c) capable of reproduction

= so no hereditary disease !!!

Handwritten was added - but not filled out:

• form of the disease:

• Prospects of recovery:

• Report to medical officer:

• Resubmission noted to 4.4.39 -

• (but Frieda has already been released from the

sanitarium) –

• The confusing conceptualizations of the Nazi

doctors in retrospect for this "temporary state of

excitement" of Erna's sister Frieda in 1939 were

then reinterpreted in Ernas' documents:

• "as insanity in sanitarium treatment

• "as Psychopathic state of excitation


• "as transient psychological disorders that have

been interpreted as schizoid psychopathic


• But there is definitely no evidence of real

schizophrenia by Frieda...


This Schizophrenia therapy in the

course of "more active medical

treatment" (developed in 1929 by Dr.

Simon, then director of the Gütersloh

institution) was carried out in Gütersloh

around 1940:

"cardiazol shocks" for the artificial

triggering of epileptic seizures (which

later become known as electro-shocks) -

and the "Work therapy" (e.g. gardening

in the "work-crew", potato peeling

kitchen, etc.)

illustrative visual material

Erna is sent off to work therapy to peel

potatoes and to work in the nursery - but

she already knows that from home.


cardiazole shocks

occupational therapy


Artificial epileptic seizures are triggered to reduce

internal tension in people with schizophrenia.

This was done in Gütersloh with "Cardiazol", which

was injected into the arm bends.

A bite roll of gauze is grafted between the teeth to

protect against tongue bites in the cramp.

First there are strong feelings of fear - and then the

attack breaks out with convulsions, cramps and a

deep unconsciousness.

Afterwards Erna feels completely weak and

confused and can hardly remember anything.

After some series of seizures a panic fear of further

shocks arises.

"Cardiazol shocks" are therefore more a

punishment than a "relaxation" in the everyday life

of an institution...

illustrative visual material


A Cardiazole administration to trigger a seizure - here reproduced with illustrative and illustrative scene photos from

a film...

The Cardiazole is administered in a certain dose

Injection of the cardiazole into the vein of the arm bends


illustrative visual material

Experiencing the onset of the seizure phase as

so-called “aura" with often inner horror images...



The feeling of the traumatically experienced

"aura" passes over …


… into the seizure with gradual

Loss of consciousness...

un-off phases

with epileptic



A bite roll of gauze is grafted between the

teeth to protect against tongue bites in the



cramps of all limbs - including the toes


Muscle stiffeners with

Stretching and vibrating phases



Wake-up phase - fixations due to subsequent confusion

"After Cardiazole treatment, a little quieter“…

Entry in the physician's report of the treating psychiatrist in

Gütersloh on "activating" medical therapy with

Cardiazole cramps at Erna Kronshage

"After the cardiazole treatment

somewhat calmer" - and - "already

after the one-time suspension of the

treatment immediately restless,

almost constantly in motoric

movement" - at night - "loud senseless

talking..., twitching with the hands

and the head"...


Consequences and side effects of

cardialzol shock therapy

The "inventor" Ladislaus of Meduna suggests "regularly

triggering 30 strokes at three-day intervals" - an extreme

physical and psychological burden. ...

Intravenous injections of Cardiazol fight a torture with a

different torture suffered by the patients as a death or

end of the world experience. "Feelings of annihilation

arise," states the specialist literature dryly. Often enough,

Cardiazole shocks throw patients completely off course,

who feel the injection "like an electric shock". Others

experience "photisms" in the form of flashes of light and

red vision, or "pain up to the outermost end of the body".

Dr. Ernst Adolf Schmorl writes in 1938 in the "Allgemeine

Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie und ihre Grenzgebiete" about

the "influence of cardiazole cramp treatment on the

clinical picture of psychoses" using the example of 130

cases: In almost all of them he notes a "clear

disinhibition" or even a "linguistic unleashing".

Employment would be easier to manage. He claims to

have noticed a "certain grace of movement", but also

"fax syndromes" with a high degree of confusion.

Schmorl wants to suggest that the antispasmodic is

suitable for "immobilising", he always recommends

individual "cardiazole strokes". From the doctors' point of

view, this effect in particular makes martyrdom justifiable.

illustrative visual material

• "Throw a person with a behavioral disorder from the roof of

a skyscraper and let them suffer the dying experience to

the last possible point of intervention and catch them with

a blanket just before the impact.

• Praise this method as a therapy that has a quality of

experience that changes people at least for a certain

time... (see also the medical entries in the documents

about Erna Kronshage's sometimes spontaneous

"ridiculous and confused behavior").

• Such "final" chemically triggered experience models

certainly change the biochemical metabolism in the brain,

i.e. the messenger substances in the neurotransmitters,

which then naturally - positively or negatively - change the

behavioral possibilities of the brain in the future.

• The disciplinary aspect of most of these therapies,

especially the painful and dangerous forced shock

therapies, emerges from psychiatric self-reports.

• Benedikt Fontana, Director of the Waldhaus Psychiatric

Clinic in Chur, said in 1988 in retrospect of persistent

prisoners in his institution:

Source: Jürgen Schreiber: A painter from Germany - Gerhard Richter - Das Drama

einer Familie, Berliner Taschenbuchg Verlag, 2007, pp. 95-96

• “If they bucked,

• we had to shock them.”


A necessary note on Nazi psychiatry

In order to more or less understand psychiatry in the Nazi era, the image of man and

society that became internationally accepted in the 1930s on a "scientifically founded

basis" must also be taken into account. Eugenics - the doctrine of race and heredity -

was not only a German special "invention", but determined what was then, one might

almost say, "global" psychiatry knowledge...

In Germany it was the myth of the "Volksgemeinschaft" and a racist idealization of the

so-called "Ariertum", as well as the striving for a "healthy body of the people", which

can only actually be realized through exclusion and exclusion.

According to this ideological program, the "sick", the so-called

"Asocial" and "people with disabilities" selected, treated inhumanely and finally

liquidated and murdered.

Doctors, nurses, officials and numerous helpers carried the system of this "killing

unworthy life" with them...

Erna Kronshage knew little or nothing about these connections between war, time

spirit, eugenics and Nazi ideology and the fatal consequences, including the murder

of patients at the time of her wish to go to Gütersloh, or interpreted this as a rumour -

or suppressed it in order to finally assert herself against her parents in their quest for



illustrative visual material


Psychiatry Straitjacket


illustrative visual material

„Infertilization - Forced sterilization“

The Law for the

Prevention of Hereditary


was adopted shortly after the Nazi seizure of

power on 14 July 1933 as the first race law

in a long series of repressive measures and

came into force in January 1934.

The idea of the law was thoroughly racist:

"The aim of the inheritance and race care

appropriate to the German people is: a

sufficient number of hereditary healthy, for

the German people racially valuable families

with many children at all times. The idea of

breeding is the core content of the idea of

race. The future legal guardians must be

clear about the breeding goal of the German


so the comment of Gütt, Rüdin, Ruttke in: Law for

the Prevention of Hereditary Offspring of 14 July

1933, Munich 1934

Title Page of the Law Commentary

In 1934, the Nazis

enacted the "Law for

the Prevention of

Young Offspring with

Hereditary Diseases".

At that time it was

assumed that the


grandchildren or


of these people

could also be

mentally ill or


However, this has

since turned out to

be untrue.

Dr. Hartwich, then

head of Gütersloh

Hospital, thus

applied for

"infertility" for Erna


Left: Reproduction of the

original application for

"sterilisation" from Gütersloh

Adolf Kronshage with his favourite cow

Since Erna is not yet of

age (then 21 years

old), Ernas father still

has full custody.

He vehemently

opposed Gütersloh's

application and the

court's decision to

sterilize his daughter.

At the same time, he

repeatedly demands

that Erna be released

from the Gütersloh

institution because he

believes that Erna will

recover most quickly at

her home in the


For this reason,



developed between the

institution, the

"hereditary health

courts" and the father

of Erna.

Despite his poor

health, he fights

vehemently for his

daughter - and forces

with his objections that

at least two courts must

process the application

one after the other...

to the right: Excerpts from the

protest letters and resistance

submissions of the father to the

institution and the inheritance

health courts.


illustrative visual material

On March 29, 1943, a judge and two

psychiatrists sit at the table at Heil-Anstalt

Gütersloh. They form the Bielefeld

Hereditary Health Court and decide every

20 minutes on the sterilization of a total of

11 patients. Erna Kronshage is "presented"

there as the third "case" from 8.40 a.m. to

9.00 a.m.: without lawyer or help this last

measure is decided.........

Erna laughs with excitement and

embarrassment at the hearing. To the

question of the gentlemen why she laughs,

she answers recklessly with the actually

deep sentence:

"My laughter is crying".........

The minutes of the meeting then read:

"Erna Kronshage made a tense

impression at the hearing and

laughed for no reason. She said

that her laughter was crying” ...

And this behavior is now pathologically

interpreted in order to underline once again

the "schizophrenia" questioned by Ernas


But 20-year-old Erna laughs so as not to

cry, for she would be ashamed of these

men - to whom she is alone........


Reproduction of the original decision to sterilise the Hereditary Health Court of Bielefeld as the

first instance


Reproduction of the original decision to sterilise the Hereditary Health High Court in Hamm as

second instance


The "hereditary strains" that lead to Erna Kronshages diagnosis of "schizophrenia" and

thus to "infertility" through forced sterilization...

Schizophrenia is defined as an "endogenous" event - i.e. occurring suddenly or slowly from within - and not "exogenously" - as a reaction to

"external events"... - and consequently - according to the opinion of the time - there must also be a high genetically determined trigger

mechanism in the "genome" for this...

In the Erna Kronshage case, the Provinzialheilanstalt Gütersloh submitted the following information to the Hereditary Health Court in

Bielefeld: 1. from the medical report on infertility:

One of the father's

sisters was in hospital

for pregnancy psychosis.

An older sister of the

patients was in hospital

treatment for mental


The "mental illness" named by the "older sister" Frieda is described very differently in the further course of the hereditary health file:

• 2. entry from the "hereditary family tree": (the diagnostic suffix "schizophrenia" was added to Sister Frieda only upon

application for Erna Kronshage...)

(...) Gütersloh

Sanatorium 25.2.39 to

25.3.1939 due to

psychopathic arousal


• 3. Friedas "schizophrenia" becomes a "schizoid psychopathic state of excitement" again from the decision to infertility in the

2nd instance at the "Erbgesundheitsobergericht" Hamm - which was successfully treated in 4 weeks..:

... temporary mental

disorders have

occurred that have

been interpreted as

schizoid psychopathic



illustrative visual material

The execution of forced sterilization


illustrative visual material

The father's objections are of no use:

The Hereditary Health High Court in

Hamm finally decides that Erna is

operated on by a Dr. Stüwe on August 4,

1943 in the hospital in Gütersloh and

thus made "infertile".

In the "Medical Report" (left) it says

succinctly: "The wound healed in 7 days

without side effects"...




illustrative visual material

illustrative visual material

The bomb war and the front-line operation cause more and more deaths and serious injuries.

Hospitals and hospitals are therefore overcrowded - and from 1943 onwards people are

urgently looking for beds to treat the many injured. 72

Prof. Dr. Karl Brandt, Begleitarzt

Adolf Hitlers

Overcrowded spare hospital in a gym

"The thought that a war wounded

man has no bed because there is

already a mentally ill man in it is

unbearable for Hitler" –

Prof. Dr. Karl Brandt,

Adolf Hitler's personal physician and

Reich Commissioner for the Health


writes Manfred Vasold 2007 in the

"Encyclopedia of National Socialism".


Erna's father Adolf Kronshage has repeatedly demanded in the meantime that Erna be released from the

institution, and this could have also formally happened after forced sterilization: Meanwhile, however, there are

instructions from the Reich Ministry of the Interior - quote: "Prisoners who were ordered to the institution by

the police can no longer be released home because these "mentally unstable persons in air-raid

shelters... can very easily lead to disputes...". Therefore the "dismissal must be rejected"...

Erna Kronshage is inevitably trapped...

At the same time, in the course of the so-called "Aktion Brandt", beds are to be cleared in the psychiatric facilities

for the acutely necessary care and nursing of bomb victims and war wounded - i.e. for general hospital and

hospital needs.

The guidelines and guidelines were handed over directly and centrally from Berlin to the individual nursing homes

by the planners under the personal physician Dr. Karl Brandt, appointed by Hitler in 1943, as head of the entire

medical care system and coordinator of medical research.

There it was determined where and how much capacity should be redistributed accordingly - and according to

which selection criteria this should be done - see the "secret" letter on the assignment of patients to the respective

"service groups".

Recent studies show that, at least in Gütersloh, it was perhaps not so much these service groups or "behaviours"

or "sanctions" towards individual patients that were taken into account when drawing up the transport lists, but

rather the need to vacate apparently suitable residential areas in the area of the facility.

To what extent this deportation transport was communicated with the survivors on 12.11.1943 is not known...


Such "secret" orders also reached Gütersloh

illustrative visual material

Deportation: Implementation instructions in accordance with the (special) action Brandt: The medical institutions are partly evacuated in order to get free

places to care for civilian and uniformed war wounded by providing and converting them into military and civil hospital beds: And in this displacement process

the psychiatric patients in question are systematically named locally on a decentralized basis and "hunted down" with the deportation...

For this purpose there were "secret" implementation orders (see the two original letters above) to the individual hospitals involved. Thus, the patients to be

separated should be assessed according to service groups: who is still useful and who is a "useless eater". Then, as a rule, the deportation groups were put


Illustrating pictorial material:

The" Grey Buses" -

here for the trips of

Institution to the railway station ...

All deportation transports are carried out by the GEKRAT (alias: "Gemeinnützige Krankentransportgesellschaft"): a Berlin Nazi

organization that precisely coordinates this carriage driving to death despite war and air raids...

illustrative visual material

Erna Kronshage is deported on 12.11.1943 with 99 fellow patients.

The transport leads via Hanover and Berlin to German-occupied

Poland - to the "Tiegenhof", 630 km away - near the city of Gnesen. 77

From now on it's finally downhill: Erna Kronshage is part of the evacuation deportation to Gnesen

on November 12, 1943: about 630 kilometers...

illustrative visual material


People become piece goods:

Demonstration photo montage

The deportation patients are marked with leukoplast strips between the shoulder blades,

which cannot be manipulatively removed.


Foto: nach


illustrative visual material

Nazi euthanasia.



illustrative visual material

The historian Götz Aly

has calculated:

Approximately one in

eight adult Germans is

directly related to

someone who was the

victim of Nazi sick


And if you add the

married relatives,

almost everyone would

find someone in the


… jeder 8.


Deutsche …

Most families didn't talk

about it.

The murdered are



discussion of 22 April


Every 8th adult German …


If only one minute's silence were allowed for each of the approximately 300,000 victims of the

various "euthanasia" phases, it would be 5,000 hours of silence - well over half a year (0.57

years) or almost 30 weeks (29.76 weeks) or 208 days (208.333 days).


Nazi euthanasia-

PHASES 1939 - 1945

"Children's Euthanasia" 1939-1945

approx. 8,000 victims (handicapped children)

in approx. 40 "children's departments".

Killing type: different

"Action T 4" 1940-24.08.1941

at least 70,243 victims (centrally controlled)

6 killing facilities

Killing type: Gas

„Action 14f13" 1941-1944

approx. 20,000-30,000 victims

(concentration camp prisoners)

various killer sites

Killing type: different

Prof. Dr. Karl Brandt,

Adolf Hitler's accompanying surgical physician, SS

Group Leader and Lieutenant General of the

Waffen SS as well as Commissioner General for

Medical and Health Services, has been entrusted

by Hitler with the implementation and coordination

of the actions...

illustrative visual material

"Wild Euthanasia"/"Decentralized Adult Sicricides" 1940-


approx. 80,000 -120.000 victims (psychiatry and nursing


various killer sites

Killing type: different

"Action Brandt" 1943-1945

Evacuation of sanatoriums to the facility

of hospital beds for the war-disabled

"Air War Evacuation„

approx. 30,000-45,000 victims (psychiatry and nursing homes)

various killer sites

Killing type: „‘Luminal‘ scheme": reduced-calorie diet with slight

barbiturate overdose

Mentally handicapped and Psychiatric patients

are "useless eaters" for the Nazis, who only cost

money - but bring nothing - which impair the

"healthy body of the people".

From 1939 Hitler pursued a simple and quick "solution" and

gave the order to kill these people "by grace", "to redeem"


A questionnaire is used to select the people for these murders

of the sick by doctors:

There are three things at stake here:

• Who's the sick one?

• How severe is the disease or disability?

• Can and will he work?

In 1941, the first phase of centralized murder is interrupted

after a total of more than 70,000 murder victims ("T4"

campaign) due to interventions by isolated church people.

From the end of 1942, the "euthanasia" murders continued -

but now behind closed doors: with the support of the "T4"

organizations in Berlin, each sanatorium determined - for

various reasons - which patients as death candidates were

transferred to a killing sanatorium by special train. There are

mass murders with sleeping pills and starvation. Only simple

water soups are served, without nutrients, and dry bread with

Pell potatoes as topping.

At least 1,017 patients will also be deported from the

Gütersloh sanatorium.


Protests by churches through petitions, letters and sermons –

by intervention of the churches, the centrally controlled "T4" sick murders in 1941 are first stopped - but then from 1942/43

on, organized locally and continued on a large scale and in various phases of the process with the help of the central rope

teams from Tiergartenstraße 4...

Pastor Paul-Gerhard Braune,

head of Lobetal in the v.

Bodelschwingh Institutions -

His fight against "euthanasia" is

regarded as an important act of

Protestant resistance under

National Socialism. He

succeeded in preventing the

evacuation of the inhabitants of

the Hoffnungstaler Anstalten.

This fight against "euthanasia" and the conquest of the

Inner Mission led to his imprisonment by the Gestapo on

August 12, 1940. He was detained for three months in the

Gestapo prison in Prinz-Albrecht-Straße in Berlin.

In 1943 Braune stood up for arrested homosexual

inhabitants of the Hoffnungstaler Anstalten and wrote,

unsuccessfully, petitions for mercy for those condemned

to death.

Bishop Count von Galen, Münster –

sermon from the pulpit that now also in the

province of Westphalia sick people are

being removed from sanatoria and nursing

homes and the relatives were informed

after a short time that the sick person had

died and the body had already been

cremated. He had the "suspicion,

bordering on security, that one follows the

doctrine that "one may destroy so-called

life unworthy of life". ... "Poor people, sick people, unproductive

people because of me! But did they forfeit their right to life? Do

you, I only have the right to live as long as we are productive, as

long as we are accepted as productive by others?"

The sermons were initially spread throughout Germany - mostly

by typewriting - within small Catholic groups, but very soon

reached a wider public via workplaces and air-raid shelters.

In particular, the killing of war invalids, which the bishop only

described in subjunctive language as a possible consequence,

was taken up as an assertion of facts and considerably intensified

the effect of the sermons.

Since those in power came to the conclusion that secrecy in the

killing of the sick had failed and "euthanasia" had proved to be

unacceptable among large sections of the population, Action T4

was interrupted and only continued in a less conspicuous form a

year later.

illustrative visual material

from the cover picture of the DVD cover of the film "Tiegenhof", 2011

Gauheilanstalt Tiegenhof near Gnesen - in

occupied Poland

Name before and after the German occupation: Dziekanka/Gniezno

Aerial view - bottom left: Typical pavilion - top right: Main house on a book cover for

the 100th birthday 1994

illustrative visual material


illustrative visual material

Above the pavilion roofs of Tiegenhof

illustrative visual material

Above the pavilion roofs of Tiegenhof - in the background the silhouette of Gnesen/Gniezno

Block 13 in the Gauheilanstalt "Tiegenhof" in Gnesen - equipment for a Polish documentary -

Photo: Martyr Museum in Zabikowo from the film "Tiegenhof - - 2011 (Film – click here)


The Tiegenhof/Gnesen institution as a destination for deportation transport has

developed into a killing centre under the direction of Dr. Victor Ratka since


• From the end of 1939 to the beginning of 1945 - in a good 5.5 years -

almost 3,600 people were killed in "Tiegenhof/Dziekanka" according to

publications of the current clinic management - i.e. about 700 people per

year –

• that is an average of almost 2 deaths per day in an institution with an

occupancy rate of just over 1,000 patients from about 1943...

• this corresponded to an average mortality rate of at least 70 % per year.

• Especially in "Dziekanka" before the Nazi era, "normal" was a mortality rate

of only 1 to 2 % per year.

• From the end of 1939 to 1941, more than 1,000 Polish inmates were initially

murdered in Dziekanka - partly in converted small trucks as gas wagons in

which the exhaust gases were diverted to the loading area with the

"passengers"... (“SS Special Command Herbert Lange”)

• The latest research on Dziekanka/Tiegenhof assumes that 5,000 or more

sick-killers have been killed...


illustrative visual material


Dying Room, memorial plaque for the "Euthanasia" victims (1948),

Entrance Women's Pavilion

Still from the film "Tiegenhof", 2011



According to testimonies of witnesses in the post-war period, violent attacks also took place in Tiegenhof.

Administering the deadly drugs by the nursing staff... - Illustrating pictorial material

e.g. a fatless vegetable soup

result in the "yellow soup" as

creeping poison ...

+ dissolved sleeping pills

The mass killings of deportation patients from the "Reichsgebiet" from about the end of 1941 to the beginning of 1945

mostly take place according to Prof. Dr. Hermann Paul Nitsche's "Luminal Scheme" - which he first "scientifically" tests on

60 patients and then gradually refines and develops - and which he offers to the Nazi "euthanasia" directors of institution

for the decentralized/"wild" actions from August 1943 - after the first killing action "T4" discontinued in 1941:

The Luminal scheme consists of a so-called hunger diet with "yellow soup" = the administration of fatless food with

dissolved sleeping pills (barbiturates - e.g. Luminal) in only a slightly increased dose = so that death only occurs after

weeks or months. This death is then ultimately a creeping poisoning syndrome in the immune system weakened by hunger

food - specifically, infections such as pneumonia or bronchitis are the "official“ "natural" causes of death - or simply a

"complete exhaustion of the body" as with Erna Kronshage - without any external traces of violence - an almost "perfect"



Erna Kronshage is killed on 20.02.1944 in Tiegenhof/Gnesen.

It takes exactly 100 days from the day they arrive from Gütersloh until they are


Illustrating pictorial material


Dr. Victor Ratka - Director Tiegenhof

& T4 expert

• born on 27.11.1895 Ober-Lazisk - + 05.04.1966 Heitersheim), late

recognized Volksdeutscher as Upper Silesian and director of a Polish


• From 1918-1921 he studied medicine at the Albert-Ludwigs-University in


• Preliminary medical examinations 1918-1921 (Archive: B 73/51);

• Doctoral certificate of 01.10.1922 (Archive of the University of Freiburg under

D 11/83, D 29/27/1427);

• Ratka conducted studies within the framework of the David Julius Wetterhan

Foundation*) from 1917-1922 (Archive: B 1/619) ...

• ) .... in addition - from messages of the Jewish community of the city of

Freiburg/Breisgau: The private man David Julius Wetterhan from Frankfurt a.

M., who died here in September 1914, had established a foundation of

168,000 marks in his will at the University of Freiburg to promote natural

history and medical studies".

• In 1928 Ratka became senior physician of the Lublinitz institution;

• From 1934 director of DZIEKANKA institution in Gniezno/Gnesen (named

"Tiegenhof" after occupation in 1939), during the war a pure murder


• Ratka was recognized ("Germanized") as a native of Upper Silesia and as the

director of a first Polish sanatorium only later as a "Volksdeutscher"...

• Admission to the SA.

• From 01.09.1941 as assessor temporarily seconded to T4 headquarters,

selection of patients and concentration camp prisoners ("Aktion 14f13" -

selection doctor in concentration camps for the "segregation" of "antisocial


• 1943 Joined the NSDAP;

• in spring 1945 timely departure from Gniezno first to Thuringia - then

departing in the direction of the occupation zones of the Western occupying

powers - denazification proceedings in Kassel - classified there merely as


• Two judicial proceedings against him for his role in Nazi euthanasia activities

and in the Tiegenhof clinical were closed for "inability to negotiate or after his


• until his death on 05.04.1966 - at the age of 71 - retired as former director of

a "German sanatorium".


Fate of the deportation transport from the Provinzialheilanstalt Gütersloh to

Tiegenhof/Gnesen on 12.11.1943

• 12.11.1943: 50 men - 50 women - deportation destination: Gau-Heil- und Pflegeanstalt

Tiegenhof/Gnesen im Warthegau -

• 90 patients (42 men - 48 women -[including Erna Kronshage] are killed in Tiegenhof by the

end of the war - 10 (5 men - 5 women) die in the post-war period...

• The mortality rate of the deportation transport from Gütersloh to Tiegenhof from November

12, 1943 to the end of the war was 90%.

• (Source: Bernd Walter: Psychiarie und Gesellschaft in der Moderne, 1996, table p. 945 - excerpt)


Original death

certificate Erna

Kronshage of the

German occupation

authorities in

occupied Poland of


At the request of her parents, Erna

Kronshages' body is returned to

Senne II.

For this purpose, the coffin is

transported 600 km in a Reichs-Bahn

luggage van to the shunting tracks of

the "Kracks" railway station - in other

words, very close to Mühlenkamp,

where Erna was born 21 years earlier.

The family secretly opens the coffin

and checks superficially and

amateurishly whether traces of

violence are visible on the body.

On 5 March 1944 Erna Kronshage is

buried in the family grave at the old

cemetery in Senne II - today


Illustrating pictorial material


Although the cause of death on 20.02.1944 is indicated "officially" with "general exhaustion" (in the family one also

speaks again and again of "pneumonia") - writes Father Holzapfel of the community Senne II. on 05.03.1944 in the

death register: "Cause of death unknown. She died in a mental hospital in Tiegenhof, Kr. Gnesen." - This is perhaps

the silent protest of the priest who does not believe in a "natural" death.....



Above: Panorama of the cemetery Tiegenhof, from where the coffin is transferred... - Below left: Obituary and right:

Family tomb in Senne II - today this tomb unfortunately no longer exists...

• The tomb of the Kronshage family on the old cemetery

in Sennestadt has been levelled and completely

disappeared since 2013. Also the memorial in the

background - from which however the inscriptions at

another cross in the vicinity were taken over: In the

truest sense of the word "grass has grown over the

matter" -- because the old cemetery is mainly

transformed into a green corridor without individual

grave markings.

• Meanwhile there are "official" considerations to

preserve "historically valuable" gravestones - and yet

perhaps also to install a memento of Erna Kronshage

there on the grounds of the "Old Cemetery"...


Blumen am eingeebneten Grab Erna Kronshages – Video-Still aus dem WDR-Lokalzeit-

TV-Beitrag zu Erna Kronshage 2014 ...

6.12.2012: On the 90th anniversary of her birthday a "stumbling block" will be laid

in memory of Erna Kronshage

The artist Gunter Demnig sets a so-called "stumbling block" for

the victims of the Nazi regime's violence - in each case near

the last "free place of residence":

Here: near the residential building "Mühlenkamp" - at the

pedestrian crossing towards Kracks station - at the traffic

light/barrier crossing Verler Straße | Sender Straße |

Krackser Straße - in D-33689 Bielefeld-Sennestadt




Gunter Demnig

when laying the

stumbling blocks

The stumbling block in memory of Erna Kronshage near the

"Mühlenkamp" residential building


Ribbon of lights with names as a memorial for 1,017 deported "euthanasia" victims in the

hospital church in Gütersloh


Central memorial and information centre for the

Victims of the National Socialist "euthanasia" murders

Tiergartenstrasse 4 - in Berlin

Culture of Remembrance: Virtual Memorial Site


Click here:

Film „Tiegenhof“, 2011:


On this inclined plane there was no longer any hold...

Erna Kronshages 484 days of suffering in summary

• Spring/autumn 1942 - Refusal attitude and behavioral abnormalities:

• Admission "at one's own request" to the Provinzialheilanstalt Gütersloh on


• The rapid diagnosis of 10/1942: "Schizophrenia" =

• Application for "infertility" by the Gütersloh Sanatorium to the Hereditary

Health Court according to the "Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken

Nachwuchses" = 2/1943;

• The father as guardian repeatedly raises massive and vehement objections

• Decision in the 2nd instance: Forced sterilisation takes place in 8/1943

• Deportation to Tiegenhof/Gnesen (in occupied Poland) in 11/1943 for "air raid

protection reasons" or due to the provision of hospital beds for the care of war

wounded in the Gütersloh sanatorium - a Nazi killing centre active since 1939

within the framework of the various "euthanasia" waves.

• Murder by hunger and barbiturates on 20.02.1944 in the "Heilanstalt" Tiegenhof

Author and design of this magazine: Edward Wieand -

Mail: info(at) - extended update 7/2018

Translated into English with DeepL-Translator


Lecture on Erna Kronshages' ordeal at the Albatros School in February 2017 - a special needs school in Bielefeld-Senne

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