Golden State of Craft: California 1960-1985

This catalog is published in conjunction with the exhibition “Golden State of Craft: California 1960-1985,” organized by Craft in America in partnership with the Craft and Folk Art Museum. Curated by independent curator, Jo Lauria, the “Golden State of Craft” is on display at the Craft and Folk Art Museum from September 25, 2011 to January 8, 2012 as part of the Getty initiative, Pacific Standard Time: Art in L.A. 1945-1980. Pacific Standard Time is an unprecedented collaboration of more than sixty cultural institutions across Southern California, coming together to tell the story of the birth of the L.A. art scene. Pacific Standard Time is an initiative of the Getty. The presenting sponsor is Bank of America.

This catalog is published in conjunction with the exhibition “Golden State of Craft: California 1960-1985,” organized by Craft in America in partnership with the Craft and Folk Art Museum. Curated by independent curator, Jo Lauria, the “Golden State of Craft” is on display at the Craft and Folk Art Museum from September 25, 2011 to January 8, 2012 as part of the Getty initiative, Pacific Standard Time: Art in L.A. 1945-1980.

Pacific Standard Time is an unprecedented collaboration of more than sixty cultural institutions across Southern California, coming together to tell the story of the birth of the L.A. art scene. Pacific Standard Time is an initiative of the Getty. The presenting sponsor is Bank of America.


Create successful ePaper yourself

Turn your PDF publications into a flip-book with our unique Google optimized e-Paper software.


OF CRAFT:<br />


<strong>1960</strong>-<strong>1985</strong><br />

<strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art Museum<br />

September 25, 2011 - January 8, 2012<br />

PRESENTED by <strong>Craft</strong> in America<br />


This catalog is published in conjunction with the exhibition “<strong>Golden</strong> <strong>State</strong> <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>Craft</strong>: <strong>California</strong> <strong>1960</strong>-<strong>1985</strong>,” organized by <strong>Craft</strong> in America in partnership<br />

with the <strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art Museum. Curated by independent curator, Jo Lauria,<br />

the “<strong>Golden</strong> <strong>State</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Craft</strong>” is on display at the <strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art Museum<br />

from September 25, 2011 to January 8, 2012 as part <strong>of</strong> the Getty initative,<br />

Pacific Standard Time: Art in L.A. 1945-1980.<br />

Pacific Standard Time is an unprecedented collaboration <strong>of</strong> more than<br />

sixty cultural institutions across Southern <strong>California</strong>, coming together to tell<br />

the story <strong>of</strong> the birth <strong>of</strong> the L.A. art scene. Pacific Standard Time is an initiative<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Getty. The presenting sponsor is Bank <strong>of</strong> America.<br />

This exhibition is generously sponsored by Helen and Peter Bing, the<br />

Boardman Family Foundation, Forrest L. Merrill, and the Stolar<strong>of</strong>f Foundation.<br />

Additional support is provided by Cathleen Collins.<br />

This catalog is published by <strong>Craft</strong> in America with contributions by Jo<br />

Lauria, Emily Zaiden and Sharon K. Emanuelli. <strong>Craft</strong> in America is a nonpr<strong>of</strong>it<br />

501(c)3 organization. Lenders <strong>of</strong> artworks in the exhibition and photo credits<br />

are listed in the checklist.<br />

www.cafam.org<br />

www.craftinamerica.org<br />

Printed by Susan Ross Printing, Manhattan Beach, <strong>California</strong><br />

Front/Back: Ruth Asawa, Untitled, mid <strong>1960</strong>s<br />

p. 2: Kay Sekimachi, Nagare I, 1967<br />

p. 3: Mary Jane Leland, Zinnia, 1962-1963<br />

p. 4: Paul Tuttle, Tablet Chair, c. 1984<br />

p. 78: Katherine Westphal, The Puzzle <strong>of</strong> Floating World #2, 1976<br />

p. 79: Gerhardt Knodel, Flexible Wallpaper, 1969<br />

<strong>Craft</strong> in America<br />

© 2011 <strong>Craft</strong> in America, Inc.<br />

ISBN 978-0-615-52053-7


OF CRAFT:<br />


<strong>1960</strong>-<strong>1985</strong><br />

Contributions by<br />

Jo Lauria<br />

Emily Zaiden<br />

Sharon K. Emanuelli

Foreword<br />

6<br />

On behalf <strong>of</strong> the Board <strong>of</strong> Trustees and staff <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art Museum (CAFAM), I want to express my gratitude to<br />

Carol Sauvion and Jo Lauria for conceiving <strong>of</strong> this exhibition and bringing it to the museum. In the future we will be paying<br />

tribute to Jo and Carol in the same manner that we honor Edith R. Wyle and Eudorah M. Moore today. The <strong>Craft</strong> in America<br />

staff put enormous effort into the task <strong>of</strong> compiling, writing, editing and fundraising for this catalog and CAFAM is thrilled<br />

to benefit from their hard work. Sharon Emanuelli deserves special thanks for her impeccable research which illuminates a<br />

part <strong>of</strong> the grand history <strong>of</strong> the crafts movement in Los Angeles from <strong>1960</strong>-<strong>1985</strong>.<br />

Suzanne Isken<br />

Executive Director<br />

<strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art Museum<br />

Pacific Standard Time is an opportunity for celebration and reflection. I am pleased that <strong>Craft</strong> in America is working closely<br />

with the <strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art Museum to present “<strong>Golden</strong> <strong>State</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Craft</strong>: <strong>California</strong> <strong>1960</strong>-<strong>1985</strong>” as part <strong>of</strong> the Pacific Standard<br />

Time group <strong>of</strong> exhibitions. We can highlight an era that was truly a golden age for craft in our state. <strong>California</strong> was a birthplace<br />

<strong>of</strong> the New <strong>Craft</strong>s Movement, when artists brought individual expression to an art form that had previously relied on traditional<br />

methods to produce functional objects. The post WWII years and beyond, when craft programs were included in the <strong>California</strong><br />

university systems, was a time that educated studio artists to use the materials <strong>of</strong> clay, wood, glass, metal, and fiber to create new<br />

art that was <strong>of</strong>ten non-functional and always personal.<br />

“<strong>Golden</strong> <strong>State</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Craft</strong>” is also an opportunity to honor two <strong>California</strong>ns who initiated the excitement that surrounded the crafts<br />

at that time: Edith R. Wyle and Eudorah M. Moore. We cannot underestimate the importance <strong>of</strong> their contributions to the work<br />

that emanated from <strong>California</strong>, introducing craft materials and innovations to the larger art world. How fortunate we all are that<br />

these women worked to ensure the health and continuation <strong>of</strong> the handmade, what Eudorah refers to as the “unessential necessity.”<br />

I would like to thank Corinna Cotsen for helping to initiate this exhibition; Peter and Helen Bing, Cathleen Collins, the<br />

Boardman Family Foundation, Forrest L. Merrill and the Stolar<strong>of</strong>f Foundation for their support; Jo Lauria for her vision, Richard<br />

Amend for his exhibition design and Emily Zaiden and the staff <strong>of</strong> <strong>Craft</strong> in America for their work to realize this moment. Please<br />

visit the <strong>Craft</strong> in America Study Center to read and learn more about our golden state <strong>of</strong> craft.<br />

Carol Sauvion<br />

Executive Director<br />

<strong>Craft</strong> in America

a<br />

Paul Marioni<br />

The Visitor, 1984<br />

The artist intends this<br />

other worldly figure to<br />

appear non-threatening<br />

and his utterance, the<br />

“ooooooooo,” to be the<br />

“haunting echo <strong>of</strong> man.”<br />



a<br />

Eudorah M. Moore in<br />

one <strong>of</strong> her installations<br />

at the Pasadena Art<br />

Museum, c. 1969<br />

Courtesy Times Mirror<br />

Nelson Tiffany photograph<br />

9<br />

Protagonist for the <strong>Craft</strong>s<br />

Eudorah M. Moore, who describes herself as a “protagonist for the<br />

crafts,” has spent a great deal <strong>of</strong> her life advancing and promoting the<br />

work <strong>of</strong> the hand. She recalls:<br />

I think the way that I first became aware <strong>of</strong> the crafts, and therefore interested,<br />

was as a child going with my mother up high into the Appalachian<br />

highlands where there was an old chair maker who still spoke the Elizabethan<br />

English…We used to go up and collect his chairs because my mother<br />

loved them. It made me very, very conscious <strong>of</strong> the quality that went into<br />

really deeply traditional crafts, like the fact that the chairs never had a nail in<br />

them. The parts would bond together as the wood dried. They ended up being<br />

what they called ‘settin’ chairs. You can picture the old boys sitting back<br />

in their chairs and just settin’ against the house wall.<br />

Armed with this innate consciousness and her unflagging optimism,<br />

Moore, who graduated from Smith College, married and made her home<br />

in Pasadena with her husband and four children, became a driving force<br />

in what she likes to call the “New <strong>Craft</strong>s Movement”:<br />

...a recognition <strong>of</strong> different kinds <strong>of</strong> contemporary crafts that were <strong>of</strong>ten<br />

created as artworks by college educated people, and not just as functional<br />

objects. That was a whole other level <strong>of</strong> consciousness when relating to the<br />

crafts, and it’s the one that certainly I’ve spent my life in.<br />

<strong>California</strong> had a leading role in the “New <strong>Craft</strong>s Movement.” The<br />

central artists had gone back to college on the GI Bill and were applying<br />

a college attitude towards these age-old materials. This made a huge<br />

difference in what was produced. People who came back from the war<br />

had the opportunity to move into the art department. There was enough<br />

<strong>of</strong> a demand that all the crafts materials were included for the first time<br />

in the university curriculum, where pure research was <strong>of</strong>ten the mode.<br />

It brought a new dimension to the way people looked at the crafts. In<br />

Moore’s perception:<br />

...there was an efflorescence that was unbelievable. Art attitudes were assumed<br />

rather than the craftsmen’s attitude, which was to make an object <strong>of</strong> use.<br />

Moore became deeply involved in the life <strong>of</strong> the Pasadena community. She<br />

was a founder and first president <strong>of</strong> the Pasadena Art Alliance. She<br />

served on the boards <strong>of</strong> many cultural organizations including the Pasadena<br />

Arts Council and the Otis Arts Association. She was instrumental<br />

in the early planning and development <strong>of</strong> the new Pasadena Art Museum<br />

(now the Norton Simon Museum) in the late <strong>1960</strong>s, having initiated the<br />

activities for its creation and then serving on its Board <strong>of</strong> Trustees. Perhaps<br />

the most important work Moore would do began in 1961 when she, as a<br />

board member, asked then director Tom Leavitt if she could reorganize<br />

the “<strong>California</strong> Design” exhibitions that the museum had been putting on.

a<br />

Installation view <strong>of</strong><br />

“<strong>California</strong> Design Eight”,<br />

1962, Courtesy <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>California</strong> Design<br />

10<br />

The first seven “<strong>California</strong> Design” exhibitions<br />

had been annual shows <strong>of</strong> contemporary<br />

furniture from the Los Angeles Furniture Mart.<br />

Moore, however, had a different vision for the<br />

exhibitions; they became triennial, were juried,<br />

and potentially included virtually any object <strong>of</strong><br />

quality made or designed in <strong>California</strong> from tea<br />

cups to small aircrafts to children’s play equipment.<br />

Moore became Curator <strong>of</strong> Design at the<br />

museum in 1962 and held that position for 15<br />

years. She was also named Director <strong>of</strong> “<strong>California</strong><br />

Design” (which later became a separate<br />

nonpr<strong>of</strong>it organization) dedicated to exposition,<br />

education and publication in the fields <strong>of</strong> architecture,<br />

design and the crafts.<br />

Her visionary work on the exhibitions led<br />

to a unique coupling <strong>of</strong> design and craft. The<br />

exhibitions and accompanying catalogs caused<br />

reverberations throughout the United <strong>State</strong>s.<br />

Combining artist-designed furniture with handthrown<br />

pots; wooden rocking chairs with hot<br />

tubs; plastics with natural materials and photographing<br />

(together with photographer Richard<br />

Gross) these diverse and exciting objects in<br />

<strong>California</strong>’s spectacular natural landscapes was<br />

a breakthrough moment for craft and design.<br />

Moore likes to describe her approach as a<br />

bridge between design and industry, which was<br />

demonstrated and verified by the “<strong>California</strong><br />

Design” exhibitions. Her championing <strong>of</strong> the<br />

handmade elevated the work <strong>of</strong> dozens <strong>of</strong> artists<br />

while illuminating the importance <strong>of</strong> the crafts.<br />

The shows acted as a catalyst between manufacturers,<br />

craftspeople, architects and the public.<br />

They received international editorial attention.<br />

Moore looks back on her ideas for the “<strong>California</strong><br />

Design” exhibitions:<br />

It was very unusual, actually, to mix design and<br />

craft, and it was particularly pertinent at the<br />

time that we did it. I’m not positive that the two<br />

fields would be able to establish such dialogue<br />

anymore as they did then, but, at the time, as I<br />

talked to industrial designers, I felt that the process<br />

<strong>of</strong> design was very much the same as that <strong>of</strong><br />

the process <strong>of</strong> crafts. I can remember talking to<br />

Charles Eames about this, and his saying ‘they’re<br />

exactly the same. The only thing that’s different<br />

is the foreseen hand. When I’m designing<br />

these chairs, I’m designing them with the idea <strong>of</strong><br />

coming in multiples. Our idea is to get the cost<br />

down. The process is the same, although the<br />

a<br />

final intent is different.’ And it was that dialogue<br />

<strong>of</strong> the processes that kept the shows quite lively,<br />

and why we included both.<br />

The “<strong>California</strong> Design” exhibitions, in Moore’s<br />

view, had a special ingredient, the craftsperson:<br />

One <strong>of</strong> the things that intrigued me in putting<br />

up the shows was that all the craftsmen came<br />

up out <strong>of</strong> the woodwork and volunteered at the<br />

museum and wanted to help, doing whatever<br />

they could, not just for their own piece, but for<br />

everybody else’s piece. I can remember installing<br />

those shows at the museum and having literally<br />

fifty different volunteers who were helping us.<br />

There was that real sense <strong>of</strong> brotherhood.

Eudorah M. Moore<br />

positioning the Arthur<br />

Carpenter print stand<br />

during a photoshoot, 1968<br />

Courtesy <strong>of</strong> <strong>California</strong><br />

Design, Richard Gross<br />

photograph<br />

c<br />

Logo for “<strong>California</strong><br />

Design Nine”<br />

11<br />

c<br />

The manner in which artists were chosen to<br />

exhibit in “<strong>California</strong> Design” was in itself<br />

unique. Pieces were not judged by slides; rather,<br />

the jurors considered the actual pieces that were<br />

submitted in person. Artists brought their works<br />

to locations in Northern and Southern <strong>California</strong>.<br />

The pieces were deposited, juried, and<br />

rejected pieces were picked up. Moore describes<br />

the jurying process:<br />

I felt very, very strongly that the only way to<br />

jury an object was to look at that object. It<br />

was such work as you can’t imagine. We had a<br />

jury <strong>of</strong> three people for the crafts. We received<br />

thousands <strong>of</strong> objects from which we chose an<br />

exhibition <strong>of</strong> about five hundred. Then the photography<br />

started. We would receive in September,<br />

jury, and have the catalog ready for the show in<br />

March. It was an arduous thing.<br />

Because she understood the historical<br />

significance <strong>of</strong> the “<strong>California</strong> Design” shows,<br />

Moore insisted the exhibitions she directed<br />

have catalogs. Those for “<strong>California</strong> Design<br />

VIII, IX, X, XI, and ’76” are historical<br />

records <strong>of</strong> the fertile imagination and skill <strong>of</strong><br />

the artists who were represented in the exhibitions.<br />

In addition, the creative and forwardthinking<br />

photography used in the catalogs<br />

married craft and design with exteriors to<br />

accentuate the beauty and originality <strong>of</strong> the<br />

objects. The force behind this ingenious formula<br />

was Moore.<br />

In addition to the “<strong>California</strong> Design”<br />

series, while at the Pasadena Art Museum,<br />

Moore prepared and edited books and filmstrips<br />

on design as well as organizing and<br />

mounting a variety <strong>of</strong> other exhibitions and<br />

activities in the crafts, including: “Islands in<br />

b<br />

the Land,” about traditional crafts; the international<br />

fiber symposium, “Fiber as Medium”;<br />

and the historical exhibition about the Arts<br />

and <strong>Craft</strong>s movement before it was on anyone’s<br />

radar, “<strong>California</strong> Design 1910.” As she<br />

saw artists coming in with their objects at the<br />

last design show in 1976, she realized that she<br />

wanted to publish something that told about<br />

the craftspeople themselves and their way <strong>of</strong><br />

life. This was the genesis <strong>of</strong> a book titled The<br />

<strong>Craft</strong>sman Lifestyle: The Gentle Revolution.

a<br />

Stan Bitters<br />

Rock Stack Wall<br />

Courtesy <strong>of</strong> <strong>California</strong><br />

Design, Richard Gross<br />

photograph<br />

b<br />

Pamela Weir-Quiton<br />

Georgie Girl Seated Doll<br />

Drawer Chest, 1970<br />

Filled with whimsy and<br />

humor, this chest <strong>of</strong> drawers<br />

is highly functional as both<br />

bureau and bench. Courtesy<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>California</strong> Design, Richard<br />

Gross photograph<br />

12<br />

a<br />

to identify the needs <strong>of</strong> the field. The findings <strong>of</strong><br />

this effort, known as the National <strong>Craft</strong>s Planning<br />

Project, were brought to a National <strong>Craft</strong>s Congress.<br />

One might wonder how the art versus<br />

craft controversy, which was front and center<br />

throughout her career, affected Moore’s approach<br />

to the crafts. In a 2001 interview for<br />

<strong>Craft</strong> in America, her opinion was strong:<br />

b<br />

From 1978 to 1981, Moore went on to<br />

serve as <strong>Craft</strong>s Coordinator <strong>of</strong> the National<br />

Endowment for the Arts in Washington,<br />

D.C., with responsibilities for all craft-related<br />

endowment grants and activities. Under her<br />

leadership, a number <strong>of</strong> grant categories were<br />

added including Building Arts and <strong>Craft</strong>s<br />

Projects. She also developed an advocacy<br />

program aimed at generating commissions<br />

and bringing public attention to the crafts <strong>of</strong><br />

architectural scale and crafts integral to architecture.<br />

She supported a number <strong>of</strong> activities<br />

aimed at increasing scholarship and developing<br />

better communication in the craft field. Moore<br />

initiated and directed a broad participatory effort<br />

I don’t think that there is any question but<br />

that there is an ongoing art/craft controversy.<br />

My point <strong>of</strong> view about this is the fact that the<br />

entire creative act is one. My feeling is that the<br />

term ‘art’ actually is an accolade. It doesn’t have<br />

anything to do with intent, really. This person<br />

is an artist. And, to me, that person can be a<br />

craftsperson, maybe a potter, for instance. But<br />

some <strong>of</strong> the people who practice in those different<br />

categories are artists. And then, many people<br />

who paint and make paintings are not really artists<br />

at all. So, my feeling is that the word ‘artist’<br />

is an accolade that is given by others. And the<br />

word ‘craftsman’ is a noble word from my point<br />

<strong>of</strong> view because it bears back to tradition and to<br />

the formation <strong>of</strong> all objects <strong>of</strong> use with which we<br />

surrounded ourselves.<br />

I understand that some people think that the<br />

word ‘craft’ is a pejorative word that has negative<br />

implications and I disagree with that point <strong>of</strong><br />

view entirely because I think it binds this activity<br />

to the human race. It allows possibility to<br />

well up from below. It allows humanity to come<br />

in rather than elitism.

c<br />

Ruth & Svetozar<br />

Radakovich<br />

Children’s climber<br />

Courtesy <strong>of</strong> <strong>California</strong><br />

Design, Svetozar<br />

Radakovich photograph<br />

13<br />

Her views on creativity and art are compelling:<br />

I think all art is energy transfer to some extent;<br />

and the crafts, because <strong>of</strong> their hands-on nature,<br />

are very much so. In some way, you can sense<br />

when you look at a piece that has that energy,<br />

you can feel it; it is transferred. But that’s<br />

through time. You look at crafts through time<br />

and you can sense the energy <strong>of</strong> the makers. And<br />

I think this is one <strong>of</strong> the moving qualities <strong>of</strong> it;<br />

the palpable qualities <strong>of</strong> craft. And also the fact<br />

that the crafts essentially transcend time and<br />

they transcend styles. When you touch a pot<br />

that bears the imprint <strong>of</strong> the hand, it has that<br />

strength <strong>of</strong> the maker.<br />

Moore’s commitment to the arts continues as<br />

she is <strong>of</strong>ten invited to participate in conversations<br />

about the “<strong>California</strong> Design” exhibitions,<br />

the climate for the crafts in America now and<br />

the future <strong>of</strong> the handmade. When asked by<br />

curators Jo Lauria and Suzanne Baizerman to<br />

write an introduction to their book, <strong>California</strong><br />

Design: The Legacy <strong>of</strong> West Coast <strong>Craft</strong> and Style,<br />

Moore wrote:<br />

Now, thirty years after the last “<strong>California</strong> Design”<br />

exhibition in 1976, it is interesting to note<br />

that the best work <strong>of</strong> this period is re-emerging,<br />

being re-evaluated and being found as sound<br />

and interesting as ever. Time has silenced some<br />

<strong>of</strong> the strong voices, others are still productive<br />

and fresh, but review <strong>of</strong> the work reinforces the<br />

belief that quality speaks across generations and<br />

has enduring value.<br />

In this statement, Moore could be speaking<br />

about herself. Certainly her work, which stands<br />

as a documentation <strong>of</strong> the golden age <strong>of</strong> craft<br />

in <strong>California</strong> and the nation, is as sound and as<br />

interesting as it was almost fifty years ago. The<br />

quality <strong>of</strong> her work speaks across generations<br />

and has enduring value.<br />



a<br />

Edith R. Wyle in her<br />

1984 installation <strong>of</strong><br />

“Masks in Motion” at<br />

CAFAM organized for the<br />

Olympic Arts Festival<br />

15<br />

An Eye for the Handmade<br />

“What I’m aiming for now…is to undeaden the senses. I want<br />

to shock people into seeing and feeling and hearing.”<br />

- Edith R. Wyle<br />

Late in 1964, as weaver Bette Chase sat in Edith Wyle’s studio, distracting<br />

her from painting, the ideas popped out. Edith pictured Bette sitting<br />

at her loom in a gallery with museum-quality folk art and contemporary<br />

crafts. She could run a small restaurant, too. Wyle intended only to be a<br />

“silent partner”; she was committed to her art career. Though neither had<br />

any experience with such a business, Edith was eager to figure it out and<br />

Bette happily went along.<br />

Frank Wyle — president <strong>of</strong> Wyle Laboratories, an aerospace company<br />

— reluctantly agreed to support his wife’s venture if she could capitalize<br />

it. In less than three weeks, she had raised $75,000 from 30 couples and<br />

individuals, all friends interested in art.<br />

The Egg and The Eye opened on November 1, 1965, with seven<br />

hundred celebrants lined up at the front door and crowded into the tented<br />

parking lot. It occupied the eastern half <strong>of</strong> the ground floor and mezzanine<br />

<strong>of</strong> an historic building on the Miracle Mile, near the new Los<br />

Angeles County Museum <strong>of</strong> Art (LACMA). Wyle was the buyer and<br />

exhibit designer, Chase was the manager. Architect and “shareholder” Guy<br />

Moore designed the interior. Others volunteered in the restaurant and<br />

gallery and began to plan events. They had hastily installed shows <strong>of</strong><br />

Eskimo sculpture, furniture by J.B. Blunk, and rugs by Richard Phipps.<br />

Sam Malo<strong>of</strong>’s furniture and Jerry Glaser’s wooden vessels shared a sales<br />

area with ceramists Beatrice Wood and Harrison McIntosh. In the mezzanine<br />

restaurant, Chef Rodessa Moore served an array <strong>of</strong> 30 omelettes,<br />

each with a particular ethnic inspiration.<br />

“Everybody is talking about The Egg and The Eye!” read a Vogue<br />

Magazine headline. Art Seidenbaum extolled the combination <strong>of</strong> good<br />

food and art in his popular Los Angeles Times Spectator column. Ten<br />

weeks after opening, a panel discussion, “The Place <strong>of</strong> the Handcraftsman<br />

in Today’s Society,” was taped for Pacifica’s radio stations in Los Angeles,<br />

San Francisco, and Boston.<br />

Wyle’s energy, her warm exuberance, confident aesthetic sense, intuitive<br />

grasp <strong>of</strong> social conditions and networking ability drove the project.<br />

Although she remained a supporter, Bette Chase would leave the partnership<br />

in 1967. Dorothy Garwood, a former ceramics pr<strong>of</strong>essor, was hired<br />

as the contemporary craft specialist. Although Wyle could be caught<br />

sketching during meetings and lectures, she never returned to her studio.<br />

Trends in the field <strong>of</strong> Fine Art were moving in a direction foreign to me. Pop<br />

art and ‘non-art’… left me [a ‘humanist-expressionist’ painter] increasingly<br />

with a feeling <strong>of</strong> futility. Suffice it to say, I was vulnerable and groping for<br />

something meaningful and honest with which to engage myself. A gallery<br />

dealing exclusively with crafts and folk art became my answer.<br />

Some collections were provided by importers and researchers but most <strong>of</strong><br />

the folk art and some contemporary crafts were collected on Wyle’s travels.<br />

She became a certified dealer <strong>of</strong> Eskimo art after visiting the Canadian Inuit<br />

<strong>of</strong> Cape Dorsett in 1967 with artist James Houston, who had discovered<br />

Inuit sculpture for the outside world and introduced printmaking to them.

16<br />

b<br />

a<br />

In April 1972, the Wyles were with the first<br />

American group invited to China following<br />

President Nixon’s historic détente. Other buying<br />

trips took her to Israel, Yugoslavia, Norway, India,<br />

Japan and Africa.<br />

The role <strong>of</strong> display was crucial to Wyle’s<br />

concept, which she based on a fine art model<br />

that would “force the public to see the art” in<br />

these objects and give prominence to the makers,<br />

including those viewed as folk artists. Invitations<br />

<strong>of</strong>ten featured portraits <strong>of</strong> the artists, rather than<br />

their objects, perhaps reflecting this priority,<br />

and names were clearly labeled in the gallery.<br />

<strong>Craft</strong>speople received their asking prices and<br />

participated in setting retail values. Sam Malo<strong>of</strong>,<br />

J.B. Blunk, and Carter Smith had their first solo<br />

exhibitions in the intimate galleries. They also<br />

staged influential group shows like “West Coast/<br />

New Frontiers in Glass,” the first survey <strong>of</strong> studio<br />

glass in the region in 1973, and the collage-style<br />

clothing <strong>of</strong> “Three Designing Women” in 1972.<br />

Much <strong>of</strong> the work shown was new to the<br />

audience and there was an intense flow <strong>of</strong> ideas<br />

among shareholders, staff and patrons. Yet, there<br />

was always tension between business goals and<br />

ambitious programming. In 1967, The Egg and<br />

The Eye Association began charging membership<br />

fees to meet demand for educational and social<br />

activities, volunteers were publishing a quarterly<br />

newspaper, and weekly film screenings were<br />

<strong>of</strong>fered. The staff created a wholesale business<br />

with mail-order catalogs. Wyle organized the<br />

first international group tour. An extensive guide<br />

to craft lessons was published and they began<br />

providing exhibitions to factories, banks, and<br />

colleges, inspired by her concern that working<br />

people have access to the arts and see their own<br />

heritages represented.<br />

“Multisensory” experiences were characteristic<br />

<strong>of</strong> gallery programming. Ethnic foods were<br />

served. Musicians, singers, dancers and theater<br />

groups were hired and craft demonstrations,<br />

workshops, and lectures covered all possible<br />

aspects. From the beginning, The Egg and<br />

The Eye provided a venue and gathering place<br />

for artists and craftspeople, musicians, actors,<br />

historians, anthropologists and collectors. Some<br />

became important advisors, introducing Wyle to<br />

an international milieu with similar interests. In<br />

Wyle’s words:<br />

Apparently, the need for such a place was acute.<br />

As one <strong>of</strong> our members put it, ‘I live in such a<br />

mechanized world that when I come to The Egg<br />

and The Eye it’s like returning to the womb—<br />

touching home base… Here things are made by<br />

hand, and I’m with other human beings who<br />

respond to these objects aesthetically, as I do.’

a<br />

The first show at The Egg<br />

and The Eye displaying<br />

the installation <strong>of</strong> the<br />

mezzanine’s ceramic<br />

balustrade by Stan Bitters,<br />

1965, Courtesy <strong>of</strong> Charles<br />

E. Young Research Library,<br />

UCLA.<br />

b<br />

The Egg and The Eye logo<br />

was one <strong>of</strong> several iconic<br />

images Milton Zolotow<br />

created for the gallery<br />

and CAFAM. Courtesy <strong>of</strong><br />

Charles E. Young Research<br />

Library, UCLA.<br />

It was a socially turbulent time, with rising<br />

global awareness. As more young people were<br />

traveling widely, a renewed craft movement<br />

was underway, fueled by the pre-war influx <strong>of</strong><br />

European immigrant artists, influence from<br />

Asian philosophies, the GI Bill for advanced<br />

education and the resultant expansion <strong>of</strong> college<br />

art departments. Along with major civil rights<br />

legislation, Congress created the National Endowments<br />

for the Arts (NEA) and Humanities<br />

(NEH) in 1965.<br />

As the gallery plans took shape, Wyle<br />

made important personal connections. Sam<br />

Malo<strong>of</strong> introduced her to Aileen Osborn Webb,<br />

founder <strong>of</strong> the American <strong>Craft</strong>smen’s Council<br />

and the World <strong>Craft</strong> Council (WCC), and<br />

other leaders. He sent letters to collectors and<br />

craftspeople encouraging their support for the<br />

gallery. Beatrice Wood, an old friend, gave her<br />

mailing list <strong>of</strong> 900 names. Wyle became active<br />

with the American <strong>Craft</strong>smen’s Council and<br />

on the board <strong>of</strong> Southern <strong>California</strong> Designer<br />

<strong>Craft</strong>smen. She attended the second meeting<br />

<strong>of</strong> the WCC in 1966, joined the Board <strong>of</strong><br />

Directors in 1974 for two years, took associates<br />

to the congress in Peru, and remained involved<br />

into the early 80s.<br />

In an April 1966 interview for the Los Angeles<br />

Times, just five months after opening, Wyle mentioned<br />

the desire to establish a museum.<br />

The building was eventually purchased in<br />

1969, doubling exhibition, sales, programming<br />

and restaurant space. With that accomplished,<br />

she spoke about her plans to the Miracle Mile<br />

Association <strong>of</strong> business owners and began soliciting<br />

support among community leaders.<br />

While she perceived a need to preserve objects<br />

that seemed increasingly rare as traditional cultures<br />

had more interaction with the larger world,<br />

and had at first depended mainly on her own<br />

aesthetic judgment, Wyle also came to understand<br />

the primary importance <strong>of</strong> the makers’ perspectives<br />

in the presentation <strong>of</strong> their work. A 1974<br />

proposal for the museum contained this appraisal:<br />

Man is desperately searching for his roots…[He]<br />

now knows it is not enough to be human; in order<br />

to survive, he must become humane...Folk art and<br />

crafts are vitally important to this search, for it<br />

is in these always direct, <strong>of</strong>ten simple expressions<br />

that man exposes his deepest needs to relate both<br />

to his fellow man and the cosmos.<br />

Since the 1930s there had been many significant<br />

<strong>California</strong> craftspeople, some <strong>of</strong> them college<br />

teachers, who helped set the national stage for a<br />

post-World War II craft resurgence. Still, in the<br />

<strong>1960</strong>s, commercial art galleries only occasionally<br />

exhibited craft-associated media, usually ceramics,<br />

and there were infrequent museum exhibitions. In<br />

1965, when The Egg and The Eye opened, crafts<br />

were rarely seen in the state outside <strong>of</strong> fairs.<br />

News <strong>of</strong> The Egg and The Eye spread internationally,<br />

but Wyle rejected requests to duplicate<br />

it in other cities. It was probably the first art<br />

gallery anywhere to combine contemporary and<br />

traditional crafts with an international perspective,<br />

and certainly to give equivalence to the<br />

cultural aspects <strong>of</strong> cooking. Although the New<br />

York-based WCC formed in 1964, joined proponents<br />

<strong>of</strong> the village artisan and the urbanized<br />

designer-craftsman, explicit linkage between the<br />

two was rare. In 1965, there were no West Coast<br />

museums dedicated to either field.<br />


a<br />

Installation from “John<br />

Cederquist: Deceptions,”<br />

1983, Jeffrey Gates<br />

photograph<br />

b<br />

Opening reception for<br />

“Made in L.A.”, 1981.<br />

John Garrett’s weaving<br />

is displayed on the wall<br />

and Bernard Kester, guest<br />

curator, is center left, in<br />

the bow tie.<br />

18<br />

The Egg and The Eye Cultural Center was<br />

incorporated in 1973, initiating the arduous<br />

transition from business to educational institution.<br />

The <strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art Museum (CAFAM)<br />

opened to the public on August 3, 1975, to exhibit,<br />

collect and educate the public about world<br />

folk art and contemporary crafts. Ideas for the<br />

new museum were expansive. A collection, slide<br />

registry, proper library, exhibition catalogs and<br />

better documentation now seemed possible.<br />

CAFAM was one <strong>of</strong> many new arts centers<br />

founded across the country during the 1970s<br />

and 80s in an increasingly complex social and<br />

funding environment. Support came from local<br />

interest in quality <strong>of</strong> life, government and<br />

corporate enthusiasm for cultural involvement.<br />

Recovery from recession was being led by <strong>California</strong>’s<br />

newly identified “Pacific Rim” economy.<br />

Concurrently, LACMA and others began to<br />

develop their own collections <strong>of</strong> craft media.<br />

More culture-specific museums were forming.<br />

Sales outlets for traditional and contemporary<br />

crafts had become more prevalent. <strong>California</strong><br />

property taxes, the main source for education<br />

funding, were severely cut just as Los Angeles<br />

was discovering itself to be a primary destination<br />

for immigrants <strong>of</strong> all nationalities and<br />

more than eighty languages were being spoken<br />

by school children.<br />

Wyle continued her far-sighted leadership.<br />

She <strong>of</strong>ten spoke about her vision <strong>of</strong> “a living<br />

museum” and “museum without walls.” She<br />

supported the application <strong>of</strong> new forms and<br />

the observation <strong>of</strong> process and ritual, working<br />

a<br />

continuously to take art out to the community<br />

and to make the community feel welcome as<br />

active, rather than passive, participants in the<br />

museum. She grappled with terminology and<br />

expanding definitions and found the museum’s<br />

name problematic.<br />

A hallmark <strong>of</strong> CAFAM programming<br />

has been the search for shared themes among<br />

cultures, both traditional and contemporary. In<br />

1976, Mayor Tom Bradley announced that Los<br />

Angeles had more ethnic and cultural groups<br />

per square mile than any other city in the world.<br />

This caused a shift in Wyle’s thinking, from a<br />

focus on traditions where they originated, to<br />

recognizing the local resources available for<br />

cultural sharing. The immediate result was the<br />

October 1976 Parade <strong>of</strong> Masks and, in 1977, the<br />


c<br />

This installation from<br />

“American Porcelain”<br />

features a Jerry Rothman<br />

“Ritual Vessels” (third<br />

from right).<br />

19<br />

c<br />

Festival <strong>of</strong> Masks, co-sponsored by Los Angeles<br />

County Department <strong>of</strong> Parks and Recreation,<br />

which continued through the 90s. Cultural<br />

groups were invited to large community meetings,<br />

galvanizing participation by over 100 different<br />

entities, representing multiple ethnicities<br />

and traditions as well as experimental modes.<br />

It was the region’s first major multicultural outdoor<br />

event. First-year attendance was estimated<br />

at 30,000 and grew in succeeding years.<br />

Wyle’s ongoing interest in researching local<br />

cultures resulted in the Preservation <strong>of</strong> Ethnic<br />

Traditions (PET) project to document ethnically<br />

based artisans in Los Angeles from 1979-82.<br />

She was responsible for bringing “Japan Today”<br />

— the first <strong>of</strong> several NEA/NEH-sponsored<br />

“Today” festivals the museum would lead — to<br />

Los Angeles in 1979, and coordinated local<br />

organizations’ participation. These elaborate<br />

undertakings involved many museums and performance<br />

spaces, heads <strong>of</strong> state and diplomatic<br />

corps as well as extensive fundraising.<br />

Wyle retired in 1984 with the title <strong>of</strong><br />

Founder/Director Emeritus. Patrick H. Ela,<br />

Administrative Director from 1975-82, and<br />

then Executive Director, soon began a process<br />

to re-evaluate the museum’s programs and<br />

support structure. Wyle continued to serve on<br />

the Board <strong>of</strong> Trustees until her death in 1999.<br />

While common definitions <strong>of</strong> craft, folk art,<br />

and design were employed, museum interest<br />

overlapped into sculpture and painting as well<br />

as popular culture. This “wavy line” approach<br />

acknowledged the realities <strong>of</strong> creativity as well<br />

as the relationship <strong>of</strong> the disciplines to each other<br />

and to the larger fields <strong>of</strong> art, anthropology and<br />

culture. The founding ideals <strong>of</strong> The Egg and The<br />

Eye had been continued and amplified in the<br />

<strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art Museum. Regarding contemporary<br />

crafts, a CAFAM narrative from 1981 noted:<br />

The Egg and The Eye became the first real home<br />

for contemporary crafts on the West Coast.<br />

Because the basic assumption was that this art was<br />

worthy <strong>of</strong> serious critical attention, the gallery was<br />

influential nationally in publicizing and validating<br />

an already fast-growing aesthetic movement.<br />

That movement … became an enormous wave,<br />

which is now changing the character <strong>of</strong> the entire<br />

ocean that is the art world at large.


a<br />

Merry Renk<br />

Ate by Ate, 1976<br />

To make this piece, Renk<br />

used a torch to cut the<br />

shapes that she interlocked<br />

into place, creating<br />

an amazingly delicateappearing<br />

floral sculpture.<br />

21<br />

Curator’s <strong>State</strong>ment<br />

This exhibition began as a lunchtime conversation among friends and colleagues.<br />

Our group marveled at the Getty Foundation’s Pacific Standard<br />

Time initiative, which would encourage institutions from Santa Barbara to<br />

San Diego to develop exhibitions focusing on the art <strong>of</strong> Southern <strong>California</strong><br />

from 1945-1980. Carol Sauvion shared this information with the<br />

group. She was interested in finding a way for <strong>Craft</strong> in America and the<br />

<strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art Museum (CAFAM) to be involved. Thus far, no participating<br />

institution was addressing the history <strong>of</strong> <strong>California</strong> crafts.<br />

Everyone at the table agreed that a recounting <strong>of</strong> the importance <strong>of</strong> crafts<br />

in <strong>California</strong> could not be told without including two visionary women whose<br />

leadership advanced the craft and design fields: Edith R. Wyle, founder <strong>of</strong> the<br />

<strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art Museum, and Eudorah M. Moore, director <strong>of</strong> the “<strong>California</strong><br />

Design” series <strong>of</strong> the Pasadena Art Museum. Through their dedication, ingenuity,<br />

and savoir-faire they created a community in which craft and design flourished.<br />

It was established that work made throughout <strong>California</strong> would be<br />

considered, as the creative surge was statewide. Carol Sauvion initiated<br />

a partnership between <strong>Craft</strong> in America and the <strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art<br />

Museum, facilitated by Corinna Cotsen, board member <strong>of</strong> both organizations.<br />

Once the partnership was launched, the venue confirmed, and<br />

funding secured, I was brought on to curate an exhibition that would<br />

explicate the period <strong>of</strong> craft history from the <strong>1960</strong>s through mid-1980s,<br />

an era referred to as the postwar craft renaissance and a time defined by<br />

an explosion <strong>of</strong> creativity and innovation. The entire spectrum <strong>of</strong> craft<br />

work, from the handmade object <strong>of</strong> the studio artist to the prototype<br />

made for manufacture by the designer-craftsman, would need to be<br />

included if the story <strong>of</strong> this period were to be fully told.<br />

Eudorah M. Moore once famously remarked: “…all <strong>of</strong> life is a door<br />

to a door to a door,” and I needed to find the point <strong>of</strong> entry. Fortunately,<br />

Joan Benedetti, CAFAM’s former librarian and archivist, and<br />

Lois Boardman, last director <strong>of</strong> “<strong>California</strong> Design,” had the foresight<br />

to safeguard their organization’s archives.<br />

We began by creating a list <strong>of</strong> artists whose work had appeared in<br />

shows at both sites — artists whom Wyle and Moore had validated as<br />

the leading figures <strong>of</strong> the craft movement by their invitation to exhibit.<br />

This select group represented the core <strong>of</strong> the checklist for “<strong>Golden</strong> <strong>State</strong><br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>Craft</strong>: <strong>California</strong> <strong>1960</strong> -<strong>1985</strong>” but we extended it to include artists<br />

whose work had shown at only one <strong>of</strong> the venues but who were identified<br />

as major players in the advancement <strong>of</strong> the craft and design fields.<br />

These artists are the source <strong>of</strong> the more than ninety compelling objects<br />

on display in the exhibition. Collectively, they make a strong statement<br />

for the integrity <strong>of</strong> the hand and are testament to the vigor and richness<br />

<strong>of</strong> the New <strong>Craft</strong>s Movement that took root in <strong>California</strong>’s fertile soil.<br />

Jo Lauria<br />

Curator<br />

<strong>Golden</strong> <strong>State</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Craft</strong>: <strong>California</strong> <strong>1960</strong>-<strong>1985</strong><br />

September 2011


a<br />

Raul Angulo Coronel<br />

Covered Vessel, 1982<br />

Recognized as ceramic<br />

pioneer, Coronel’s vessel<br />

<strong>of</strong> impressive scale is a<br />

testament to his virtuosity.<br />

23<br />

<strong>Craft</strong> in the <strong>Golden</strong> <strong>State</strong><br />

<strong>California</strong> at mid-twentieth century experienced a bold and vibrant renaissance<br />

in the craft field. The New <strong>Craft</strong>s Movement, as christened by<br />

Eudorah M. Moore, director <strong>of</strong> the “<strong>California</strong> Design” program <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Pasadena Art Museum, had its roots traceable to the period in <strong>California</strong><br />

when the Arts and <strong>Craft</strong>s movement flourished from the 1880s to<br />

the 1920s. The Arts and <strong>Craft</strong>s movement left its philosophical imprint<br />

on the cultural consciousness <strong>of</strong> <strong>California</strong>ns. Widely influential and<br />

broadly promoted throughout the state, the movement upheld beliefs<br />

that affected patterns and philosophies <strong>of</strong> living: it endorsed a lifestyle<br />

that favored rustic simplicity; placed emphasis on environmentalism<br />

and the use <strong>of</strong> indigenous materials; advocated for the handcrafted over<br />

the machine made; and honored nature as the wellspring <strong>of</strong> inspiration.<br />

These tenets lingered on from San Francisco to San Diego but lost their<br />

stronghold in the 1940s when <strong>California</strong>ns shifted their attention to the<br />

exigencies <strong>of</strong> wartime efforts.<br />

Within the decade that spanned 1940 to 1950, <strong>California</strong> underwent a<br />

massive population expansion. At the beginning <strong>of</strong> the war, people poured<br />

into the state to fill defense, aerospace, and shipyard jobs that had been<br />

created by war-era industries. At the end <strong>of</strong> the war, thousands <strong>of</strong> returning<br />

veterans chose to stay and make <strong>California</strong> their newfound home.<br />

Many <strong>of</strong> them enrolled in college programs using funding provided by the<br />

GI Bill <strong>of</strong> Rights to pay tuition. The population influx fueled a housing<br />

boom, stimulated <strong>California</strong>’s economy, created an unparalleled period <strong>of</strong><br />

postwar prosperity and drove the expansion <strong>of</strong> the state’s college system.<br />

Between 1947 and <strong>1960</strong>, sixteen new college campuses were built. This<br />

prodigious development was intended to fulfill the state’s mandate to make<br />

“higher education accessible to all” (The Donahoe Higher Education Act<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>1960</strong>), and to accommodate the surge in enrollment that would occur<br />

when “baby boomers” — those born after 1945 — reached college age.<br />

Relevant to the crafts field, the postwar growth and expansion in<br />

the schools was the major stimulus for engendering innovative craft<br />

programs and nurturing a new generation <strong>of</strong> craftspeople. Educational<br />

opportunities in the crafts became available as funding support for art<br />

departments increased. Expanded new studios were shaped to facilitate<br />

instruction in craft materials and processes. Students were <strong>of</strong>fered training<br />

in a wide range <strong>of</strong> disciplines including ceramics, fiber and textile<br />

arts, woodworking, furniture making, metal arts, jewelry design and<br />

glassblowing (introduced in the late <strong>1960</strong>s). These early classes were<br />

<strong>of</strong>ten taught by teachers who had no precedent to follow, and these<br />

pioneering educators used their frontier ingenuity to secure necessary<br />

equipment, supplies and resources. First and foremost, the objective <strong>of</strong><br />

the first wave <strong>of</strong> college craft teachers was to impart the technical hand<br />

skills demanded by the craft, assuring a student’s mastery <strong>of</strong> materials<br />

and methods.

a<br />

Dominic L. DiMare<br />

Untitled wall sculpture, 1969<br />

A believer in the expressive,<br />

talismanic power <strong>of</strong> textiles,<br />

DiMare weaves together<br />

wool and linen and shreds<br />

twine to create this wall<br />

sculpture <strong>of</strong> raw primitivism.<br />

b<br />

John Snidecor<br />

Gold and Amethyst<br />

Neckpiece, 1967<br />

24<br />

Starting in the late 1950s, the ushering<br />

forth <strong>of</strong> the next era in the craft continuum<br />

had its own distinctive energies, motivations,<br />

and relationships with the broader art world:<br />

the New <strong>Craft</strong>s Movement. In a published<br />

interview for the journal, Design for Arts in<br />

Education (October 1979), Moore outlined the<br />

circumstances which she perceived as giving<br />

birth to this new movement:<br />

The second generation <strong>of</strong> craft educators<br />

(and those who have followed) built upon the<br />

foundation <strong>of</strong> teaching the formal values <strong>of</strong><br />

craft practices while broadening the scope and<br />

reach <strong>of</strong> the programs. Through integrated<br />

learning <strong>of</strong> associative subjects and world cultures,<br />

the cross-disciplinary approach, teachers<br />

endeavored to make the craft studio a laboratory<br />

<strong>of</strong> creative thinking and experimentation.<br />

Enabled and empowered, students were encouraged,<br />

indeed expected to create thoughtful<br />

work that had meaning and relevance to its<br />

time and place. <strong>Craft</strong> work could now be freed<br />

from the requirement <strong>of</strong> function and could be<br />

judged on its aesthetic merit.<br />

<strong>California</strong> has a centuries-old tradition <strong>of</strong><br />

emphasis on the ecological and the organic; a<br />

love <strong>of</strong> nature and the out-<strong>of</strong>-doors inspired by<br />

its climate; a diversity <strong>of</strong> ethnic and national art<br />

traditions; an unstructured permissive attitude<br />

toward new ideas in philosophy, religion, and<br />

art; a school system in which crafts are taught in<br />

art classes (almost unique in the nation); while<br />

at the same time, <strong>California</strong>ns treasure their<br />

heritage <strong>of</strong> rugged pioneer individualism. All<br />

are circumstances which have contributed to the<br />

flowering <strong>of</strong> a bold and brilliant New <strong>Craft</strong>sman’s<br />

Movement in the state.<br />

The years spanning the <strong>1960</strong>s through the early<br />

1980s were revolutionary times for the craft<br />

field. At the core <strong>of</strong> the New <strong>Craft</strong>s Movement<br />

was a pr<strong>of</strong>ound shift in ideology that activated<br />

changes within craft practices and aesthetics.<br />

College-trained craft artists had been taught to<br />

push boundaries, problem solve, and transcend<br />

limitations. They had been prepared to become<br />

participants in the wider discourse <strong>of</strong> contemporary<br />

art, and as pr<strong>of</strong>essional studio craft

c<br />

Bernard Kester<br />

Footed Bowl, early <strong>1960</strong>s<br />

d<br />

Philip Cornelius<br />

Untitled, mid-1970s<br />

This container is an early<br />

example <strong>of</strong> “thin-ware,”<br />

a technique Cornelius<br />

developed to push the<br />

limits <strong>of</strong> his medium.<br />

25<br />

artists they were motivated to make work that<br />

advanced the leading edge <strong>of</strong> possibility in their<br />

field. Using cultural sources, other art genres,<br />

and an adventurous spirit as their catalysts, they<br />

leap-frogged old restraints <strong>of</strong> craft traditions and<br />

opened the floodgates <strong>of</strong> change and creativity.<br />

And change was evident in all disciplines; it<br />

made inroads through diverse pathways.<br />

Looking through the lens <strong>of</strong> history, the<br />

flashpoints <strong>of</strong> transition and upheaval that<br />

transpired during these decades ignited bright<br />

new ways <strong>of</strong> thinking through crafts and<br />

sparked to life the New <strong>Craft</strong>s Movement. The<br />

exhibition “<strong>Golden</strong> <strong>State</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Craft</strong>: <strong>California</strong><br />

<strong>1960</strong>-<strong>1985</strong>” explores and celebrates this period <strong>of</strong><br />

heightened critical inquiry and invention through<br />

the display <strong>of</strong> craft objects exemplary for their aesthetic<br />

vision and expert workmanship. Collectively,<br />

these compelling pieces tell the story <strong>of</strong> when<br />

craft crossed over into a golden era <strong>of</strong> innovation,<br />

expressive energy, and creative diversity.<br />

Assertive, unexpected, large scale, radically<br />

altered forms began to emerge from studios.<br />

<strong>Craft</strong> artists embraced new and unconventional<br />

materials, advanced technologies, and experimental<br />

processes. Ceramists translated the stylistic<br />

aspects <strong>of</strong> Abstract Expressionism into massive,<br />

gestural, forceful sculptures with spontaneouslyworked<br />

surfaces. They manifested the aesthetics<br />

<strong>of</strong> Funk in their <strong>of</strong>fbeat sculptures that appeared<br />

crafted in an irreverent and <strong>of</strong>f-handed way, a<br />

deliberate act <strong>of</strong> subversion that challenged the<br />

positioning <strong>of</strong> skill and expertise in relation to<br />

concept and content. Textile artists innovated<br />

loom-weaving to create dimensional, <strong>of</strong>f-the-wall<br />

work, or abandoned their looms in favor <strong>of</strong> the<br />

hand-weaving techniques <strong>of</strong> knotting, plaiting,<br />

lashing and coiling. Jewelers looked to non-Western<br />

cultures and created contemporary pieces<br />

with inflections <strong>of</strong> exoticism and primitivism.<br />

Furniture makers expanded the design vocabulary<br />

producing forms that were more sculptural,<br />

playful, and sometimes illusionistic by adding to<br />

their material choices with metals and plastics<br />

sourced from industry. Glassblowers shaped glass<br />

into mysterious organic forms or into globular<br />

vessels. These heady and exciting changes that<br />

occurred within the walls <strong>of</strong> art studios, echoed<br />

what was happening in the streets.


a<br />

James Lovera<br />

Untitled vase, 1962<br />

Lovera’s experiments with<br />

ceramic glazes, colorants<br />

and kiln-firing technology<br />

enabled him to pioneer<br />

singular crater glazes.<br />

27<br />

The New <strong>Craft</strong>s Movement<br />

“A pervasive and palpable optimism seemed to permeate the<br />

air…There can be no doubt that the emerging new expressions<br />

in craft and design impacted and changed the language <strong>of</strong> art.”<br />

- Eudorah M. Moore<br />

From the <strong>1960</strong>s through the mid 1980s, an inspired group <strong>of</strong> artists<br />

working in <strong>California</strong> made significant contributions to the American<br />

<strong>Craft</strong> Movement, the art world, and American design. Working in a<br />

range <strong>of</strong> materials and disciplines, these artists defined the ethos <strong>of</strong> the<br />

era and the West Coast way <strong>of</strong> life through their creations. This confluence<br />

opened the floodgates for experimentation and inventive, new<br />

approaches to form. The messages that these artists presented resounded<br />

across the country, becoming part <strong>of</strong> the national consciousness.<br />

Were it not for two visionary women, the messages <strong>of</strong> this artistic<br />

revolution might not have been heard. Eudorah M. Moore, director <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Pasadena Art Museum’s “<strong>California</strong> Design” exhibition series from 1962<br />

through 1978, and Edith R. Wyle, founder <strong>of</strong> the Los Angeles <strong>Craft</strong> and<br />

Folk Art Museum (CAFAM), were critical advocates for emerging<br />

craft artists and designers who helped foster the evolving <strong>California</strong><br />

aesthetic. Astute and passionate, they each created crucial venues for<br />

showcasing the new craft and design movements when there were no<br />

other regional forums.<br />

All <strong>of</strong> the objects included in “<strong>Golden</strong> <strong>State</strong> <strong>of</strong> <strong>Craft</strong>: <strong>California</strong><br />

<strong>1960</strong>-<strong>1985</strong>” were selected because they were either exhibited in one <strong>of</strong> the<br />

“<strong>California</strong> Design” shows or included in an exhibition at CAFAM during<br />

the time period <strong>of</strong> <strong>1960</strong> to <strong>1985</strong>. In many cases, works were shown at<br />

both venues. Whether handcrafted or designed to be made by industrial<br />

methods, the work <strong>of</strong> these innovators was imbued with a rare sense <strong>of</strong><br />

independence and ingenuity, unique to <strong>California</strong>’s frontier spirit.

a<br />

Sam Malo<strong>of</strong><br />

Rocking Chair, c. 1973<br />

29<br />

Pioneering Mid-Century <strong>California</strong><br />

<strong>Craft</strong>: The Classics<br />

“The plate is no less valid as a subject for art than the human figure in sculpture...In<br />

other cultures and at other times pottery was held in high regard,<br />

equal to the other fine arts; all works were judged solely on expressiveness.”<br />

- Erik Gronborg, Objects USA<br />

A ground-breaking group <strong>of</strong> artists emerged in <strong>California</strong> in the post-war<br />

years who redefined what art could be. Many Americans had moved to<br />

<strong>California</strong> during the war years to work for the defense manufacturing<br />

industry and they became skilled laborers. These factories brought<br />

a tremendous influx <strong>of</strong> capital into the state’s economy, which spurred<br />

expansion, building and development. Once the war ended these workers<br />

found new pursuits for their talents beyond the defense industry. The home<br />

building boom that ensued after the war provided an alternative.<br />

Additionally, the servicemen who passed through <strong>California</strong> as they<br />

were shipped out during the war returned through the West Coast ports and<br />

many decided to stay. Houses were constructed and neighborhoods plotted to<br />

accommodate the growing families <strong>of</strong> returning veterans. The new construction<br />

in turn created an expanded market for the domestic goods that filled<br />

these dwellings. The sprawling, modern ranch houses required furnishings<br />

and other accoutrements, from rugs and armchairs, to bowls and vases, patio<br />

planters and poolside lounge chairs. The American dream thrived.<br />

In this climate <strong>of</strong> domestic prosperity, innovators came forth who reimagined<br />

what household goods looked like. They considered <strong>California</strong>’s<br />

climate in this scheme and the more casual way <strong>of</strong> life that was possible<br />

on the West Coast. Free <strong>of</strong> deeply entrenched craft traditions and<br />

Eurocentric design biases prevalent in the Eastern states, the West Coast<br />

was essentially a blank canvas where artists could assert their independence<br />

and invent a <strong>California</strong> style. Even before the war, partially for this<br />

reason, many <strong>of</strong> the first craft artists who came to the state, including<br />

Marguerite Wildenhain and Gertrud and Otto Natzler, were actually<br />

émigrés from Europe. They transported their mastery <strong>of</strong> European craftsmanship<br />

to the West, where there was an inherent sense <strong>of</strong> experimentation.<br />

In doing so, they had the best <strong>of</strong> both worlds.<br />

Another transplant, Porter Blanchard, 34a brought his Massachusetts<br />

training as a silversmith to Los Angeles where he then continued his<br />

unrivaled work and trained his son-in-law, Allan Adler, 35d in the craft.<br />

As Moore told House Beautiful, “A careful and overly cautious attitude<br />

[exists] in the East. The Westerner asks, ‘Why not?’ ” <strong>California</strong>’s artistimmigrants<br />

were beginning to make their mark and receive national<br />

attention. An artistic movement in <strong>California</strong> was already taking shape<br />

by the time the war was over.

a<br />

Gertrud & Otto Natzler<br />

Closed Form (O316), 1969<br />

b<br />

Arthur Espenet<br />

Carpenter<br />

Wishbone Chair, 1972<br />

30<br />

a<br />

The role <strong>of</strong> schools in the development <strong>of</strong><br />

craft cannot be underestimated. The GI Bill<br />

gave numerous art-oriented veterans the opportunity<br />

to learn at the college level. Many <strong>of</strong><br />

them found their way to craft mediums. These<br />

veterans showed an interest in learning ceramics,<br />

woodworking, and metalsmithing among<br />

other crafts, and the faculty responded, creating<br />

additional positions in those disciplines.<br />

Largely due to post-war funding support for<br />

educational programs in the applied arts, craft<br />

found its place in academia and gained legitimacy.<br />

There was also a political dimension to<br />

the expansion <strong>of</strong> craft. Many front-runners<br />

in the pioneering pack <strong>of</strong> <strong>California</strong> craft<br />

artists trained in the so-called “fine arts” but<br />

chose to challenge this restrictive hierarchy<br />

in their own careers, opting to work with<br />

craft media rather than painting, sculpture,<br />

and drawing. Recognizing fresh potential in<br />

their move away from the mainstream, they<br />

devoted themselves to mediums that were<br />

traditionally marginalized within the arts for<br />

having utilitarian origins. They set up studios,<br />

like their painter and sculptor counterparts,<br />

where they created work from concept to<br />

finish, moving beyond pure functionalism<br />

to a realm that emphasized meaning and<br />

aesthetic expression.<br />

Many <strong>of</strong> the new craft trailblazers were<br />

the teachers who directly influenced up-andcoming<br />

artists at Chouinard Art Institute,<br />

University <strong>of</strong> <strong>California</strong> Los Angeles (UCLA),<br />

Otis Art Institute, <strong>California</strong> <strong>State</strong> University<br />

Long Beach (CSULB), Scripps College,<br />

and other important schools. Once craft<br />

artists held their own in academia, student<br />

artists gained exposure to new vocabularies.<br />

The relationship between teacher and<br />

student in many ways became a modern<br />

version <strong>of</strong> the age-old craftsman and apprentice<br />

relationship. The connections that were<br />

made were fundamental to the growth and<br />

expansion <strong>of</strong> craft.

c<br />

Alvin Pine<br />

Gold Necklace, 1970<br />

Hand fabricated with the<br />

aid <strong>of</strong> a rolling machine,<br />

this necklace reveals Pine’s<br />

innovative use <strong>of</strong> tools and<br />

metalsmithing.<br />

d<br />

Ellamarie & Jackson<br />

Woolley<br />

Untitled plate, c. <strong>1960</strong><br />

The Woolleys’ process<br />

was a close husband and<br />

wife collaboration with<br />

the aim to produce fresh,<br />

yet timeless, enamels to fit<br />

the modern scene.<br />

31<br />

d<br />

b<br />


32<br />

a<br />

b<br />

The teachers at various campuses throughout<br />

<strong>California</strong> were instrumental in laying the<br />

foundation for communities <strong>of</strong> like-minded<br />

artistic activity, exchange and communication.<br />

Students went on to become teachers themselves.<br />

James Bassler studied at UCLA where Bernard<br />

Kester expanded the fiber program. Bassler<br />

then he had his own career as a fiber instructor.<br />

Laura Andreson 32b first brought craft to the art<br />

curriculum at UCLA in the 1930s where she<br />

mothered potters for decades, leaving an<br />

indelible mark on numerous careers. Forging<br />

the bridge from <strong>Craft</strong>sman-era art pottery to<br />

studio pottery, a new chapter opened under her<br />

wing. At CSULB, Mary Jane Leland taught<br />

Gerhardt Knodel at the graduate level and he<br />

also studied as an undergraduate at UCLA with<br />

Kester. Knodel went on to advance fiber even<br />

further through his teaching and leadership<br />

at Cranbrook Academy <strong>of</strong> Art in Bloomfield<br />

Hills, Michigan. Marvin Lip<strong>of</strong>sky developed<br />

the glass program at UC Berkeley and<br />

mentored Richard Marquis. The first wave <strong>of</strong><br />

innovators paved the way for subsequent artists<br />

who then extended the poetic and expressive<br />

nature <strong>of</strong> craft mediums and techniques to<br />

deeper levels, fueling the growth <strong>of</strong> the New<br />

<strong>Craft</strong>s Movement.<br />

Along the lines <strong>of</strong> the prevailing Modernist<br />

tendencies, technical perfectionism and a classical<br />

treatment <strong>of</strong> form were driving ideas for<br />

many in this pioneering group <strong>of</strong> craftspeople.<br />

Utility and the concept that form follows<br />

function were critical. The stripping away <strong>of</strong><br />

unnecessary ornamentation and a purist respect<br />

for material characterized much <strong>of</strong> the early<br />

influential craftwork. There was also a very

a<br />

b<br />

c<br />

d<br />

Dextra Frankel<br />

Untitled bowl, c. 1962<br />

Frankel’s work in enamel<br />

is notable for its jewel-like<br />

surface <strong>of</strong> layered abstract<br />

patterns that gives the<br />

illusion <strong>of</strong> depth due to its<br />

light reflective qualities.<br />

Laura Andreson<br />

Untitled vessel, 1978<br />

Andreson’s work with<br />

porcelain clays and glazes<br />

yielded refined classical<br />

shapes with distinctive<br />

glazed surfaces that were<br />

original and recognizable.<br />

Marguerite Wildenhain<br />

Untitled vase, c. 1972<br />

Harrison McIntosh<br />

Floating Disk, 1982<br />

33<br />

c<br />

d<br />

earthy aspect and organic feel to some <strong>of</strong> the<br />

work being done at that time.<br />

Marguerite Wildenhain’s 33c Bauhaus training<br />

with its principles <strong>of</strong> rationalism, simplification<br />

and functionalism were evident in her approach<br />

to clay, which she passed on to many students at<br />

Pond Farm artists’ colony, among them Harrison<br />

McIntosh. 33d Harmony and process defined the<br />

ceramic achievements <strong>of</strong> Gertrud and Otto<br />

Natzler. 30a Gertrud’s delicate shapes met their<br />

perfect match in Otto’s distinctive glaze treatments.<br />

Allowing the clay bodies to be revealed<br />

was a focal consideration to the Natzlers. Often,<br />

they would let clay surfaces seep through,<br />

organically melding them with the glazes.

34<br />

b<br />

a<br />


a<br />

b<br />

c<br />

d<br />

e<br />

Porter Blanchard<br />

C<strong>of</strong>fee Pot and Creamer,<br />

<strong>1960</strong>s<br />

Otto & Vivika Heino<br />

Untitled covered<br />

container, c. 1963<br />

Claire Falkenstein<br />

Necklace, 1962<br />

Falkenstein’s jewelry<br />

forms are highly experimental,<br />

and frequently<br />

incorporate glass, a<br />

material used in her large<br />

scale metal sculptures.<br />

Allan Adler<br />

Pair <strong>of</strong> Candlesticks, c.<br />

1959-1964<br />

Arthur Ames<br />

Untitled, c. 1970<br />

Trained as a painter<br />

and self-taught as an<br />

enamellist, Ames carried<br />

over the painting style <strong>of</strong><br />

geometric abstraction to<br />

his enamel work.<br />

35<br />

d<br />

Vivika and Otto Heino 34b were also renowned<br />

for their experimentation with clay and glazes<br />

and, as longtime teachers, they generously<br />

passed their discoveries to a new generation <strong>of</strong><br />

potters. Arthur Ames 35e applied an abstract style<br />

to his work in enamel during the era. He had a<br />

vision <strong>of</strong> distilled geometric forms represented<br />

in strong color that was very much in line with<br />

traits <strong>of</strong> modern abstract painting.<br />

Artists in this early group sought to refine<br />

their craft to the highest level, as evident in Sam<br />

Malo<strong>of</strong> ’s 28a mastery <strong>of</strong> wood. Arthur Espenet<br />

Carpenter 31b put sound design and exceptional<br />

craftsmanship at the forefront <strong>of</strong> his work,<br />

going as far as to express skepticism about<br />

furniture that was treated as more experimental<br />

art, which he called, “artiture.” Strong, enduring<br />

pieces were articulated with elegance and<br />

simplicity by these artists, becoming the classic<br />

icons <strong>of</strong> mid-century craft.<br />


a<br />

b<br />

c<br />

d<br />

e<br />

f<br />

Travis Somerville<br />

Untitled (dixie) 1998<br />

oil and collage on ledger<br />

paper<br />

Adrian Frutiger<br />

Meridian 1976<br />

ink on paper<br />

Adrian Frutiger<br />

Meridian 1976<br />

ink on paper<br />

Travis Somerville<br />

Untitled (dixie) 1998<br />

oil and collage on ledger<br />

paper<br />

Adrian Frutiger<br />

Meridian 1976<br />

ink on paper<br />

Adrian Frutiger<br />

Meridian 1976<br />

ink on paper<br />


a<br />

Evelyn & Jerome<br />

Ackerman<br />

<strong>California</strong> Poppies, 1970<br />

37<br />

Nature As Muse<br />

<strong>California</strong>’s unrivaled climate and natural beauty had always been a magnet<br />

for artists. Starting in the <strong>1960</strong>s and surging in the 1970s, many craftspeople<br />

working in <strong>California</strong> were driven by a back-to-the-land ideology that<br />

complemented the drive to revive the handmade.<br />

In terms <strong>of</strong> a physical landscape <strong>of</strong> inspiration, the variety <strong>of</strong> natural<br />

assets the state <strong>of</strong>fered was unparalleled, from the mountains to the sea, to<br />

the redwood forests, serene deserts and endless brilliant blue skies. When<br />

Arline Fisch first moved to San Diego from the East Coast, she could do<br />

nothing but gaze at the ocean. As she described her feelings, “My world<br />

had no containment…I’d come home from teaching and be mesmerized.”<br />

The ocean was perhaps the strongest environmental presence that shaped<br />

artists’ perspectives. Artists like Neda Al-Hilali were highly conscious <strong>of</strong> the<br />

ocean when they worked. “It’s one <strong>of</strong> the few dependable things nowadays.<br />

The tide keeps coming in. I pick up a lot <strong>of</strong> energy straight from the ocean.”<br />

Even in <strong>California</strong>’s cities, nature crept in, allowing artists to feel<br />

immersed and connected to the natural environment in the day-to-day.<br />

One could live close to downtown but still feel as though he or she was<br />

tucked away in a rustic studio surrounded by nothing but eucalyptus<br />

trees. Dotted with orange, olive and avocado groves, the geography,<br />

flora and fauna also provided an abundance <strong>of</strong> imagery as evident in the<br />

<strong>California</strong> Poppies hand-hooked wool tapestry <strong>of</strong> Evelyn Ackerman. 37a<br />

The sheer expansiveness <strong>of</strong> the large state with its relatively undeveloped<br />

stretches symbolized freedom <strong>of</strong> expression. The immensity <strong>of</strong> the<br />

landscape was a “psychic space,” in the words <strong>of</strong> Carol Shaw-Sutton,<br />

and a spacious habitat <strong>of</strong> possibility for emerging voices in craft.<br />

Enticed by the indoor-outdoor casual lifestyle, the imaginative and<br />

independent craft community found an ideal home. <strong>California</strong> was<br />

known for its patios, pools, decks and gardens that extended the home<br />

outward into nature. Those outdoor areas needed their own furnishings:<br />

streamlined pots and planters, like those that David Cressey 41e created<br />

for Architectural Pottery and the birdhouses that Stan Bitters designed.<br />

Cressey maintained his studio, one-<strong>of</strong>-a-kind work in addition to designing<br />

studio-quality production pottery for the larger market.<br />

Designers and craftsmen also focused on the beauty <strong>of</strong> bringing<br />

the lanai inside the living room. Tropi-Cal’s rattan furniture and specifically<br />

Miller Fong’s Lotus Chair 38b redefined stylish West Coast living<br />

with exotic flair. The company promoted the notion that furniture<br />

should be lightweight, moveable and durable for easy, year-round al<br />

fresco living. Bitters 12a designed environmental tiles, adobe brick elements,<br />

murals and other ceramics so versatile that they could be used<br />

inside the home and out in the garden, truly erasing the boundaries<br />

between interior and exterior.

38<br />

a<br />

The wealth <strong>of</strong> natural materials available in<br />

the <strong>Golden</strong> <strong>State</strong> also influenced the kinds <strong>of</strong><br />

objects that were produced. <strong>Craft</strong> artists incorporated<br />

indigenous materials into their work<br />

including: clays and colorants for glazes, native<br />

woods, gold and silver. The dramatic, chunky<br />

gold jewelry <strong>of</strong> Ruth and Svetozar Radakovich 40b<br />

spotlighted the opulence <strong>of</strong> <strong>California</strong>’s mined<br />

mythical metal. Their combined visions and<br />

inventive use <strong>of</strong> lost-wax casting caused a stir in<br />

the fashion world.<br />

The abundance <strong>of</strong> wood in Northern <strong>California</strong><br />

and inherent admiration for the qualities<br />

<strong>of</strong> the material propelled designer-craftsmen like<br />

Bob Stocksdale and Arthur Espenet Carpenter<br />

to turn, saw, cut, carve and laminate compelling<br />

art objects and elegant furniture forms.<br />

Stocksdale, 39d who learned spindle-turning in<br />

his youth, was a conscientious objector during<br />

WWII, at which time he started making<br />

bowls on a lathe. Stocksdale was passionate about<br />

honoring color, grain patterns and growth variations<br />

<strong>of</strong> all types <strong>of</strong> trees. He collected dramatically<br />

figured woods so that he had a rainbow to<br />

work with at his fingertips. His mission was to<br />

find ways to best showcase these characteristics in<br />

his turned wood objects and he became a master.<br />

For Stocksdale and others, wood provided all <strong>of</strong><br />

the necessary ornamentation organically.<br />

In Southern <strong>California</strong>, Frank E. Cummings<br />

III 76a and John Nyquist 75a similarly created sleek,<br />

gracefully rounded objects in wood. The finished<br />

product is so refined that it is hard to believe it<br />

is made from wood. Nyquist’s music stand is as<br />

lyrical as the music that would be played at it.<br />

Nyquist was motivated by the tactile and sensory<br />

experience <strong>of</strong> working with wood. Cummings,<br />

who studied handcarving in Ghana and other<br />

parts <strong>of</strong> West and Central Africa, created a chair<br />

that is as smooth and curvaceous as a shell that<br />

would wash up on the <strong>California</strong> coast. The chair<br />

feels monumental and ceremonial like a tribal

a<br />

b<br />

c<br />

d<br />

e<br />

John Lewis<br />

Moon Bottles, 1971<br />

Miller Fong<br />

Lotus Chair<br />

Original design 1968,<br />

re-design 1999<br />

Malcolm Leland<br />

Prototype Section <strong>of</strong><br />

Fascia from San Diego<br />

Art Museum, 1965<br />

Bob Stocksdale<br />

Salad bowl, c. 1970<br />

Brad Miller<br />

Spheres in Compression, 1976<br />

This sculptural arrangement<br />

replicates growth structures<br />

found in seeds, atoms and<br />

bubbles.<br />

39<br />

c<br />

e<br />

throne. Their creations, sculptural, sensual and<br />

tactile, can be appreciated as objets d’art, but<br />

their primary intention is to be used as functional<br />

furniture.<br />

Artists re-envisioned the potential for<br />

natural materials and also used them in modern,<br />

creative ways. Using wood like shards <strong>of</strong><br />

stained glass, John Kapel 40a cut and assembled<br />

various pieces to form a multi-toned, rhythmic<br />

play <strong>of</strong> texture and shape with his door, created<br />

in 1968 in response to an invitation to exhibit<br />

at the Museum <strong>of</strong> Contemporary <strong>Craft</strong>, New<br />

York. Pamela Weir-Quiton treated exotic<br />

hardwood laminates like fabric for clothing<br />

her mod Pamela Girls dolls, manipulating the<br />

range <strong>of</strong> colors and patterns that exist among<br />

wood varietals.<br />


40<br />

b<br />

a<br />

There was an entire universe to be considered<br />

and addressed as a thematic subject for<br />

craft, even beyond nature’s earthly <strong>of</strong>ferings in<br />

materials. This was the space age, with rockets<br />

carrying humans to the moon, and satellites<br />

launching into orbit. Along with the actual<br />

voyages into outer space, the skies came to<br />

symbolize new spirituality, mysticism, transcendental<br />

meditation, and an existentialist<br />

quest for fulfillment on higher planes. John<br />

Lewis’ Moon Bottles 38a are moody contemplations<br />

<strong>of</strong> the evening sky. Garry Knox Bennett looked<br />

skyward to the clouds for his timepiece. During<br />

the years when Bennett decided to shift his<br />

career towards sculptural work that had functional<br />

properties, cloud motifs were a focus for<br />

many who were looking to the heavens, the<br />

stars and the planets for inspiration.<br />

In the photography for the “<strong>California</strong><br />

Design” catalogs, <strong>California</strong>’s striking natural<br />

settings provided the backdrop for the<br />

objects. Cabinets by Pamela Weir-Quiton 12b<br />

take the shape <strong>of</strong> a seated girl towering over<br />

rippled sand dunes while brilliant stoneware<br />

forms by Ralph Bacerra 41c stand their ground<br />

like a family <strong>of</strong> aliens making their way<br />

across the barren Mojave. Donald Chadwick’s<br />

red chair proudly faces the sun and soaks in<br />

the rays. These images reinforced the power<br />

<strong>of</strong> the vast and varied <strong>California</strong> landscape<br />

as a font <strong>of</strong> inspiration for the rising talent<br />

<strong>of</strong> the era.

a<br />

b<br />

c<br />

d<br />

e<br />

John Kapel<br />

Door, 1968<br />

Kapel designed this piece<br />

for “The Door” exhibition<br />

sponsored by the U.S.<br />

Plywood Corporation and<br />

the Museum <strong>of</strong> Contemporary<br />

<strong>Craft</strong>s, NY.<br />

Svetozar Radakovich<br />

Gold Cuff Bracelet, late<br />

<strong>1960</strong>s<br />

Ralph Bacerra<br />

Stoneware forms, 1968<br />

Courtesy <strong>of</strong> <strong>California</strong><br />

Design, Richard Gross<br />

photograph<br />

Faith Porter<br />

Red Blush, 1968<br />

In graduate school at<br />

USC, Porter mastered<br />

the technical formulas<br />

<strong>of</strong> high-fire clay bodies<br />

and glazes to ultimately<br />

achieve translucency in<br />

porcelain.<br />

David Cressey<br />

Untitled covered jar,<br />

<strong>1960</strong>s<br />

41<br />

c<br />

e<br />



a<br />

Michael Frimkess<br />

Vase with Jazz Musician<br />

(maquette), 1974<br />

43<br />

<strong>California</strong> Counter-Culture<br />

“I believe the time has come for all people, and especially the artists,<br />

to pull together and find a solution to an unprecedented world crisis.”<br />

– Michael Frimkess<br />

After fostering the Beatnik scene in the 1950s, <strong>California</strong> naturally<br />

became the setting for the Counter-Culture Movement that followed<br />

in the <strong>1960</strong>s. Young people wished to challenge authority, re-think the<br />

system and take down the establishment. The state was the epicenter <strong>of</strong><br />

many <strong>of</strong> the cultural revolutions that took place in that decade. The Free<br />

Speech Movement, hippie culture, urban rioting, antiwar activism and<br />

liberationist philosophies <strong>of</strong> feminism, Black Power and Chicano Pride<br />

all collided, swelling to create a charged environment. Changes were<br />

happening everywhere.<br />

From Los Angeles’ Sunset Strip to Berkeley’s Telegraph Avenue to the<br />

Haight-Ashbury in San Francisco, <strong>California</strong>ns were outspoken and trendsetting<br />

in every way. The Doors, the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane<br />

and countless other bands made their homes in the <strong>Golden</strong> <strong>State</strong>. Art<br />

and music provided a way to convey the message. <strong>Craft</strong>, which had deep<br />

historical associations, became an outlet for artists who wished to communicate<br />

worldviews, liberal ideology and a more righteous way <strong>of</strong> living.<br />

For instance, fiber had always been part <strong>of</strong> the women’s realm in the home<br />

and it took on heightened political meaning as artists from the women’s<br />

movement reworked the medium and instilled new power.<br />

Part <strong>of</strong> the notion <strong>of</strong> moving away from the mainstream mechanisms<br />

meant avoiding industrial channels. Making objects by hand was one way<br />

to circumvent the system. <strong>Craft</strong> was a way <strong>of</strong> challenging the perceived<br />

materialism that had come to define American life at the mid-century.<br />

Ideally, the handmade was personal, humane, enduring and meaningful.

44<br />

b<br />

a<br />

The desire to remove oneself from the industrialized,<br />

capitalist system and to look outside it<br />

for more admirable paradigms became common<br />

among artists in the <strong>1960</strong>s. Pre-Columbian and<br />

African tribal art were appealing because they<br />

signified what was untainted and truthful. <strong>California</strong><br />

was such a diverse population to begin<br />

with that it became a melting pot for eclectic,<br />

innovative styles. The range <strong>of</strong> sources expanded<br />

even more as artists traveled the continents and<br />

studied world artistic traditions. There was an<br />

upsurge <strong>of</strong> interest in non-Western, specifically<br />

Indian, East Asian, African, and South American<br />

native cultures, religions and traditions.<br />

Looking at the world and the vast legacy <strong>of</strong><br />

craft, artists approached their creations using<br />

ethnographic and archaeologic precedents. Fiber<br />

artists dispersed across the globe looking to learn<br />

ancient patterns, structures and dye formulas,<br />

such as ikat, batik and shibori. Neda Al-Hilali<br />

was drawn to the luxurious textiles <strong>of</strong> the Middle<br />

East and the role they played in nomadic cultures.<br />

She was fascinated by their importance as<br />

indicators <strong>of</strong> status and tribal identity.<br />

Early in his career, James Bassler 45c went to<br />

India and Indonesia, where he saw cotton being<br />

spun and intricate dye patterns being used. In<br />

1970, James and his artist wife, Veralee, moved

a<br />

b<br />

c<br />

d<br />

Ed Rossbach<br />

Newspaper, 1976<br />

Dora De Larios<br />

Europa and the Bull, 1962<br />

James Bassler<br />

Rebozo, 1975<br />

Drawing inspiration from<br />

pre-Columbian and<br />

Peruvian textile traditions,<br />

Rebozo re-interprets the<br />

designs <strong>of</strong> head-coverings<br />

customarily worn by<br />

Mexican women.<br />

J.B. Blunk<br />

Mr Peanut, 1973<br />

45<br />

to Oaxaca, Mexico, where they were amazed by<br />

the ubiquitous warp ikat shawls that were timeconsuming<br />

to make and part <strong>of</strong> a long-standing<br />

craft tradition. Over the years, Bassler has<br />

continued to work with ikat and mine the globe<br />

for other textile practices, including a number <strong>of</strong><br />

Peruvian weaving techniques, the use <strong>of</strong> natural<br />

dyes, and Navajo blanket diagonal construction<br />

known as wedge weave.<br />

Ed Rossbach 44a led the drive for research<br />

into Native American basketry among other<br />

indigenous textile methods. When stationed<br />

in the Aleutian Islands <strong>of</strong>f <strong>of</strong> Alaska during<br />

World War II, he became interested in basket<br />

construction. After the war, together with<br />

wife, Katherine Westphal 78 , who was also a<br />

textile teacher, he traveled widely to learn<br />

textile practices firsthand. His investigations<br />

<strong>of</strong> woven techniques were then incorporated<br />

into his work, writings and his teachings at<br />

UC Berkeley. Rossbach inspired numerous<br />

students, such as Lia Cook, who first became<br />

interested in textiles after seeing weaving<br />

processes in Mexico and who later went on to<br />

study in Sweden.<br />

Dora De Larios 44b experienced her first<br />

thrown bisque vessels in Mexico and felt that<br />

the country was “imbued with magic and<br />

a spirit <strong>of</strong> energy.” <strong>California</strong>’s craft artists<br />

instilled that energy into their work and<br />

challenged authority, questioning pre-existing<br />

artistic conventions and re-engaging artistic<br />

principles from a fresh angle.<br />

d<br />


46<br />

a<br />

Japan’s deep and vast craft traditions provided<br />

a tremendously rich basis for many artists<br />

to begin their work. James Wayne 46c looked<br />

to Japanese folk pottery and transitioned into<br />

one-<strong>of</strong>-a-kind works in glass, as well as clay.<br />

Paul Soldner 47d is credited for bringing the<br />

sixteenth-century Japanese technique and<br />

philosophy <strong>of</strong> raku to the states. J.B. Blunk<br />

applied his studies and training in Japanese<br />

ceramics in an inventive way by treating wood<br />

as a medium for sculpture, and astonishingly,<br />

using a chainsaw to create smooth, rounded,<br />

finely finished volumetric pieces. Well known<br />

for his monumental wood sculpture and outdoor<br />

seating platforms, Blunk’s carved pine and<br />

redwood sculpture, Mr. Peanut 45d , demonstrates<br />

the artist’s passion for using the raw material<br />

<strong>of</strong> woods felled on his property in Inverness or<br />

rescued from nearby beaches. As famed artist<br />

Isamu Noguchi noted, Blunk was a virtuoso<br />

wood carver, “finding true art in the working<br />

[<strong>of</strong> the] burled stumps <strong>of</strong> those great trees.”<br />

b<br />


a<br />

b<br />

c<br />

d<br />

e<br />

Garry Knox Bennett<br />

Red Baron, c. 1968-1969<br />

Carter Smith<br />

Red Rainbow, mid-1970s<br />

James Wayne<br />

Untitled vessel c. 1970<br />

Gere Kavanaugh<br />

Flowers Rug, c. 1965<br />

Paul Soldner<br />

Abstract Bowl, <strong>1960</strong>s<br />

47<br />

e<br />

d<br />

In 1966, House Beautiful featured a <strong>California</strong><br />

“flower power” home. Poet and activist Allen<br />

Ginsberg had coined the term in 1965 in reference<br />

to peaceful anti-war protests. Flower power<br />

came to be associated with hippie culture. While<br />

nature was used as the inspiration, this was<br />

not a mimetic copying, instead it was nature<br />

on psychedelics featuring Technicolor overscaled<br />

flowers and highly stylized landscapes<br />

with arched rainbows and floating cloud forms.<br />

These motifs became signatures, not just <strong>of</strong><br />

fashion and home design but also <strong>of</strong> a social and<br />

political movement.<br />

Bolder, brighter patterns characterized the textiles<br />

<strong>of</strong> the era. Gere Kavanaugh’s 47c 1965 handhooked<br />

rug <strong>of</strong> scattered vibrant flowers captures<br />

the essence <strong>of</strong> the electricity that pulsed through<br />

design during this period. Any room would<br />

wake up with that jolt <strong>of</strong> color. Studio craft<br />

artists and designer-craftsmen intersected with<br />

this movement at varying times in their careers.<br />

Flowers became iconographic <strong>of</strong> the Flower<br />

Child era, appearing in every medium and at<br />

every scale.<br />

The physical manifestation <strong>of</strong> flower<br />

power not only translated to representations<br />

<strong>of</strong> flowers, it became equated with the whole<br />

hippie scene and its related imagery, artifacts<br />

and life view. Psychedelic tie-dyes became<br />

the hippie uniform and they entered into the<br />

domestic sphere as well. The shibori tie-dyes <strong>of</strong><br />

Carter Smith 46b were expertly executed versions<br />

<strong>of</strong> the most iconic <strong>1960</strong>s fabric treatment.<br />

Drug culture became synonymous with the<br />

hippie way <strong>of</strong> life, and along with it came a category<br />

<strong>of</strong> associated paraphernalia and accessories,<br />

artfully and humorously interpreted by Garry<br />

Knox Bennett. 46a Bennett had the entrepreneurial<br />

savvy to make smoking paraphernalia when<br />

he began his career and was trying to find a<br />

way to make a living at art. The roach clips and<br />

pipes <strong>of</strong> Garry Knox Bennett are the ultimate<br />

signs <strong>of</strong> the era.

48<br />

In 1967 Peter Selz, then director <strong>of</strong> the University<br />

Art Museum <strong>of</strong> Berkeley, <strong>California</strong>, organized an<br />

exhibition called “Funk Art.” Selz was the first to<br />

apply the term to the new art style:<br />

Funk art...is largely a matter <strong>of</strong> attitude. Funk<br />

art is hot rather than cool; it is committed<br />

rather than disengaged; it is bizarre rather than<br />

formal; it is sensuous; and frequently it is quite<br />

ugly and ungainly.<br />

a<br />

b<br />

Funk, by nature a counter-cultural artistic<br />

movement, had roots in Dada and Surrealism.<br />

Its artists were linked by their interests in provocative<br />

content, subversion <strong>of</strong> the high-toned<br />

New York art scene, and a deliberate <strong>of</strong>fhandedness<br />

in the way they worked. Materials were<br />

<strong>of</strong>ten combined and used in unconventional<br />

ways, sometimes in a purposely irreverent<br />

manner to belie mastery <strong>of</strong> their craft. Funk<br />

was viewed as vulgar and even juvenile by some<br />

but it was transformative for creating a conduit<br />

between art and craft.<br />

Before there was Funk, there was movement<br />

among a group <strong>of</strong> ceramic artists, largely<br />

based at Otis Art Institute in the late 1950s and<br />

connected with the work <strong>of</strong> Peter Voulkos, to<br />

revolutionize the medium. These artists created<br />

pieces that were gestural and intended as<br />

sculpture rather than focused on the functionalism<br />

and technical virtuosity that exemplified the<br />

modernist approach to craft. Parallel to Abstract<br />

Expressionism in painting <strong>of</strong> that era, which was<br />

characterized by anti-figurative, intense expressions,<br />

artists Michael Frimkess 43a and others<br />

ambitiously worked high concepts through the<br />

medium. Frimkess soon became known as a<br />

master at the wheel who created classical Greek<br />

and Asian forms but painted them with cartoonish<br />

imagery that conveyed cutting and derisive<br />

views about contemporary American life.

a<br />

b<br />

c<br />

d<br />

Robert Arneson<br />

Untitled sculpture, 1961<br />

Adrian Saxe<br />

Hula Dick (Iron Blue),<br />

1969<br />

Marvin Lip<strong>of</strong>sky<br />

<strong>California</strong> Loop Series<br />

#4, 1970<br />

The seductive surfaces<br />

<strong>of</strong> the <strong>California</strong> Loop<br />

series were inspired by<br />

the eye-catching finishes<br />

applied to custom cars<br />

and hot rods.<br />

Erik Gronborg<br />

Covered Container, late<br />

1970s<br />

d<br />

c<br />

This was a moment that had a revelatory<br />

impact on all craft. Artists decided that clay<br />

could be used to capture a moment, an idea<br />

or a feeling rather than just to be shaped into<br />

a vessel. It became dramatic, spontaneous and<br />

assertive instead <strong>of</strong> striving to be understated,<br />

intentional and refined. Marvin Lip<strong>of</strong>sky 49c<br />

brought analogous ideas to glass and liberated<br />

the medium from strictly traditional functional<br />

forms. Lip<strong>of</strong>sky also was an innovator for creating<br />

glass amalgamations with other materials,<br />

such as flocking, metals and plastic. When<br />

asked about his work from the <strong>1960</strong>s he stated,<br />

“I did everything to deny its inherent beauty.”<br />

A decade later, he explored the splendor and<br />

seductiveness <strong>of</strong> glass, calling it “dangerous”<br />

because he felt it was easier to get lazy when<br />

approaching the material from that standpoint.<br />

In a similar but even more overtly riotous<br />

vein, craft artists working in the Funk style<br />

furthered the trajectory and sought to overcome<br />

the stultification <strong>of</strong> the craft ideals then in<br />

fashion. Funk was a repudiation <strong>of</strong> the prevailing<br />

notion <strong>of</strong> the humble craftsman who created<br />

quiet, modest works that celebrated the purity<br />

<strong>of</strong> materials. Funk artists made provocative and<br />

defiant works that shouted about everything<br />

that went against mainstream culture. Works<br />

by Robert Arneson 48a (christened the “Father <strong>of</strong><br />

Funk”), Erik Gronborg 49d , and Adrian Saxe 48b<br />

are quintessential exemplars <strong>of</strong> the Funk<br />

aesthetic realized in clay.


a<br />

Lia Cook<br />

Fire Pocket Piece, 1984<br />

51<br />

New Ground: Experimentation &<br />

Innovation in Materials & Processes<br />

“When I look at something I’ve made or that someone else has made,<br />

I think in terms <strong>of</strong> voices. The first voice I want to hear is that <strong>of</strong> the<br />

person. I want to hear the material second and the process last.”<br />

– Dominic DiMare, Gentle Revolution<br />

By the <strong>1960</strong>s, innovations in lightweight metals, molded plywood,<br />

reinforced concrete, fiberglass, plastics and resins that evolved from the<br />

defense and aerospace industries had revolutionized the design vocabulary.<br />

A widely expanded choice <strong>of</strong> industrial materials and tools was now available<br />

to those who had the inclination to experiment.<br />

As a material, plastic was considered a miracle substance when it was<br />

invented in the late 1930s. It was almost immediately put into wartime<br />

production to manufacture parts for military airplanes. This new material<br />

was quickly adopted by post-war consumer industries to produce a plethora<br />

<strong>of</strong> domestic products and furnishings. Recognizing a peaceful repurposing,<br />

plastic, fiberglass and acrylic were later taken to a new level by artists and<br />

designers who capitalized on their inherent properties. They were lightweight,<br />

easily molded and inexpensive.<br />

Plastic became an essential medium for the modern designer-craftsman.<br />

Using paper-thin acrylic sheets, Elsie Crawford 53e created futuristic, sculptural<br />

lighting designs that floated like spaceships. Charles Hollis Jones 55e ,<br />

with his transparent Adjustable Side Tables and Edison Lamp, used acrylic for<br />

maximum clarity and its ability to magically deconstruct form. Jewelry artist<br />

Arline Fisch’s Colorcore Formica Whale <strong>of</strong> a Necklace, 55d pushed the bounds<br />

<strong>of</strong> what jewelry was, not just in reference to the valuable materials commonly<br />

used in jewelry but also with the way that wearable pieces were<br />

generally designed to be proportionate to the human body. These artists<br />

demonstrated that plastic substances could provide an almost limitless<br />

“meditation on material” in dexterous hands. New channels <strong>of</strong> possibility<br />

were cleared for exploration.<br />

Artists created entirely new forms during this era, <strong>of</strong>ten starting<br />

from scratch in their consideration <strong>of</strong> physical space and the domestic<br />

environment. Functionalism was reinvented. Gerhardt Knodel’s Flexible<br />

Wallpaper 79 was a new means for ornamenting walls. His design empowered<br />

the owner to rearrange the segments to his or her liking. The<br />

airy panels were to be hung in such a way that they would move with<br />

the air and create shadows that were constantly shifting.<br />

Processes for manufacturing or working materials by hand were<br />

revolutionized during these years. There was a proliferation <strong>of</strong> new<br />

technologies, advanced tools and specialized equipment. Donald<br />

Chadwick designed a prototype for a Side Chair 55b to be crafted with a<br />

new urethane molding process, but it proved to be too challenging for<br />

production in 1969.

a<br />

b<br />

c<br />

d<br />

e<br />

Neda Al-Hilali<br />

Yucca, 1984<br />

Douglas Deeds<br />

Series 3000 Chair (with<br />

cushion), c. 1968-1970<br />

Deeds refers to this series<br />

as the “roundies” due to its<br />

overall sculptural contours,<br />

a silhouette made possible<br />

by the material and process<br />

<strong>of</strong> molded fiberglass.<br />

Hiromi Oda<br />

Untitled, 1972<br />

Referencing nature and the<br />

human body, Oda’s large<br />

scale, dimensional works<br />

crossed over into the realm<br />

<strong>of</strong> sculpture.<br />

Carol Shaw-Sutton<br />

Spirit Canoe, 1980<br />

These flexible willow<br />

structures are interpretations<br />

<strong>of</strong> the experiences<br />

she had in the Sierra<br />

wilderness symbolizing<br />

the connection to the<br />

flow <strong>of</strong> life.<br />

Elsie Crawford<br />

Zipper Light II<br />

Designed 1965,<br />

fabricated 1997<br />

52<br />

The early <strong>1960</strong>s saw a wave <strong>of</strong> change in the<br />

experimental fiber works being produced.<br />

<strong>Craft</strong>speople began to create three-dimensional,<br />

free-hanging works that stood on their own merit<br />

as art objects. This marked the intersection <strong>of</strong><br />

painting with textiles. Due to greater visibility<br />

<strong>of</strong> textiles in exhibitions and with mentors at the<br />

college level, such as Bernard Kester at UCLA,<br />

Mary Jane Leland 3 at CSULB, and Ed Rossbach<br />

at UC Berkeley, fiber artists became increasingly<br />

prolific. There was a deep sense <strong>of</strong> discovery,<br />

imagination, and encouragement.<br />

Al-Hilali 52a began her career working with<br />

fiber and transitioned into paper because she<br />

was intrigued by the possibility <strong>of</strong> transforming<br />

an unremarkable, industrial-made material in<br />

avant-garde ways. She pressed and worked paper<br />

to make it look like other materials, including<br />

metal, stone and satin. “With paper, the visual<br />

record <strong>of</strong> the construction method can be ma-<br />

a<br />

b<br />

nipulated, disguised, altered,” Al-Hilali said.<br />

Al-Hilali’s weavings comprised <strong>of</strong> plaited<br />

paper towels to create a painted textile, or the<br />

movement <strong>of</strong> Carol Shaw-Sutton 53d , John Garrett,<br />

Ferne Jacobs 55c , and Hiromi Oda 53c to weave <strong>of</strong>f<br />

the loom or use knotting, crocheting, and other<br />

fiber techniques in new and adventurous ways,<br />

facilitated the creation <strong>of</strong> three-dimensional<br />

pieces that moved away from the rectangular flat<br />

forms heret<strong>of</strong>ore associated with the medium.<br />

Free hanging and relief wall weavings broke the<br />

tyranny <strong>of</strong> the two-dimensional. Kay Sekimachi 2<br />

created free-floating, complex ethereal forms using<br />

an unexpected material, nylon mon<strong>of</strong>ilament.<br />

Ruth Asawa 1 , not working in fiber but<br />

rather in metal, treated copper and other wires<br />

like yarn in her intricate, delicate sculptures that

53<br />

e<br />

c<br />


a<br />

June Schwarcz<br />

Issey Miyake, 1983<br />

54<br />

electr<strong>of</strong>orming. She <strong>of</strong>ten employed basse-taille,<br />

which created surface variation. Using innovative<br />

processes paradoxically allowed her to create<br />

work that feels organic and also primitive.<br />

The Studio Glass Movement pushed the<br />

medium to the outer limits during these years,<br />

using a range <strong>of</strong> new techniques, redefining the<br />

possibilities, and conquering new themes. In the<br />

words <strong>of</strong> innovator Paul Marioni:<br />

a<br />

belie the rigidity <strong>of</strong> metal. Fractal-like, they<br />

expand outward and have both naturalistic and<br />

futuristic qualities. These innovators led the<br />

pack <strong>of</strong> artists who saw the possibilities <strong>of</strong> using<br />

materials in unprecedented ways. Working in<br />

the opposite direction, Lia Cook made fiber<br />

appear like metal in her tapestry Fire Pocket<br />

Piece 50a from 1984. In this case, she re-thinks<br />

the material and manipulates it into a new state<br />

to give it a metallic sheen.<br />

In metal, June Schwarcz 54a became known<br />

for experimenting with processes in her enamel<br />

work, including electroplating, etching and<br />

The nascent glass scene in <strong>California</strong> in the 1970s<br />

was fantastic, incredible, unbelievable. Just,<br />

WOW. We were in a period <strong>of</strong> intense learning<br />

and growing and it was solely due to co-operation<br />

(not competition). We were lucky enough to<br />

infect others with our enthusiasm and thereby<br />

start a ‘movement’ that is here to stay. As a result,<br />

we are like one big family and are still excited and<br />

have retained a deep respect and friendship. It was<br />

truly an exciting period for art in <strong>California</strong>.<br />

By the late 1970s personal computers and<br />

other related advanced technologies became<br />

increasingly available and artists like Cook<br />

started learning s<strong>of</strong>tware programs that were<br />

developed to aid design and fabrication. This<br />

opened up the new possibility <strong>of</strong> utilizing<br />

traditional handcrafting techniques together<br />

with newly developed digital processes. It both<br />

challenged the survival <strong>of</strong> the handmade and<br />

in ways, encouraged its revival. The language<br />

<strong>of</strong> traditional creative expression was deeply<br />

enhanced and forever altered.

c<br />

d<br />

e<br />

Donald Chadwick<br />

Side Chair/Dining Chair,<br />

1969<br />

Ferne Jacobs<br />

Flame, 1982-1983<br />

The slow, labored<br />

process <strong>of</strong> knotting and<br />

coiling, used to construct<br />

this wall sculpture,<br />

accords Jacobs a deep<br />

relationship with the work.<br />

Arline Fisch<br />

A Whale <strong>of</strong> a Necklace,<br />

mid-1980s<br />

Charles Hollis Jones<br />

Edison Table Lamp, 1968<br />

The name <strong>of</strong> this piece<br />

pays tribute to the<br />

inventor <strong>of</strong> the practical<br />

electric lightbulb.<br />

55<br />

d<br />

b<br />

c<br />



a<br />

John Cederquist<br />

The Game Table, 1982<br />

57<br />

The New Wave<br />

“In working, you employ all your faculties, use all your experiences and<br />

let them thrive together. You live like a tree. Inevitably, if you are happily<br />

alive, you will give fruit and continue to grow.”<br />

– Neda Al-Hilali<br />

The rebellious innovation <strong>of</strong> the <strong>1960</strong>s in the craft world was propelled to a<br />

new level with the irreverence <strong>of</strong> the 1970s and 1980s. Fusing the sly irony<br />

<strong>of</strong> Pop Art and the in-your-face derision <strong>of</strong> Funk, Postmodernism bubbled<br />

to the surface in the crafts, <strong>of</strong>fering a new take on design and meaning.<br />

Starting in the <strong>1960</strong>s and swelling in the 1970s, artists challenged<br />

technical traditionalism and Modernist tenets. The idea <strong>of</strong> eliminating<br />

frivolous ornamentation, form following function, and the idea that<br />

materials needed to directly communicate their identities were all key.<br />

Postmodernism broke these concepts down. Artists who propelled<br />

Postmodernism no longer wished to rely on the rationalism established by<br />

earlier movements. Objects remained superbly crafted, but craftsmanship and<br />

the subtleties <strong>of</strong> structure and material were no longer the focal interest.<br />

Form and material were surpassed by concept, but work became more<br />

refined. Objects were slick and urbane. In his 1986 intro to <strong>Craft</strong> Today:<br />

Poetry <strong>of</strong> the Physical, Paul J. Smith, then director <strong>of</strong> the American <strong>Craft</strong><br />

Museum, wrote that the craftsman was at this time able to “transcend traditional<br />

forms and techniques, creating works <strong>of</strong> genuinely new significance.”<br />

The Modernist ideology <strong>of</strong> breaking from historic precedent went<br />

under fire in the hands <strong>of</strong> the new wave <strong>of</strong> artists. Instead, these artists<br />

embraced a playful pastiche <strong>of</strong> references. Postmodernism was<br />

<strong>of</strong>ten garish and filled with motifs, signs and symbols. They made<br />

iconoclastic statements with satire, whimsy and humor, <strong>of</strong>ten referring<br />

to popular culture and quoting historic stylistic traditions. References<br />

to Art Deco, Neoclassicism, Modernism and Early American<br />

stylistic periods and forms became a language that artists would riff<br />

upon. They reconsidered the past and created visual commentaries<br />

through objects.<br />

Artists also played with illusions and tricks to make materials and<br />

forms appear unlike what they actually were. John Cederquist’s 56a<br />

use <strong>of</strong> trompe l’oeil two-dimensional design in his masterfully crafted<br />

furniture was groundbreaking. Depth perception and perspective were<br />

reconsidered in his work as he asked the viewer to question what is<br />

real. His pieces challenged form, appearance and the nature <strong>of</strong> craftsmanship<br />

with elegance and wit.

a<br />

Elsa Rady<br />

Black Fan Bowl, c. 1983<br />

b<br />

Peter Shire<br />

Pinwheel, c. 1980<br />

58<br />

a<br />

b<br />

Work from this era flaunted saturated pigmentation<br />

in the face <strong>of</strong> Modernism’s cool, sedate<br />

tones. Bold glazes and laminates were used<br />

in all colors and patterns to enliven furniture.<br />

Shocking bolts <strong>of</strong> primary color and neon were<br />

pushed together. The juxtaposition <strong>of</strong> discordant<br />

shapes and geometrics was typical, as was the<br />

unexpected use <strong>of</strong> materials and surface ornamentation.<br />

Much <strong>of</strong> the work along these lines<br />

was largely driven by the community <strong>of</strong> ceramic<br />

artists at Chouinard, including Ralph Bacerra,<br />

Adrian Saxe, Elsa Rady 58a , Mineo Mizuno 59d<br />

and Peter Shire. Bacerra became known for<br />

vibrant, dense patterning while Saxe made<br />

heady, witty vessels that touched on the canons<br />

<strong>of</strong> clay and considered the concept <strong>of</strong> consumption<br />

in the most excessive eras <strong>of</strong> history.<br />

Ever the constructionist, Paul Tuttle created<br />

his Tablet Chair 4 as an assemblage <strong>of</strong> floating<br />

geometrical planes that came together to perform<br />

the function <strong>of</strong> being a writing chair, executed<br />

with a streamlined-Moderne sensibility. The<br />

roundedness <strong>of</strong> the piece channels Art Deco<br />

furniture, but one can also view the chair as<br />

“visual geometry” - an assemblage <strong>of</strong> semicircles<br />

supported by lines that delineate the structure.<br />

Peter Shire’s Pinwheel 58b teapot, whimsically<br />

composed <strong>of</strong> colorful circles and triangles that<br />

produce a riot <strong>of</strong> spinning shapes and shades,<br />

is exemplary <strong>of</strong> Shire’s “Memphis” aesthetic,<br />

which epitomized Postmodernism. Shire was<br />

one <strong>of</strong> the lead designers for the Memphis<br />

Group, an Italian design firm that drove the<br />

development <strong>of</strong> postmodern principles. The<br />

Pinwheel teapot makes references to scraps<br />

<strong>of</strong> sheet metal. The overall formal nature <strong>of</strong> a<br />

teapot and the class connotations associated<br />

with it are considered in his interpretation <strong>of</strong><br />

the form. <strong>Craft</strong> had moved away from functionalism<br />

in these years, but Shire goes even further<br />

to create designs that <strong>of</strong>ten hide their utilitarian<br />

purposes. <strong>Craft</strong> had entered a new dimension <strong>of</strong><br />

conceptualism beyond practicality and tactility.

c<br />

Stephanie DeLange<br />

Pair <strong>of</strong> Clipped Cylinders,<br />

1981-1982<br />

DeLange makes a contemporary<br />

statement with<br />

these cylinders by opening<br />

up the vessels with slits<br />

cut by pinking shears.<br />

d<br />

Mineo Mizuno<br />

Square Plate with Two<br />

Cups, 1978-1980<br />

Mizuno uses blocks <strong>of</strong> color<br />

to amplify architectural<br />

structure, and the graphic<br />

depiction <strong>of</strong> peppers to<br />

play with conventions <strong>of</strong><br />

the still life genre.<br />

e<br />

Richard Marquis<br />

Personal Archive Unit:<br />

Bottle with Funnel, 1984<br />

A leader <strong>of</strong> the studio glass<br />

movement, Marquis’ work<br />

evolved to include witty<br />

pastiches <strong>of</strong> curio cabinets<br />

containing glassblown<br />

pieces and found objects.<br />

59<br />

c<br />

d<br />

The proliferation <strong>of</strong> wealth in the 1980s<br />

created a new outlook for craft. It allowed many<br />

more craft artists to work independently and<br />

form financially stable careers. There was more<br />

patronage than ever before while collectors, auction<br />

houses and galleries created a new market<br />

for craft. Artists found that they could actually<br />

make businesses out <strong>of</strong> their expressions.<br />

The years between <strong>1960</strong> and <strong>1985</strong> were a<br />

vital and vibrant moment in the craft continuum.<br />

For some, this era was an evolution.<br />

For many, this was the period in which they hit<br />

their stride. And for others, it was the beginning,<br />

when they were just starting out, experimenting<br />

and finding their voices. Many artists in this<br />

group went on to create work that was very<br />

different from what they were generating<br />

during this period. Within these decades, it<br />

is apparent that massive changes took place.<br />

Artists digested these social changes individually<br />

through their work. This was a time when<br />

culture and craft intersected powerfully. The<br />

awareness that the times were changing came<br />

through loud and clear in the art that was<br />

created and it propelled craft into uncharted<br />

realms <strong>of</strong> discovery and possibility.<br />



CCA (CCAC)<br />

COOK<br />



FREY<br />






Late 1930s<br />

Van Keppel-Green showroom and retail shop opens. The showroom and shop marry craft and the<br />

most modern design and is the premier showcase for indoor-outdoor, adaptable furniture<br />

1950<br />

Multi-media artist and jeweler Claire Falkenstein goes to Paris until 1963 and meets Jean Arp,<br />

Alberto Giacometti and other artists<br />

c. 1950<br />

Wildenhain decorates her tall-footed vessels with figurative imagery<br />

Arthur Espenet Carpenter starts selling turned bowls and furniture he creates<br />

Arthur Ames teaches at Otis College <strong>of</strong> Art and Design, and continues making mosaic murals with<br />

wife, Jean Goodwin<br />

Laura Andreson begins to throw porcelain. By the end <strong>of</strong> the decade she is the West Coast expert<br />

1951<br />

Raul Coronel studies at the <strong>California</strong> College <strong>of</strong> Arts and <strong>Craft</strong>s (as <strong>of</strong> 2003, <strong>California</strong> College <strong>of</strong><br />

the Arts or CCA)<br />

1952<br />

Peter Voulkos gets his MFA from CCA and co-founds an artist-in-residence program in Montana<br />

called the Archie Bray Foundation<br />

Glen Lukens takes leave <strong>of</strong> absence at USC and Vivika Heino replaces him<br />

1954<br />

Peter Voulkos is head <strong>of</strong> the Ceramics Department at Otis and a new era<br />

begins in studio ceramics<br />

Otis Art Institute changes its name to Los Angeles County Art Institute<br />

Designer <strong>Craft</strong>smen <strong>of</strong> <strong>California</strong> organizes

HIRED<br />



“<strong>California</strong> Design 1” exhibition is launched as an annual program <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Pasadena Art Museum<br />

MILLS<br />


The San Francisco Museum <strong>of</strong> Art holds a solo exhibition on the work <strong>of</strong><br />

studio jeweler and metal artist Merry Renk<br />

June Schwarcz learns to enamel with lessons from a friend and by studying<br />

Kenneth Bates’ Principles and Practices<br />

1956<br />

Crystalline glazes become a part <strong>of</strong> the Natzler repertoire<br />


1957<br />

Studio furniture-maker Arthur Espenet Carpenter<br />

moves from San Francisco to Bolinas<br />

1958<br />

Arline Fisch’s work is included in the Museum <strong>of</strong> Contemporary <strong>Craft</strong>s, New York City<br />

“Young Americans 1958” exhibition<br />

John Nyquist participates in “<strong>California</strong> Design VII” when he is a senior at Long Beach<br />

<strong>State</strong>. He subsequently participates in all the <strong>California</strong> Design exhibitions<br />

Allan Adler’s business thrives. He has twenty-five workers; eighteen are silversmiths<br />




SCHOOL<br />

After studying painting and ceramics at CCA, Viola Frey earns her MFA from Tulane,<br />

where she studied with painter Mark Rothko<br />

1959<br />

Peter Voulkos begins teaching design and sculpture at UC Berkeley (UCB) at the urging <strong>of</strong> Ed Rossbach<br />

Kay Sekimachi’s work is featured in <strong>Craft</strong> Horizons<br />

Harrison McIntosh brings his classic, understated thrown stoneware pottery style to Otis to teach for the summer with Peter Voulkos<br />

Stan Bitters receives his BA in painting from UCLA and goes on to San Diego <strong>State</strong> for three years and Otis for one year before<br />

becoming a pr<strong>of</strong>essional ceramics designer<br />

<strong>1960</strong><br />

NASA launches its first communications satellite<br />

Michael Frimkess begins making his “melting pots”<br />

Ruth and Svetozar Radakovich move to Encinitas, <strong>California</strong> and build a studio<br />

Ron Nagle studies ceramics under Peter Voulkos

USC<br />

LUKENS<br />


HEINOS<br />


PORTER<br />


UCB<br />

1961<br />


COOK<br />

The Funk movement takes root<br />

when Robert Arneson constructs<br />

an imitation <strong>of</strong> a glass bottle during<br />

a demonstration at the <strong>California</strong><br />

<strong>State</strong> Fair<br />

Claire Falkenstein creates the iron<br />

and colored-glass gates for Peggy<br />

Guggenheim’s Palazzo Venier dei<br />

Leoni in Venice, Italy<br />


Los Angeles County Art Institute<br />

becomes Otis Art Institute <strong>of</strong> Los<br />

Angeles County<br />

Ralph Bacerra studies at Chouinard<br />

Art Institute with Vivika Heino<br />

Vivika and her husband Otto found<br />

the annual Chouinard Pottery Sale<br />

James Wayne enrolls in a ceramics<br />

class as a non-arts major<br />

1962<br />

US combat missions begin in Vietnam<br />

The Cuban Missile Crisis occurs<br />

Chouinard merges with <strong>California</strong> Institute <strong>of</strong> the Arts and receives financial<br />

support from Walt Disney<br />

Architectural Pottery builds the largest envelope kiln to fire the oversized planters<br />

by David Cressey<br />

Ruth Asawa begins experimenting with tied-wire and electroplating techniques.<br />

J.B. Blunk begins creating wood sculptures with a chainsaw<br />

Eudorah M. Moore becomes Curator <strong>of</strong> Design at the Pasadena Art Museum and is also named<br />

Director <strong>of</strong> “<strong>California</strong> Design”


HEINOS<br />

M. LELAND<br />


RADY<br />

MIZUNO<br />

SHIRE<br />

SAXE<br />


MALOOF<br />


1963<br />

Martin Luther King, Jr. delivers his “I Have a Dream” speech<br />

John F. Kennedy is assassinated<br />

Paul Soldner leads the revival <strong>of</strong> the low-fire Raku technique<br />

in pottery<br />

1964<br />

The first Free Speech protest takes place<br />

at UCB<br />


Don Chadwick sets up a design practice<br />

1965<br />

The Watts Riots wreak havoc on<br />

the South Los Angeles area<br />

Ferne Jacobs takes a weaving course<br />

at Barnsdall Park that inspires her to<br />

become a fiber artist<br />


Carter Smith learns to tie dye from his<br />

mother, artist and arts leader Eloise<br />

Pickard Smith<br />

The Egg and The Eye opens as a commercial<br />

gallery with inaugural exhibitions:<br />

“J.B. Blunk, Sculptural Furniture”;<br />

“Kenojoak, Eskimo Sculpture”; and<br />

“Richard D. Phipps, Rugs”<br />


1966<br />

“The Ceramic Work <strong>of</strong> Gertrud & Otto<br />

Natzler,” their first museum retrospective<br />

in the US, opens at LACMA<br />

ADLER<br />

Faith Porter mounts her master’s<br />

exhibition at The Egg and the Eye and<br />

Sam Malo<strong>of</strong>’s first solo show opens<br />

“Abstract Expressionist Ceramics” opens<br />

at the University <strong>of</strong> <strong>California</strong>, Irvine<br />

1967<br />

Marvin Lip<strong>of</strong>sky founds the glass<br />

department at CCA while also on the<br />

faculty at UCB


AMES<br />






MASON<br />


OTIS<br />

1968<br />

Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated<br />

Robert Kennedy is assassinated<br />

Neda Al-Hilali receives her graduate degree from UCLA but continues to be associated with the university through<br />

intermittent teaching for many years while teaching at Otis<br />

Elsa Rady establishes her own studio<br />

1969<br />

President Nixon takes <strong>of</strong>fice and aims to negotiate withdrawal from Vietnam<br />

Apollo 11 lands on the moon<br />

Woodstock music festival is held in Woodstock, New York<br />

Frank E. Cummings III starts teaching furniture making at Cal <strong>State</strong> Fullerton, through 2000<br />

“Objects USA,” the first survey <strong>of</strong> American craft, opens and a book is published in conjunction<br />

Richard Marquis learns the traditional Venetian glass techniques as a Fulbright Fellow in Murano<br />

Shuttle Spindle & Dyepot magazine is published<br />

Pamela Weir creates life-size wooden dolls for the lobby <strong>of</strong> Altadena Federal Savings and Loan<br />

1970<br />

The Energy Crisis affects peaks in oil prices throughout the decade<br />

Gerhardt Knodel becomes artist-in-residence <strong>of</strong> the fiber department at Cranbrook Academy <strong>of</strong> Art<br />

Arline Fisch visits Denmark and begins to reinterpret textile constructions through metal<br />

Dominic DiMare, a self-taught studio weaver, begins making handmade rag papers, which he incorporates<br />

into his sculptures<br />

c. 1970<br />

Richard DeVore begins focusing on thrown and sculpted, asymmetrical shallow bowls and cylindrical vases<br />

Philip Cornelius begins producing his signature “thinware,” fired “right to the edge”

UCLA<br />

KESTER<br />



KNODEL<br />

ODA<br />

SAXE<br />




1971<br />

The “Fiber as Medium” symposium takes place at UCLA along with “Deliberate<br />

Entanglements,” a show organized by Bernard Kester featuring large-scale work<br />


Alvin Pine makes a gold necklace for “<strong>California</strong> Design.” John Nyquist buys<br />

the necklace for his wife Shirley<br />

Gertrud Natzler dies and Otto stops working until the following year<br />

Lia Cook studies fiber with Ed Rossbach at UCB<br />

c. 1971<br />

Arthur Espenet Carpenter makes furniture with rounded finishes that become known as the “<strong>California</strong> roundover style”<br />

1972<br />

October: The Watergate scandal is uncovered. Walter Cronkite reports<br />

it on the CBS News<br />

Chouinard Art Institute holds its final commencement ceremony and closes<br />

BLUNK<br />

The Renwick Gallery opens with Lloyd Herman as director. The featured<br />

show is “Woodenworks: Furniture Objects by Five Contemporary <strong>Craft</strong>smen”<br />

featuring the work <strong>of</strong> Arthur Espenet Carpenter, Wendell Castle, Wharton<br />

Esherick, George Nakashima and Sam Malo<strong>of</strong><br />

The Baulines <strong>Craft</strong> Guild is founded by Tom D’On<strong>of</strong>rio, Arthur Espenet Carpenter<br />

and others. It becomes the <strong>California</strong> Contemporary <strong>Craft</strong> Association<br />


The Pacific Basin Textile Art Center is established in Berkeley, <strong>California</strong><br />

The Center for Folk Art and Contemporary <strong>Craft</strong>s is founded in San Francisco<br />

and later called San Francisco <strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art Museum<br />

Paul Marioni shifts his focus from flat glass to blown glass

CSUSD (SDSC)<br />



FISCH<br />

DIMARE<br />





DIMARE<br />


JACOBS<br />

JACOBS<br />

1973<br />

CAFAM is founded in Los Angeles by Edith<br />

R. Wyle, incorporating the Egg and the Eye<br />

restaurant and shop<br />

The <strong>Craft</strong>s Program is established by the<br />

National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) and<br />

the first fellowships are awarded<br />

Adrian Saxe becomes chair <strong>of</strong> the Ceramics<br />

Department at UCLA<br />

The Fiberworks Center for the Textile Arts,<br />

Berkeley is formed by Ed Rossbach, Gyöngy<br />

Laky, and others<br />

1974<br />

President Richard Nixon resigns. Gerald Ford<br />

becomes President and pardons Nixon<br />

The Bead Journal (later Ornament Magazine) publishes<br />

its first issue<br />

The Oakland Museum exhibition, “Bodywear,” shows<br />

clothing as art through the work <strong>of</strong> West Coast artists<br />

1975<br />

The <strong>Craft</strong>s Report, Fine Woodworking, Golddust<br />

(later Metalsmith), Interweave, and Fiberarts are first<br />

published<br />

The <strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art Museum (CAFAM) is established<br />

with board members Edith R. Wyle (Chair) and Bernard<br />

Kester (President)<br />

Faith Porter shifts from traditional pottery and porcelain<br />

to innovative assemblage work<br />

Late 1970s<br />

Ceramics begin to show characteristics<br />

<strong>of</strong> post-modernism,<br />

largely driven by former Chouinard<br />

students: Ralph Bacerra, Adrian<br />

Saxe, Elsa Rady, Mineo Mizuno<br />

and Peter Shire



CSULB<br />

M.J. LELAND<br />


PINE<br />


KNODEL<br />



1976<br />

The last “<strong>California</strong> Design”<br />

exhibition is held<br />

The first “Parade <strong>of</strong> Masks” is<br />

organized by CAFAM and the first<br />

festival is held the following year<br />

1977<br />

Joan Mondale, potter and wife<br />

<strong>of</strong> Vice President Mondale, visits<br />

CAFAM<br />

The White House invites fourteen<br />

studio artists, including Dora De<br />

Larios, to design a set <strong>of</strong> dinnerware<br />

Ann Robbins continues to search<br />

the country to bring fine crafts to<br />

the CAFAM store<br />

The San Jose Museum <strong>of</strong> Quilts<br />

and Textiles begins<br />

1978<br />

The Art institute <strong>of</strong> Los Angeles County<br />

becomes Otis Art Institute <strong>of</strong> Parsons School<br />

<strong>of</strong> Design<br />

Elizabeth Fortner organizes “Atmospheres,”<br />

a major exhibition <strong>of</strong> two hundred contemporary<br />

craft artists that is sponsored by Bank<br />

<strong>of</strong> America and displayed in the lobby <strong>of</strong><br />

their World Headquarters in San Francisco<br />

The <strong>California</strong> <strong>Craft</strong>s Museum is founded<br />

with Jeanne Low as its president and a<br />

space within the Palo Alto Cultural Center.<br />

A retrospective <strong>of</strong> jeweler Merry Renk is the<br />

opening exhibition<br />

Sue Meyer, Virginia Breier and Dorothy<br />

Weiss start Meyer, Breier, Weiss Gallery in<br />

San Francisco<br />

“Ken Price: Happy’s Curios” is shown at<br />

LACMA<br />

Eudorah M. Moore serves as <strong>Craft</strong>s Coordinator<br />

<strong>of</strong> the NEA through 1981, focusing<br />

on craft-related grants and developing an<br />

advocacy program



1979<br />

Garry Knox Bennett deliberately mars a padauk cabinet as a critique <strong>of</strong> perfectionist woodworking<br />

Judy Chicago’s multimedia installation depicting Western women’s history, The Dinner Party, tours internationally<br />

The Bead Journal becomes Ornament Magazine<br />

1980<br />

Jim Bassler incorporates his research <strong>of</strong> the Navajo wedgeweave process into his woven work<br />

WAYNE<br />

SMITH<br />

CAFAM begins quarterly publication <strong>of</strong> <strong>Craft</strong> International<br />

1981<br />

John Cederquist makes furniture using trompe l’oeil effects <strong>of</strong> depth and scale distortion<br />

CAFAM holds “Made in L.A. Contemporary <strong>Craft</strong>s,” curated by Bernard Kester<br />

The Memphis group debuts their work in Milan, ushering in the post-modernist style. Peter Shire becomes a collaborator<br />

The <strong>California</strong> <strong>Craft</strong>s Museum presents a major exhibition, “The Handcrafted Book in <strong>California</strong>.” The exhibition, in two parts, “Part I: Art and <strong>Craft</strong>”<br />

and “Part II: Concepts and Visions” takes place at the Palo Alto Cultural Center<br />

1982<br />

A Sam Malo<strong>of</strong> rocking chair with long runners is the first piece <strong>of</strong> contemporary furniture chosen for the White House Collection.<br />

President Ronald Reagan is photographed in the rocker<br />

WEIR<br />



1983<br />

November: “Home Sweet Home,” is a citywide vernacular architecture project produced by CAFAM, conceived by Gere Kavanaugh and co-curated by Kavanaugh and<br />

Charles Moore. The project includes exhibitions at twelve L.A. area galleries and museums and a nationally publicized symposium at UCLA<br />

Adrian Saxe is awarded an artist’s fellowship and a six-month residency at the Sevres porcelain manufactory outside Paris<br />

1984<br />

The Summer Olympic Games are held in Los Angeles<br />

Edith Wyle announces her retirement and becomes Director Emeritus. Patrick Ela is named Executive Director and adds design (both architecture and product<br />

design) to CAFAM’s program<br />

<strong>1985</strong><br />

Sam Malo<strong>of</strong> becomes the first craft artist to receive the MacArthur Foundation Fellowship<br />

June Schwarcz, Bob Stocksdale, Eudorah M. Moore and others are each declared a “Living Treasure <strong>of</strong> <strong>California</strong>” by the <strong>State</strong> Assembly<br />



RENK<br />


Exhibition Checklist<br />

70<br />

Dimensions are listed as height (or length) x width<br />

(or diameter) x depth<br />

Evelyn and Jerome Ackerman<br />

<strong>California</strong> Poppies, 1970<br />

Designed by Evelyn Ackerman for ERA Industries<br />

Hand-hooked wool tapestry, produced in Thailand<br />

35” x 39”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artists<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Allan Adler<br />

Pair <strong>of</strong> Candlesticks, c. 1959-1964<br />

Sterling silver<br />

11” x 3”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Tobey Cotsen Victor<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Neda Al-Hilali<br />

Yucca, 1984<br />

Paper, plaited, pressed, painted<br />

51” x 51”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> James and Veralee Bassler<br />

Photo courtesy <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Arthur Ames<br />

Untitled, c. 1970<br />

Copper, enamel<br />

24.37” x 24.37” x 1.37”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Scripps College, Claremont, CA<br />

Gift <strong>of</strong> Mrs. Jean Goodwin Ames<br />

Photo © Long Beach Museum <strong>of</strong> Art 2011<br />

Laura Andreson<br />

Untitled covered jar, 1973<br />

Porcelain, glazed<br />

7.75” x 5”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

Laura Andreson<br />

Untitled vessel, 1978<br />

Porcelain, glazed<br />

8.5” x 8.87”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

Robert Arneson<br />

Untitled sculpture, 1961<br />

Earthenware, glazed<br />

26.5” x 14” x 8”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Art © Estate <strong>of</strong> Robert Arneson/Licensed by<br />

VAGA, New York, NY<br />

Ruth Asawa<br />

Untitled, mid <strong>1960</strong>s<br />

Bronze, copper tied wire<br />

17.5” x 9.5”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Ralph Bacerra<br />

Animal Sculpture, c. 1976<br />

Porcelain, glazed<br />

35.5” x 28” x 15.75”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

James Bassler<br />

Rebozo, 1975<br />

Silk warp ikat, silk wool weft<br />

36” x 44.5”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Garry Knox Bennett<br />

Winged Heart, 1976<br />

Brass, glass, bone, paint, clock mechanism, gold,<br />

silver plate<br />

27.5” x 31” x 3”<br />

Bennett Family Collection<br />

Garry Knox Bennett<br />

Red Baron, c. 1968-1969<br />

Steel, copper, brass, paint, decal<br />

5.25” x 4” x 10.5”<br />

Bennett Family Collection<br />

A.J. McLennan photograph<br />

Garry Knox Bennett<br />

Hanging Cloud, 1973<br />

Brushed aluminum<br />

58” x 95 ” x 0.12”<br />

Bennett Family Collection<br />

Garry Knox Bennett<br />

Cloud Lamp, 1973<br />

Brushed aluminum, wood, plastic spheres<br />

49” x 28”<br />

Bennett Family Collection<br />

Garry Knox Bennett<br />

Selection <strong>of</strong> Roach Clips, 1964-1967<br />

Hand-hammered brass, silver, copper, gold, glass<br />

beads, bone<br />

3.25 - 8.75” x 0.62” - 3” x 0.12”<br />

Bennett Family Collection<br />

Stan Bitters<br />

Birdhouses, 1962<br />

Stoneware, unglazed<br />

Courtesy <strong>of</strong> Ten10 Gallery<br />

Stan Bitters<br />

Rock Stack Wall<br />

Refabricated 2009 from original design<br />

Stoneware, glazed<br />

5 units, 66” x 12”<br />

Courtesy <strong>of</strong> Ten10 Gallery<br />

Porter Blanchard<br />

C<strong>of</strong>fee Pot and Creamer, <strong>1960</strong>s<br />

Sterling silver, ivory<br />

C<strong>of</strong>fee Pot: 9.87” x 8.25” x 5.37”<br />

Creamer: 5.5” x 4.37” x 4”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill

J.B. Blunk<br />

Mr Peanut, 1973<br />

Bishop pine, redwood<br />

32” x 43” x 29”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the estate <strong>of</strong> J.B. Blunk<br />

Courtesy <strong>of</strong> Reform Gallery<br />

Mario DeLopez photograph<br />

Arthur Espenet Carpenter<br />

Wishbone Chair, 1972<br />

Shedua wood, leather strapping<br />

31.25” x 22” x 22.5”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

Arthur Espenet Carpenter<br />

Set <strong>of</strong> Four Models (scale: 0.12” to 1”)<br />

On loan from the estate <strong>of</strong> Arthur Espenet Carpenter<br />

Vanity, 1984<br />

Rosewood, mirror<br />

6.5” x 6” x 2.5”<br />

Couch for Mill Valley Library, 1965<br />

Walnut<br />

3.25” x 11.87” x 4”<br />

Altar for Old St. Mary’s Church, 1967<br />

Rosewood<br />

5.25” x 9.25” x 4”<br />

Desk, early 1970s<br />

Mutenye hardwood<br />

3.87” x 8” x 4”<br />

John Cederquist<br />

The Game Table, 1982<br />

Maple, purple-heart inlay, dye, birch plywood<br />

48” x 32” x 21”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Gloria and Sonny Kamm<br />

Mike Sasso photograph<br />

Donald Chadwick<br />

Side Chair/Dining Chair, 1969<br />

Prototype manufactured by Stow Davis<br />

Wood, fabric, foam<br />

30” x 20” x 20”<br />

On loan from Chadwick Studio<br />

Lia Cook<br />

Fire Pocket Piece, 1984<br />

Cotton, rayon; woven, pressed, dyed, stiffened<br />

37” x 50” x 1.5”<br />

Courtesy <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Philip Cornelius<br />

Untitled, mid-1970s<br />

Porcelain, glazed<br />

10” x 8”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Eudorah M. Moore<br />

Raul Angulo Coronel<br />

Covered Vessel, 1982<br />

Stoneware, glazed, thrown, slab<br />

35” x 8.5”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Michael and Mindy Hickman<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Elsie Crawford<br />

Zipper Light II<br />

Designed 1965, fabricated 1997<br />

Acrylic<br />

26.5” x 12”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Los Angeles County Museum <strong>of</strong> Art<br />

Gift <strong>of</strong> the artist (AC1997.259.2)<br />

Photo © 2009 Museum Associates / LACMA /<br />

Art Resource, NY<br />

David Cressey<br />

Untitled covered jar, <strong>1960</strong>s<br />

Stoneware, glazed<br />

20.25” x 9.25”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Frank E. Cummings III<br />

Oak Chair, 1971<br />

Hand-carved Japanese oak<br />

31” x 30”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Douglas Deeds<br />

Series 3000 Chair (with cushion), c. 1968-1970<br />

Manufactured by Architectural Fiberglass<br />

Molded fiberglass<br />

29” x 29” x 28”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Damon and Marian Lawrence<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Douglas Deeds<br />

Park Bench with Back, 1965<br />

Manufactured by Architectural Fiberglass<br />

Molded fiberglass<br />

25” x 82” x 28”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Damon and Marian Lawrence<br />

Stephanie DeLange<br />

Pair <strong>of</strong> Clipped Cylinders, 1981-1982<br />

Porcelain, celadon glaze<br />

14”-15.5” x 4”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Dora De Larios<br />

Europa and the Bull, 1962<br />

Stoneware, glazed, thrown segments<br />

10.5” x 9.75” x 5”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Dominic L. DiMare<br />

Untitled wall sculpture, 1969<br />

Wool, linen, natural fiber twine, horsehair, woven<br />

54” x 21” x 8”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Eudorah M. Moore<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Claire Falkenstein<br />

Necklace, 1962<br />

Brass, silver, steel, pink glass<br />

11” x 6.5” x 1.5”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the Long Beach Museum <strong>of</strong> Art<br />

Gift <strong>of</strong> the Falkenstein Foundation<br />

Photo © Long Beach Museum <strong>of</strong> Art 2011<br />

Arline Fisch<br />

Front & Back Pectoral, 1971<br />

Hammer formed, etched sterling silver<br />

15” x 8”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Arline Fisch<br />

A Whale <strong>of</strong> a Necklace, mid-1980s<br />

Colorcore laminate, fabricated<br />

34” x 15”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

William Gullette photograph<br />

Miller Fong<br />

Lotus Chair, #6532<br />

Original design 1968, re-design 1999<br />

Stainless steel frame, synthetic wicker<br />

34” x 52” x 40”<br />

Courtesy <strong>of</strong> the Fong Brothers Company<br />

Photo courtesy <strong>of</strong> <strong>California</strong> Design<br />

Richard Gross photograph<br />

Dextra Frankel<br />

Untitled enamel bowl, c. 1962<br />

Etched and enameled metal<br />

2.5” x 10”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Lea Petmezas<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Charles Frankel<br />

Untitled bronze bowl, c. 1962<br />

Lost wax cast bronze<br />

6” x 8”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Dextra Frankel<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Michael Frimkess<br />

Vase with Jazz Musician, 1974<br />

Color test maquette for Blues for Dr. Banks<br />

Stoneware, glazed<br />

5” x 9” x 5”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Scripps College, Claremont, CA<br />

Gift <strong>of</strong> Mr. and Mrs. Fred Marer<br />

John Garrett<br />

Untitled woven basket, c. 1981<br />

Vinyl, acrylic and enamel paint, woven onto wire<br />

frame<br />

84” x 15”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Eudorah M. Moore

Erik Gronborg<br />

Covered Container, late 1970s<br />

White stoneware with decals<br />

14.5” x 3.5”<br />

Private Collection<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Otto and Vivika Heino<br />

Untitled covered container, c. 1963<br />

Stoneware, glazed<br />

16.5” x 13.5”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

Ferne Jacobs<br />

Flame, 1982-1983<br />

Coiled waxed linen thread<br />

48” x 8” x 5”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Courtesy <strong>of</strong> Nancy Margolis Gallery, NYC<br />

Susan Einstein photograph<br />

Charles Hollis Jones<br />

Adjustable Side Tables, 1975<br />

Steel, Lexan<br />

17”-21” x 13”-18” x 13”-16”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Charles Hollis Jones<br />

Edison Table Lamp, 1968<br />

Polished chrome, smoked Lucite panel shade<br />

33” x 18” x 14”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

John Kapel<br />

Door, 1968<br />

Walnut<br />

88” x 33.5”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> John Kapel<br />

Courtesy <strong>of</strong> Reform Gallery<br />

John Maeda photograph<br />

Gere Kavanaugh<br />

Flowers Rug, 1965<br />

Hand-hooked wool rug<br />

72” x 45.75”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Gere Kavanaugh<br />

Zinnia Table, c. 1966-1967<br />

Designed by Gere Kavanaugh<br />

Fir banister rails, glazed ceramic tiles made by<br />

Stonelite Tile<br />

16” x 46”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Bernard Kester<br />

Footed Bowl, early <strong>1960</strong>s<br />

Stoneware, glazed<br />

8.5” x 11.87”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Tim and Angie Meikle<br />

Gerhardt Knodel<br />

Flexible Wallpaper, 1969<br />

Silk panels; dyed, screen printed with pigments,<br />

flocked, pressed<br />

8 panels, each 96” x 12”<br />

On loan from the artist<br />

Mary Jane Leland<br />

Zinnia, 1962-1963<br />

Cotton, hand-screen printed design<br />

126” x 45”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Malcolm Leland<br />

Prototype Section <strong>of</strong> Fascia from San Diego Art<br />

Museum, 1965<br />

Aluminum, anodized bronze<br />

24” x 10.5” x 4”<br />

On loan from the artist and Cardwell Jimmerson<br />

Contemporary Art<br />

John Lewis<br />

Moon Bottles, 1971<br />

Hand-blown glass<br />

Tallest bottle: 6” x 4.5”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Pamela and Gregory Weir-Quiton<br />

Marvin Lip<strong>of</strong>sky<br />

<strong>California</strong> Loop Series #4, 1970<br />

Blown glass, paint, rayon flocking, floatation<br />

foam, epoxy<br />

14.5” x 10.5” x 8”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

M. Lee Fatheree photograph<br />

James Lovera<br />

Untitled vase, 1962<br />

Porcelain, glazed<br />

9.62” x 10.5”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

Sam Malo<strong>of</strong><br />

Rocking Chair, c. 1973<br />

Walnut<br />

45” x 27.25” x 46”<br />

Private Collection<br />

Photo courtesy <strong>of</strong> Beverly Malo<strong>of</strong><br />

Sam Malo<strong>of</strong><br />

Set <strong>of</strong> scale models: rocker, drop leaf table, pedestal<br />

table, low back chair<br />

Designed by Sam Malo<strong>of</strong> c. 1970-1980s, made by<br />

Mike Johnson 2005-2006<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Beverly Malo<strong>of</strong> (Mrs. Sam)<br />

Paul Marioni<br />

The Visitor, 1984<br />

Blown glass<br />

9” x 6”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

John Maeda photograph<br />

Richard Marquis<br />

Personal Archive Unit: Bottle with Funnel, 1984<br />

Mixed media assemblage<br />

33.5” x 20” x 9”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Gloria and Sonny Kamm<br />

Photo courtesy <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Harrison McIntosh<br />

Floating Disk, 1982<br />

Stoneware, glazed; chromed steel<br />

13” x 10.62” x 10.62”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

Brad Miller<br />

Spheres in Compression, 1976<br />

Stoneware, glass, wood<br />

10.5” x 15.5” x 5”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Mineo Mizuno<br />

Square Plate with Two Cups, 1978-1980<br />

Earthenware, glazed<br />

Plate: 1.5” x 11” x 11”<br />

Cups: 4.25” x 2.25” x 3”<br />

Alan Mandell Collection<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Gertrud and Otto Natzler<br />

Closed Form (O316), 1969<br />

Set <strong>of</strong> six miniatures (C89, A74, C22, C29, C84,<br />

B49), 1965-1967<br />

Miniatures: 0.75”-1.75” x 0.62”-3”<br />

Vessel: 4.12” x 6.37”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

John Nyquist<br />

Music Stand with Double Ledge, c. 1979<br />

Teak, rosewood, ivory, spindle turned,<br />

band-sawed, carved<br />

61” x 22” x 17”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> John and Shirley Nyquist<br />

John Walcek photograph<br />

Hiromi Oda<br />

Untitled, 1972<br />

Cotton, flax<br />

96” x 21”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Alvin Pine<br />

Gold Necklace, 1970<br />

Forged 14k gold, beads, garnets, pearls<br />

11” x 6”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> John and Shirley Nyquist<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Faith Porter<br />

Cloud, 1968<br />

Porcelain, glazed<br />

4.5” x 7.75”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist

Faith Porter<br />

Red Blush, 1968<br />

Porcelain, glazed<br />

9” x 7”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Jim Porter photograph<br />

Svetozar Radakovich<br />

Double Front Doors, commissioned by Mr. and<br />

Mrs. Stanley Hayes, 1973<br />

Teak, hand-forged metal hardware, glass inserts<br />

93” x 60”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Jean Radakovich<br />

Svetozar Radakovich<br />

Gold Cuff Bracelet, late <strong>1960</strong>s<br />

14K gold with gold chain and turquoise bead,<br />

forged, constructed with lost wax cast elements<br />

2.25” x 2.5” x 2.62”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Jean Radakovich<br />

Svetozar Radakovich<br />

Study for Climber, early <strong>1960</strong>s<br />

Painted steel<br />

15.5” x 15” x 14”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Jean Radakovich<br />

Ruth Radakovich<br />

Untitled gold brooch, late <strong>1960</strong>s<br />

14k gold, two green hexahedron mineral stones<br />

2.5” x 2” x 1.12”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Jean Radakovich<br />

Elsa Rady<br />

Black Fan Bowl, c. 1983<br />

Porcelain<br />

6” x 12”<br />

Alan Mandell Collection<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Merry Renk<br />

Ate by Ate, 1976<br />

Welded bronze<br />

25” x 25” x 4”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

M. Lee Fatheree photograph<br />

Merry Renk<br />

Marbled, <strong>1960</strong><br />

Soldered copper wire, glass marbles<br />

25” x 18” x 6”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

Ed Rossbach<br />

Newspaper, 1976<br />

Mixed media with recycled newspaper<br />

7” x 24”<br />

Courtesy <strong>of</strong> browngrotta arts<br />

Photo © Tom Grotta<br />

Jerry Rothman<br />

Ritual Vessel, c. 1980<br />

Stoneware, glazed<br />

13” x 20” x 15”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Scripps College, Claremont, CA<br />

Gift <strong>of</strong> Jerry Rothman<br />

Adrian Saxe<br />

Hula Dick (Iron Blue), 1969<br />

Porcelain, glazed<br />

14.5” x 9” x 9”<br />

Boardman Family Collection<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

June Schwarcz<br />

Issey Miyake, 1983<br />

Hammered, etched, enameled basse-taille<br />

6” x 7.12”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Kay Sekimachi<br />

Nagare I, 1967<br />

Nylon mon<strong>of</strong>iliment, wood bead, double,<br />

quadruple, tubular weave, slit tapestry<br />

69” x 13”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Carol Shaw-Sutton<br />

Spirit Canoe, 1980<br />

Willow, waxed linen, lashing<br />

28” x 57” x 16”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Peter Shire<br />

Pinwheel, c. 1980<br />

Earthenware, under-glaze, over-glaze<br />

13” x 14.5” x 4.5”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Carter Smith<br />

Red Rainbow, mid-1970s<br />

Silk, shibori tie-dye, finger pleating<br />

90” x 42”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Carter Smith<br />

Iris, mid-1970s<br />

Silk, shibori tie-dye<br />

90” x 42”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

John Snidecor<br />

Gold and Amethyst Neckpiece, 1967<br />

Gold, amethyst<br />

9.5” x 6”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Paul Soldner<br />

Abstract Bowl, <strong>1960</strong>s<br />

Earthenware, glazed, raku fired<br />

2.87” x 9.5” x 11.5”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Bob Stocksdale<br />

Salad bowl, c. 1970<br />

Honduran mahogany<br />

11.37” x 22.75”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

Jay Oligny photograph<br />

Paul Tuttle<br />

Tablet Chair, c. 1984<br />

Walnut, cane, steel<br />

37” x 24” x 25”<br />

Private Collection<br />

Photo courtesy <strong>of</strong> Los Angeles Modern Auctions<br />

James Wayne<br />

Untitled vessel, c. 1970<br />

Free blown glass<br />

5.75” x 7.75” x 5.5”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

Pamela Weir-Quiton<br />

Pamela Girls (set <strong>of</strong> 6), 1965-1967<br />

Various exotic hardwoods<br />

14” x 2” x 1.5”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> the artist<br />

Pamela Weir-Quiton<br />

Georgie Girl Seated Doll Drawer Chest, 1970<br />

Brazilian rosewood, zebrawood, maple, ebony<br />

58” x 16” x 30”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Ted and Alice Fong<br />

Photo courtesy <strong>of</strong> <strong>California</strong> Design<br />

Richard Gross photograph<br />

Katherine Westphal<br />

The Puzzle <strong>of</strong> Floating World #2, 1976<br />

Cotton, transfer printed and quilted<br />

85” x 65”<br />

Courtesy <strong>of</strong> browngrotta arts<br />

Photo © Tom Grotta<br />

Ellamarie and Jackson Woolley<br />

Untitled plate, c. <strong>1960</strong><br />

Copper, enamel<br />

1” x 8.5”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Scripps College, Claremont, CA<br />

Gift <strong>of</strong> the artists<br />

Photo © Long Beach Museum <strong>of</strong> Art 2011<br />

Marguerite Wildenhain<br />

Untitled vase, c. 1972<br />

Earthenware, glazed<br />

8.62” x 6”<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Forrest L. Merrill<br />

M. Lee Fatheree photograph

Acknowledgments<br />

74<br />

We are pr<strong>of</strong>oundly grateful to the following for their valuable support for<br />

this exhibition and catalog:<br />

Without Helen and Peter Bing, the Boardman Family Foundation, Cathleen<br />

Collins, Forrest L. Merrill, and the Stolar<strong>of</strong>f Foundation, this exhibition and<br />

catalog would not have been possible. The Board <strong>of</strong> Directors <strong>of</strong> both <strong>Craft</strong><br />

in America and CAFAM have provided a font <strong>of</strong> support for the exhibition.<br />

In researching the show, we were fortunate to be enlightened by the direct<br />

input <strong>of</strong> Eudorah M. Moore, Bernard Kester, Lois Boardman, Sharon<br />

K. Emanuelli, Joan Benedetti, Patrick Ela, Nancy Romero, and Frank S.<br />

Wyle. We appreciate the assistance <strong>of</strong> Genie Guerard and the staff <strong>of</strong> the<br />

Department <strong>of</strong> Special Collections, Charles E. Young Research Library,<br />

UCLA. Special thanks to Carolyn L.E. Benesh, Robert K. Liu and the<br />

staff <strong>of</strong> Ornament Magazine, who have written about the <strong>California</strong><br />

craft movement for the past 35 years, for contributing information from<br />

their archives. Michael Fargo created the title for the exhibition.<br />

Special thanks to board member Corinna Cotsen, independent curator Jo<br />

Lauria, and independent exhibition designer Richard Amend. We would<br />

like to recognize the work <strong>of</strong> the exhibition team that created the show.<br />

From the staff <strong>of</strong> CAFAM we are grateful to Executive Director Suzanne<br />

Isken, Exhibitions Coordinator Sasha Ali, Director <strong>of</strong> Public Programs<br />

Holly Jerger, Development and Marketing Associate Lindsay Crook, Yuko<br />

Makuuchi and Maryna Hrushetska. From the staff <strong>of</strong> <strong>Craft</strong> in America,<br />

we would like to thank Project Coordinator Denise Kang, Study Center<br />

Director Emily Zaiden, Study Center Assistant Kayleigh Perkov, Rosey<br />

Guthrie, Beverly Feldman, Patricia Bischetti, Christina Carroll, and<br />

Judy Hing. Our tireless research interns, Angelica Alcaraz and Stephanie<br />

Huerta have been essential.<br />

The lenders to the exhibition have been incredibly generous and accommodating<br />

throughout the process. Forrest L. Merrill deserves special<br />

recognition for lending a large part <strong>of</strong> his collection to the show, and his<br />

assistant Dane Cloutier provided detailed information and drove objects<br />

to Los Angeles to be photographed. We are grateful to Evelyn and Jerome<br />

Ackerman, James and Veralee Bassler, the Bennett Family Foundation,<br />

the Estate <strong>of</strong> J.B. Blunk, the Boardman Family Collection, browngrotta<br />

arts, Cardwell Jimmerson Contemporary Art, the Estate <strong>of</strong> Arthur<br />

Espenet Carpenter, Chadwick Studio, Lia Cook, Frank E. Cummings<br />

III, Stephanie DeLange, the Falkenstein Foundation, Arline Fisch,<br />

Alice and Ted Fong, Miller Fong, Dextra Frankel, Michael and Mindy<br />

Hickman, Ferne Jacobs, Charles Hollis Jones, Gloria and Sonny Kamm,<br />

John Kapel, Gere Kavanaugh, Gerhardt Knodel, Damon and Marion<br />

Lawrence, Mary Jane Leland, Malcolm Leland, Marvin Lip<strong>of</strong>sky, Los<br />

Angeles County Museum <strong>of</strong> Art, Long Beach Museum <strong>of</strong> Art, Beverly<br />

Malo<strong>of</strong>, the Alan Mandell Collection and assistant Tobey Wheeler,<br />

Paul Marioni, Tim and Angie Meikle, Brad Miller, Eudorah M. Moore,<br />

Joanna and Scott Nadeau <strong>of</strong> Ten10 Gallery, John and Shirley Nyquist,<br />

Gerard O’Brien <strong>of</strong> Reform Gallery, Hiromi Oda, Lea Petmezas, Faith<br />

Porter, Jean Radakovich, Scripps College, Carol Shaw-Sutton, Peter Shire,<br />

Carter Smith, John Snidecor, Tobey Cotsen Victor, Pamela and Gregory<br />

Weir-Quiton, and the numerous private collections that lent us objects.

a<br />

John Nyquist<br />

Music Stand with Double<br />

Ledge, c. 1979<br />

75<br />

We would also like to thank Kirk Delman, Christy Johnson, Candice<br />

Reichardt, Sue Ann Robinson, and Bobbye Tigerman for facilitating the<br />

loan process, and Dr. Billie Sessions for sharing her expertise and assisting<br />

our research.<br />

The catalog was skillfully created by designer John Maeda. Photographer<br />

Jay Oligny captured the beauty <strong>of</strong> the objects. Thanks to Jill DeDominicis<br />

for her editing.<br />

We are deeply indebted to all <strong>of</strong> the artists who provided images and<br />

information about their work.

Sources<br />

Adamson, Jeremy Elwell, and Sam Malo<strong>of</strong>. The<br />

Furniture <strong>of</strong> Sam Malo<strong>of</strong>. Washington, D.C.:<br />

Smithsonian American Art Museum, 2001.<br />

Ames, Jean Goodwin, and Mary Davis MacNaughton.<br />

Art at Scripps: The Early Years. Claremont: Galleries<br />

<strong>of</strong> the Claremont Colleges, 1988.<br />

Andersen, Timothy J., Eudorah M. Moore, Robert<br />

Winter, and Morley Baer. <strong>California</strong> Design 1910.<br />

Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith, 1989.<br />

76<br />

Armstrong, Elizabeth, Michael Boyd, Anna Brouwer,<br />

and Mary Trent. Birth <strong>of</strong> the Cool: <strong>California</strong> Art,<br />

Design, and Culture at Midcentury. Newport<br />

Beach: Orange County Museum <strong>of</strong> Art, 2007.<br />

Art in <strong>Craft</strong> Media: The Haystack Tradition, a<br />

Regional Exhibition from New England and New<br />

York. Brunswick: The College, 1981.<br />

Baizerman, Suzanne and Jo Lauria. <strong>California</strong><br />

Design: The Legacy <strong>of</strong> West Coast <strong>Craft</strong> and Style.<br />

San Francisco: Chronicle, 2005.<br />

Belloli, Jay, and Karen Jacobson. Radical Past:<br />

Contemporary Art & Music in Pasadena, <strong>1960</strong>-1974.<br />

Pasadena, CA: Armory Center for the Arts, 1999.<br />

Benesh, Carolyn L. E. “Carter Smith: The Creative<br />

Miracle.” Ornament Volume 32, No. 4 (2009): 48-53.<br />

Bennett, Garry Knox, Ursula Ilse-Neuman, Arthur<br />

Coleman Danto, and Edward S. Cooke Jr. Made in<br />

Oakland: The Furniture <strong>of</strong> Garry Knox Bennett. New<br />

York: the American <strong>Craft</strong> Museum, 2001.<br />

Berns, Marla, Paul Tuttle, Michael Darling, and<br />

Kurt Gerard Frederick Helfrich. Paul Tuttle Designs.<br />

Santa Barbara: University Art Museum, University<br />

<strong>of</strong> <strong>California</strong>, 2003.<br />

Bitters, Stan. Environmental Ceramics. New York:<br />

Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1976.<br />

Blunk, J B. J.B. Blunk Sculptures 1952-1977.<br />

Los Angeles: <strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art Museum, 1978.<br />

Bray, Hazel V. Harrison McIntosh, Studio Potter: a<br />

Retrospective Exhibition. Rancho Cucamonga: Rex<br />

W. Wignall Museum-Gallery, 1979.<br />

Brooks-Myers, Inez, and Lia Cook. Lia Cook:<br />

Material Allusions. Oakland: Oakland Museum <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>California</strong>, 1995.<br />

Burgard, Timothy Anglin. The Art <strong>of</strong> <strong>Craft</strong>: Contemporary<br />

Works from the Saxe Collection. San Francisco:<br />

Fine Arts Museums <strong>of</strong> San Francisco, 1999.<br />

a<br />

Frank E. Cummings III<br />

Oak Chair, 1971<br />

<strong>California</strong> Design ‘76: A Bicentennial Celebration.<br />

Pasadena: Pasadena Art Museum, 1976.<br />

<strong>California</strong> Design Eight. Pasadena: Pasadena Art<br />

Museum, 1962.

<strong>California</strong> Design Eleven. Pasadena: Pasadena Art<br />

Museum, 1971.<br />

<strong>California</strong> Design Nine. Pasadena: Pasadena Art<br />

Museum, 1965.<br />

<strong>California</strong> Design Ten. Pasadena: Pasadena Art<br />

Museum, 1968.<br />

<strong>California</strong> Women in <strong>Craft</strong>s: An Invitational Exhibition<br />

Recognizing Women in Creative Leadership<br />

Roles in Contemporary <strong>Craft</strong> Forms and Media. Los<br />

Angeles: <strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art Museum, 1977.<br />

Cederquist, John, Sharon K. Emanuelli, and <strong>Craft</strong><br />

and Folk Art Museum. John Cederquist Deceptions:<br />

<strong>Craft</strong> & Folk Art Museum. Los Angeles: <strong>Craft</strong> and<br />

Folk Art Museum, 1983.<br />

Clark, Garth. American Ceramics, 1876 to the Present.<br />

New York: Abbeville, 1987.<br />

Cooke, Edward S., Gerald W. R. Ward, and Kelly<br />

H. L’Ecuyer. The Maker’s Hand: American Studio<br />

Furniture, 1940-1990. Boston: MFA Publications, a<br />

Division <strong>of</strong> the Museum <strong>of</strong> Fine Arts, 2003.<br />

Coplans, John. Abstract Expressionist Ceramics. Irvine:<br />

Art Gallery, University <strong>of</strong> <strong>California</strong>, Irvine, 1966.<br />

Coplans, John. West Coast 1945-1969. Los Angeles:<br />

Jeffries Banknote with Pasadena Art Museum, 1969.<br />

The <strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art Museum records (Collection<br />

Number 1835), Department <strong>of</strong> Special Collections,<br />

Charles E. Young Research Library, UCLA.<br />

<strong>Craft</strong>sman <strong>of</strong> the Southwest. Los Angeles: Southwest<br />

Region, American <strong>Craft</strong>s Council, 1966.<br />

De Larios, Dora, and Elaine Levin. Sueños/Yume:<br />

Fifty Years <strong>of</strong> the Art <strong>of</strong> Dora De Larios. Glendale:<br />

Huerta Quorum, 2009.<br />

DelVecchio, Mark. Postmodern Ceramics. New<br />

York, NY: Thames & Hudson, 2001.<br />

Dietz, Ulysses Grant. Great Pots: Contemporary<br />

Ceramics from Function to Fantasy. Newark: Newark<br />

Museum, 2003.<br />

Emery, Olivia H. <strong>Craft</strong>sman Lifestyle: The Gentle<br />

Revolution. Pasadena: <strong>California</strong> Design Publications,<br />

1977.<br />

Enamelists Vera Ronnen-Wall, June Schwarcz,<br />

William Harper: [exhibition] <strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art<br />

Museum, Los Angeles: March 17, to April 18, 1982.<br />

Los Angeles: <strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art Museum, 1982.<br />

Fisch, Arline M., and David Revere McFadden.<br />

Elegant Fantasy: the Jewelry <strong>of</strong> Arline Fisch. San<br />

Diego: San Diego Historical Society, 1999.<br />

Four Leaders in Glass: Dale Chihuly, Richard Marquis,<br />

Therman Statom, Dick Weiss. Los Angeles:<br />

<strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art Museum, 1980.<br />

Gitlin, Todd. The Sixties: Years <strong>of</strong> Hope, Days <strong>of</strong><br />

Rage. Toronto: Bantam, 1987.<br />

Herman, Lloyd E. Art That Works: The Decorative<br />

Arts <strong>of</strong> the Eighties, <strong>Craft</strong>ed in America. Seattle:<br />

University <strong>of</strong> Washington Press, 1990.<br />

Kirkham, Pat. Women Designers in the USA, 1900-<br />

2000: Diversity and Difference. New York: Bard<br />

Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts,<br />

2000<br />

Koplos, Janet and Bruce Metcalf. Makers: a History<br />

<strong>of</strong> American Studio <strong>Craft</strong>. Chapel Hill: University <strong>of</strong><br />

North Carolina, 2010.<br />

Lauria, Jo, et al. Color and Fire: Defining Moments<br />

in Studio Ceramics, 1950-2000. Los Angeles: Los<br />

Angeles County Museum <strong>of</strong> Art, 2000.<br />

Lauria, Jo and Steve Fenton. <strong>Craft</strong> in America: Celebrating<br />

Two Centuries <strong>of</strong> Artists and Objects. New<br />

York: Clarkson Potter, 2007.<br />

Levin, Elaine. The History <strong>of</strong> American Ceramics:<br />

From Pipkins and Bean Pots to Contemporary<br />

Forms, 1607 to the Present. New York: Harry N.<br />

Abrams, 1988.<br />

Lewin, Susan Grant. One <strong>of</strong> a Kind: American Art<br />

Jewelry Today. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1994.<br />

Liu, Robert K. “Jewelry Arts: Arline Fisch.” Ornament<br />

Volume 23, No. 3 (2000): 26-27.<br />

Luebke, Keith. “<strong>Craft</strong>s and Postmodernism.” The<br />

Studio Potter June 2006.<br />

MacNaughton, Mary D., Kay Koeninger, and<br />

Martha Drexler Lynn. Revolution in Clay, The Marer<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Contemporary Ceramics. Claremont:<br />

Trustees <strong>of</strong> Scripps College, 1994.<br />

Made in L.A: Contemporary <strong>Craft</strong>s ‘81.<br />

Los Angeles: <strong>Craft</strong> and Folk Art Museum, 1981.<br />

Malo<strong>of</strong>, Sam, Jonathan Pollock, and Jonathan<br />

Fairbanks. Sam Malo<strong>of</strong>: Woodworker. New York:<br />

Kodansha America, 1989.<br />

Manhart, Marcia. The Eloquent Object: The Evolution<br />

<strong>of</strong> American Art in <strong>Craft</strong> Media since 1945.<br />

Seattle: University <strong>of</strong> Washington Press, 1987.<br />

Miller, Bradley R. Close Packing and Cracking: An<br />

Exhibition <strong>of</strong> Works by Bradley R. Miller, October<br />

24 to December 10, 1978. Los Angeles: The <strong>Craft</strong><br />

and Folk Art Museum, 1978.<br />

Mizuno, Mineo, Harold B. Nelson, and Deborah<br />

McLeod. Crossing Boundaries: The Ceramic Sculpture<br />

<strong>of</strong> Mineo Mizuno. Long Beach: Long Beach<br />

Museum <strong>of</strong> Art, 2005.<br />

The Modernist Jewelry <strong>of</strong> Claire Falkenstein. Long<br />

Beach: Long Beach Museum <strong>of</strong> Art, 2004<br />

Natzler, Gertrud, Otto Natzler, and Renwick Gallery.<br />

Form and Fire: Natzler Ceramics 1939-1972.<br />

Washington, DC: Renwick Gallery <strong>of</strong> the National<br />

Collection <strong>of</strong> Fine Arts, Smithsonian, 1973.<br />

Nordness, Lee. Objects: USA. New York: Viking<br />

Press, 1970.<br />

Norman-Wilcox, Gregor. The Ceramic Work <strong>of</strong><br />

Gertrud and Otto Natzler: a Retrospective Exhibition.<br />

Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum <strong>of</strong> Art,<br />

1966.<br />

Oral History Interviews, Archives <strong>of</strong> American Art,<br />

Smithsonian Institution. www.aaa.si.edu/collections/interviews.<br />

Oral history interview with Edith Wyle, 1993 Mar<br />

9 - Sept 7, Archives <strong>of</strong> American Art, Smithsonian<br />

Institution; Sharon K. Emanuelli, interviewer.<br />

www.aaa.si.edu/collections/interviews.<br />

Peterson, Susan. Art in Clay, 1950’s to 1980’s in<br />

Southern <strong>California</strong>: Evolution, Revolution, Continuation.<br />

Los Angeles: Los Angeles Municipal Art<br />

Gallery, 1984.<br />

Peterson, Susan H., Jerry Rothman, Garth Clark,<br />

and Mike McGee. Feat <strong>of</strong> Clay: Five Decades <strong>of</strong><br />

Jerry Rothman. Laguna Beach: Laguna Art Museum,<br />

2003.<br />

Peterson, Susan. The <strong>Craft</strong> and Art <strong>of</strong> Clay:<br />

A Complete Potter’s Handbook. London: Laurence<br />

King Publishing: 2003.<br />

Sessions, Billie. “Ceramics in Academia: A Site <strong>of</strong><br />

Unique Circumstances” in Common Ground:<br />

Ceramics in Southern <strong>California</strong> 1945-1975.<br />

Session, Billie, et al. Pomona, CA: American<br />

Museum <strong>of</strong> Ceramic Art, 2011.<br />

Smith, Paul J. <strong>Craft</strong> Today: Poetry <strong>of</strong> the Physical.<br />

NY: American <strong>Craft</strong> Museum, 1986.<br />

Wildenhain, Marguerite, Billie Sessions, Elaine<br />

Levin, and Richard Johnston. Ripples: Marguerite<br />

Wildenhain and Her Pond Farm Students.<br />

San Bernardino: <strong>California</strong> <strong>State</strong> University, 2002.<br />

Wilson, R. C. The Role <strong>of</strong> the <strong>Craft</strong>s in Education.<br />

Buffalo, NY: Office <strong>of</strong> Education, U.S. Dept. <strong>of</strong><br />

Health, Education & Welfare, 1969.

Hooray! Your file is uploaded and ready to be published.

Saved successfully!

Ooh no, something went wrong!