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STRATEGIC

MANAGEMENT

LEVELS


The levels of strategic management are: enterprise level;

level of SBU (strategic business units) and level of

marketing. Enterprise level is the highest level at which the

planning process is carried out. At this level for the

planning process is the responsibility of the management of

the company. Company-level planning is the foundation of

business profitability in the planning period. Planning at

enterprise level defines business areas and business

(existing and new) which the enterprise should perform in

the planning period. In addition to determining business

areas, the administration should also specify the amount of

resources and resource allocation by business areas and

business units to cover them. Business planning takes place

at the level of Strategic Business Unit (SBU). Each SBU

delivers its business plan for the foreseen planning period.

Planning at the level of the SBU will include plans for the

products they are dealing with and for the markets they

operate within the enterprise. The allocation of funds to be

allocated to each SBU in the foreseeable planning period is

done by the enterprise management (company-level

planning). As the management of companies needs to

provide synergy between business areas, each SBU should

provide synergy between business functions. Planning at

the level of the SBU will include plans for the products they

are dealing with and for the markets they operate within

the enterprise. Product planning is done at the product line

level or brand of product within each SBU and results in a

plan for each product and market in order to reach the

stated goals. At the level of marketing as a business

function, planning is made to tailor marketing mixes to

target market segments where product positioning is

performed. Step 1: Establishing Vision, Mission and Goals -

The first step in strategic management is defining the

mission, vision and goals of the organization. The Mission

represents the basic purpose and values of the organization

as well as the scope of its operations. This is a statement

about the reason for the organization's existence. Strategic

vision moves beyond the mission statement to provide

insight into where the company is going and what

organization can become. Although the terms vision and

mission often use as synonyms, the vision statement ideally


clarifies the company's long-term direction and its strategic

intentions. Strategic goals come from vision and mission.

The CEO of the organization, with the inputs and approval

of the board of directors, determines the vision, mission

and basic strategic goals. Concepts and directions within

mission statement and vision and statement of strategic

goals cannot often be identified as such but should

communicate with everyone who has contact with the

organization. Big companies often publish their public

statements of mission, vision and strategic goals. Step 2:

Analysis of External Opportunities and Threats - The

mission and vision introduce the second component of the

strategic management process: the analysis of the external

environment. Successful strategic management depends on

the precise and fundamental evaluation of the environment.

Some of the important activities are the analysis of the

environment: Industry and market analysis - industry

profile, growth opportunities and strength within the

industry; Competition analysis - competitor profile,

competition analysis according to their strategies, goals,

advantages and weaknesses, as well as the advantages of

competition; Analysis of the political and legal environment

- the influence of regulatory and legal regulations on

industry, and the level of political activity that the state

undertakes within the industry; Society analysis - social

issues that can, at present and in the future, trigger the

industry, social interest groups; Human resource analysis -

or analysis of human resources refers to labor and

employment issues; Macroeconomic analysis -

macroeconomic conditions affecting the supply, demand,

development, and profitability of the industry;

Technological analysis - scientific or technological methods

that represent technological factors, whose influence on

industry is not negligible. As we can see, the analysis begins

with the examination of the industry branch to which the

company belongs. The following are the trainees of the

organization. Coaches represent groups or individuals who

influence or are affected by organizational mission, vision

and strategy. This includes buyers, suppliers, competitors,

government and government agencies, trade unions and

employees, the finance community, owners and


shareholders, and chambers of commerce and associations.

An analysis of environments enables the mapping of these

stakeholders and the way they affect the organization. The

environment analysis should also examine other elements

in the environment such as macroeconomic conditions and

technological factors. The key task in environmental

analysis is to forecast future trends. Progressive techniques

range from simple estimation to complex mathematical

models that examine systematic relationships between a

large number of variables. Assessment is susceptible to

prejudice, and managers have limited ability to process

information. Managers should use subjective estimates as

inputs for quantitative models or when faced with a new

situation. Step 3: Internal Force Analysis and Weakness -

While external analysis is being conducted, the strengths

and weaknesses of key business areas within an

organization need to go through estimation. Internal

analysis provides strategic decision makers with a complete

review of organizational resources and capabilities, as well

as the overall levels of functional outcomes. Some of the

main components of the internal analysis are: Financial

Analysis - Investigates financial strength and weaknesses

through financial statements such as balance sheet and

performance, and compares trends with historical and

industrial figures; Human Resource Assessment -

Investigates the strengths and weaknesses of all levels of

management and employees and focuses on key human

resource activities, including recruitment, selection, job

placement, training, relationship with trade unions,

compensation, promotion, recognition, quality of work life,

and human resource planning resources; Human Resource

Assessment - Investigates the strengths and weaknesses of

all levels of management and employees and focuses on

key human resource activities, including recruitment,

selection, job placement, training, relationship with trade

unions, compensation, promotion, recognition, quality of

work life, and human resource planning resources;

Marketing Analysis - examines the strengths and

weaknesses of major marketing activities and identifies

markets, key market segments, and market-driven

organizations in key markets;


Analysis of production (goods or services) - examines the

strengths and weaknesses of production, product

development, and delivery activities of the organization;

Analysis of other internal resources - explores, if necessary

and desirable, the strengths and weaknesses of ongoing

organizational activities such as research and product and

process development, information systems management,

engineering and procurement. Strategic management has

been under the strong influence of internal resources in

recent years. Resources are inputs to a production system

that can accumulate over time and thus use to improve

performance. Resources may have different forms, but

mainly deal with: tangible assets (such as real estate,

manufacturing facilities, raw materials, etc.), and intangible

assets (including rating companies, management, culture,

technological know-how, patents, as well as accumulation

knowledge and experience). Effective internal analysis

provides a clear understanding of how a company can

compete with its resources. Internal resources are a source

of comparative advantage only under certain

circumstances. First, if the resource increases the benefits

for customers deriving from a product or service compared

to the expense they expose, then the resource leads to a

comparative advantage Second, resources are a source of

advantage when they are racing and unequal to all

competitors. Even when it comes to a very valuable

resource, if all competitors have the same approach, then

the resource cannot be a source of competitive advantage.

Third, when some resources are difficult to copy (patents ...)

by competitors, then they are a source of comparative

advantage. And finally, resources can increase the

company's comparative advantage only if they are wellorganized.

REFERENCES

Boeker, W. (1989), Strategic change: the effects of founding

and history, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 32, 489-

515.

Frishammar, J. (2003), Information use in strategic decision

making, Management Decision, Vol. 41, 318-26.

Hendry, J. (2000), Strategic decision making, discourse, and

strategy as social practice, Journal of Management Studies,

Vol. 37, 955-77.

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