OF THE INDUSTRY
Secure processes. Intelligent contracts.
Transparent business relations.
Hash chains 10
Blockchain in industrial use 12
STRUCTURE OF THE FACILITY 16
ICS SECURITY FOR THE PRODUCTION FACILITY 18
Goals and measures 20
Securing physical access 22
Secure design 22
Operation and maintenance 23
Whitepaper Publication June 2018
T-Systems Multimedia Solutions GmbH
Riesaer Strasse 5, 01129 Dresden
Dr Frank Schönefeld
Project management: Julia Kunert
Layout: Peter Brücker
Try starting a discussion about blockchains with your colleagues or
at a conference at some point. You will probably experience an extreme
spectrum of opinions, just like I did, and often see computer
scientists in particular shrug their shoulders.
This is because blockchain, to some extent, suffers from this range
of opinions. The enthusiasts are at the top of one side. Those who
think they can turn the world upside down with blockchain. They
want to tear down borders with it and take entirely new paths. For
the sceptics, however, it’s “only” a distributed database technology
with known consensus algorithms.
But what is this lasting bipolarity based on – with a topic that has
already been known about for several years?
The enthusiasts rejoice in the fact that third parties will be superfluous.
Brokers, mediators or stewards are no longer needed.
Even in complex technological scenarios, the “man in the middle”
becomes redundant. Sceptics, however, argue that these kinds of
ideas are still too often based on theoretical pipe dreams, which
are not only too undeveloped but also insecure at this time. So it
often becomes difficult to align the business or economic application
and technology – at least two disciplines.
However, for me this “aligning” is the key to resolving the polarity.
Blockchain will become another significant constant in digitisation
– I am certain of it. It’s also important to recognise not just its
economic opportunities but also the associated technological challenges.
In the best case, this will succeed through trial. I consider
it a good step when companies start a pilot blockchain project
under convincing conditions, when they look at the examples set
by others and when they try to transfer the theoretical world of the
blockchain to their specific business processes.
Of course, in your next discussion with colleagues, you can then
give a brief account of your experiences with the pilot project.
That is exactly the target group for which we created this Whitepaper
at T-Systems Multimedia Solutions. In this paper, we look
at technical foundations as well as real economical application
purposes. This happens primarily with our demonstrator, which is
guided by actual industry situations and will show you useful types
of applications. But we will also clearly define those determining
factors that must be regulated in the blockchain context in regards
to ICS security (Industrial Control Systems).
I hope you will find this paper useful and wish you much success
with your blockchain projects.
Dr Frank Schönefeld
Blockchain is reaching its productive phase in business – and this to an enormous extent.
According to media reports, authorities in Dubai want to handle all commercial transactions
via blockchain by 2020. This is how the Emirate would like to prevent logistical and
customs-related bureaucracy. In India, the industrial conglomerate Mahindra plans to
optimise the management of its supply chains, while Japan’s car manufacturer Toyota is
apparently planning something similar. Additionally, the pharmaceutical industry wants to
make its clinical tests fail-safe with blockchain and transmit patient data and gene analyses
to health authorities in this way without the risk of corruption. 1 Conclusion: According
to surveys by the World Economic Forum, 10 per cent of the global gross domestic product
will already be stored with blockchain technology by 2025. 2
If you look for the reasons behind the blockchain boom from a technological perspective,
these can be found especially in the blockchain design, whose dispersed approach offers
new opportunities for cooperation. And these technical possibilities are also the main
reason why the industry is so interested in this innovation – when certain security criteria
are adhered to (see chapter “ICS security for manufacturing systems”).
The basic benefit is that companies can store, process and transmit data between several
partners without a central distribution point (intermediary). This is based on a peer-to-peer
principle (P2P) where every node can be connected with any other. Benefits: There are no
nodes which know more than others.
But P2P also means highly redundant storage for error tolerance. The failure of one node
can’t affect the totality of the network in its functions (single point of failure) or result in
data no longer being accessible. Furthermore, these kinds of errors or malicious manipulations
in one location are not decisive and in some cases not even possible. One false
datum alone, for example, can’t falsify the entire system. This is exactly why the blockchain
is stored on every node.
For a corporate user, this structure offers several benefits at once:
No fees for intermediaries
No dependencies. For example, where an intermediary fails and thus
cripples the network or an intermediary prefers certain nodes
Companies arbitrarily connect to any other company in the blockchain,
regardless of its size or location
Transparency in respect to data status and performed activities
Creates gapless process documentation
Virtually eliminates susceptibility to manipulation
No trust is needed between partners
Structure of the blockchain – decentralised architecture
with central data storage
with decentralised data storage
Traditional systems are centralised and required
third parties or intermediaries to securely exchange
The distribution of information in blockchain systems
is inherently secure and transparent in the
network without requiring an intermediary.