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RIC-20238 Primary Grammar and Word Study Year 4 – Parts of Speech

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Primary grammar and word study (Book E)

Published by R.I.C. Publications ® 2008

Copyright © by R.I.C. Publications ® 2008

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original purchaser for use with their class(es). The

publisher prohibits the loaning or onselling of this

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RIC20238

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Primary grammar and

word study Book E

Foreword

Primary grammar and word study is a series of seven books designed

to introduce students to parts of speech, ways to understand and choose

words, punctuation and figures of speech.

Titles in this series:

Primary grammar and word study Book A (Ages 5 6)

Primary grammar and word study Book B (Ages 67)

Primary grammar and word study Book C (Ages 78)

Primary grammar and word study Book D (Ages 89)

Primary grammar and word study Book E (Ages 9 10)

Primary grammar and word study Book F (Ages 1011)

Primary grammar and word study Book G (Ages 1112)

Teachers notes .............................................. iv v

Curriculum links ................................................... v

Literacy character explanation ..................... vi vii

Checklists ................................................... viii xi

Parts of speech ............................................. 233

Nouns .............................................................. 25

Verbs .............................................................. 611

Adjectives.................................................... 1217

Adverbs ........................................................ 1821

Pronouns ...................................................... 2225

Conjunctions ................................................ 2627

Determiners ................................................. 2831

Prepositions ................................................ 3233

Understanding and choosing words .......... 3457

Words that are similar ...............................3441

Homographs ......................................... 3435

Homophones ........................................ 3637

Word groups ......................................... 3841

Words that change .....................................4249

Plurals .................................................. 4645

Prefixes ................................................ 4647

Suffixes ................................................ 4849

Contents

Words and their meanings ........................5053

Synonyms and antonyms...................... 5051

Word origins ......................................... 5253

Confused words .........................................5457

Punctuation ................................................. 5871

Full stops, question marks and

exclamation marks ....................................... 5859

Capital letters ............................................... 6061

Commas ....................................................... 6265

Apostrophes ................................................. 6669

Quotation marks ........................................... 7071

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Figures of speech ........................................ 7283

Alliteration .................................................... 7273

Anagrams and palindromes .......................... 7475

Idioms .......................................................... 7677

Similes ......................................................... 7879

Metaphors .................................................... 8081

Personification .............................................. 8283

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Primary grammar and word study


Parts of speech

checklist

Name of student Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Pronouns Conjunctions Determiners Prepositions

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Primary grammar and word study viii

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Parts of speech

Nouns

Focus

Common, collective and proper nouns

Definitions

• Nouns are words used to name people, places,

things, feelings or ideas.

• Common nouns name general, rather than

particular, people, places and things.

The words in bold in the following sentence are

nouns (in this context);

Example:

The woman reading a book in the park had

sunglasses on to protect her eyes from the bright

sunlight.

• Proper nouns are used to name specific people,

places or things. They begin with capital letters.

Example:

Susie Miles sat in Albert Park, wearing her new

sunglasses and reading the latest book by Mike

Smith.

• Collective nouns are used to name groups of

objects, people, animals, inanimate things, or

concepts.

Example:

family, herd, flock, group, team, class

Explanation

• The word ‘noun’ comes from the Latin ‘nomen’,

which means ‘name’. Nouns are often called

‘naming words’.

• Proper nouns are capitalised. Common and

collective nouns are not capitalised unless they

begin a sentence or start a title. Some nouns that

would appear to need capitalisation, such as the

names of seasons (winter, spring, autumn, summer)

are no longer capitalised because, through long

usage, they have come to be considered common

nouns. Cardinal directions, (north, south, east, and

west) words for relatives (mum, uncle)—unless used

as part of the name, such as Uncle Fred, and names

of subject areas (maths, science) are also no longer

considered proper nouns.

• Names of games are common nouns; e.g. football.

• Trade names are capitalised.

• Each collective noun is a single thing made up of

more than one person or thing. A committee, team,

or family requires at least two people to compose

the unit. So while a collective noun refers to a

number of things, it often specifically refers to the

single group and so is usually (but not always)

singular.

Example:

‘The pack of wolves was running’ not ‘The pack of

wolves were running’)

• Some words used as nouns can also be verbs or

adjectives, depending on the context in which they

are used.

Example:

‘John decided to ring (verb) the shop about Suzie’s

damaged ring (noun).’

Worksheet information

• Give each student a copy of the worksheet and

discuss common, proper and collective nouns.

Teachers can choose either to explain the worksheet

to the students and allow them to complete it on

their own, or read through the text first then allow

students to reread individually, filling in the spaces.

• After completing the cloze, students write two

other collective nouns. They then, on the back of

the worksheet (or on a separate sheet of paper if

preferred), write a follow-up report using common

and proper nouns they identified in the story.

Ideas for further practice

• Students can do an online sort of collective nouns

(focus on animal groups) at .

• Play games where the teacher calls out an animal

or object, students try to guess what the collective

nouns for a group of those items or animals is.

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Answers

1. chain, colony, mob, herd, choir, crowd, panel

2. (a) school, shoal (b) flock, drove, herd, mob

3. Common nouns: pandemonium, morning, zoo,

ants, kangaroos, enclosure, walls, stampede, gate,

animals, tents, concert, school, directions, director,

week

Proper nouns: Mr Stan Chuggins, City Zoo, Jemma

Win, Channel Eight News

Collective nouns: herd, furniture, cutlery, crowd,

police

4. Teacher check

Primary grammar and word study 2

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Nouns

Nouns are words used to name people, places and things.

Different kinds of nouns can be used to give information.

Example: Jake and Mia went to the oval to watch the football team train.

Proper nouns give us the

specific names of people,

places and things;

e.g. Jake, Mia.

1. Read the news report. Write the collective nouns in the correct space.

‘A bizarre of events led to pandemonium this morning at the zoo. It seems

a

agitated

of ants swarmed over the kangaroos in their enclosure. Two of the

somehow jumped over the walls into a herd of zebras. The whole

of zebras panicked and, in the stampede that followed, charged though a

gate. Together, the freed animals bolted straight into the tents set up for the concert by the local

school

The

, sending furniture, food and cutlery flying.

that had gathered to see the concert scattered in all directions.

By the time the police arrived, the animals had been recaptured and Mr Stan Chuggins, the director

of City Zoo, was attempting to calm the frightened crowd. Luckily, no-one was injured.

A

choir

crowd

this happening again.

A common noun is the name

for general people, places

and things;

e.g. oval.

mob

colony

of experts will meet next week to discuss what needs to be done to prevent

This is Jemma Win reporting for Channel Eight News.’

herd

A collective noun is the

name of a group of people,

places or things;

e.g. team.

chain

panel

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2. Write a suitable collective noun for these animals.

(a) fish

(b) sheep

3. Underline 10 common nouns, circle 4 proper nouns and highlight 3 collective nouns in the

report.

4. Write a follow-up news story on the back of this sheet using nouns from the report, adding

some of your own. Present this news report to the class.

R.I.C. Publications ® www.ricpublications.com.au 3

Primary grammar and word study


Parts of speech

Nouns

Focus

Gender, neuter and common nouns

Definitions

• Nouns are words used to name people, places,

things, feelings or ideas.

• Masculine nouns are nouns used to describe

something male as opposed to feminine or neuter.

Example:

prince, husband, gentleman, boy, stag, gander, ram

and uncle

• Feminine nouns are nouns used to describe

something female, as opposed to masculine or

neuter.

Example:

lady, aunt, wife, girl, queen, ewe and cow

• Common nouns can be used for both males and

females.

Example:

cousin, teenager, teacher, doctor, cook, student,

parent, friend, relation, leader

• Neuter nouns name things without animal life

(inanimate objects), which are neither male nor

female.

Example:

box, book, chair, joy, broom, table

Explanation

• In language, gender is the classification of nouns

according to sex. There are four genders in English;

feminine (representing females), masculine

(representing males), common (for use with either

males or females) and neuter (for inanimate objects).

• Unlike most European languages, where the majority

of nouns are either masculine or feminine, in English

most nouns are either neuter or common. Many

gender nouns for people that were traditionally

masculine or feminine are now replaced by common

nouns, such as ‘flight attendant’ instead of ‘air

hostess’, ‘firefighter’ instead of ‘fireman’. Many

abstract nouns are neuter.

• With animals, there is usually one common term

(such as sheep, horse or pig) for the type of animal

and separate names for the male (e.g. ram, stallion,

hog) and the female (e.g. ewe, mare, sow).

Worksheet information

• Read part of a newspaper or magazine article about

a royal family to the students, making sure words

such as ‘prince’, ‘queen’ or ‘duke’ are mentioned.

Ask if, for example, the prince is a boy or girl. How

do we know? Students may suggest that if it was

a girl she would be called a princess. Use this

to introduce masculine and feminine nouns. Ask

students to suggest other words they know that

refer to males or females specifically. Ask ‘What

about a teacher? How do we know if a teacher we

read about is male or female?’ Use this to discuss

common nouns; those that refer to both males and

females. Similarly, introduce neuter nouns.

• Read the explanation and newspaper article with the

students. Discuss the feminine nouns and how they

specifically refer to female jobs, animals, relatives

and roles. Also discuss some of the feelings that the

people involved in the story may have experienced

(such as fear, fright, gratitude, happiness). Students

then rewrite the article, substituting the feminine

nouns for common or masculine nouns. They will

also need to change some possessive determiners;

e.g. ‘her’. They complete the rest of the sheet by

classifying each noun according to its gender.

Ideas for further practice

• Students could act out a follow up article in small

groups;

For example: The hero being awarded a medal for

bravery.

• Students could create common nouns to replace the

separate masculine and feminine nouns; e.g. invent

a common noun for both a king and queen, an aunt

and uncle.

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Answers

1. (a) Answers will vary; teacher check

(b) Six of the following: night, play, role,

production, audience, cable, props, company,

bravery.

2. bull: M, aunt: F, manager: C, bride: F, duke: M,

giant: M, child: C, happiness: N, parent: C, bike: N.

Primary grammar and word study 4

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Nouns with a gender

Some nouns name male or female people and animals. These are called

gender nouns. The nouns for males are called masculine nouns (e.g. son,

king), and those for females are called feminine nouns (e.g. girl, aunt).

Some nouns can be used to name both males and females. These are

called common gender nouns (e.g. baby, teacher, cousin, doctor, student,

astronaut).

The nouns that name things that are neither male nor female are called

neuter nouns (e.g. chair, pen, sad).

In the following article, the feminine nouns are in bold.

Local

Chloe Repus, a waitress and the niece

of a local landlady, came to the rescue at

the opening night of the play, ‘The Witches

of WA’. Chloe moved to Harvey three years

ago with her two young daughters.

The budding actress played the role of

the Fairy Queen in the local production.

dubbed ‘The Heroine of Harvey.

As the audience watched last night, the cable

lifting Kiara Pord, playing the flying Witch

of WA, snapped. Chloe quickly pushed some

stage props, two fluffy ewes, under the falling

mother of four, cushioning her fall. The theatre

company praised Chloe’s bravery, calling her

‘The Heroine of Harvey!’

1. (a) Rewrite the article, changing the feminine nouns to masculine or common nouns. There are

some other words you will also need to change.

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(b) Circle six neuter nouns in the text.

2. In the box provided next to those words, write N for neuter, C for common, M for masculine or F

for Feminine.

bull aunt manager bride duke

giant child happiness parent bike

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Primary grammar and word study


Parts of speech

Verbs

Focus

Finite verbs, the verbs ‘to be’ and ‘to have’

Definition

• Verbs are words which show actions or states of

being or having.

Example:

The salty breeze filled the sails of the yacht floating

on the waves. (action)

My brother is the type of person who worries about

everything. (being)

Our beagle has really sharp teeth which it uses to

eat everything. (having)

Explanation

• Verbs must have someone or something ‘doing’ the

action. This is the subject of the sentence.

In the examples above, the actions are done by ‘The

salty breeze’, ‘ My brother’ and ‘Our beagle’.

• Every sentence must contain a verb.

• Some verbs have more than one part.

Example:

‘is harmless’, ‘was looking’ and ‘will nestle’.

• Verbs can be finite or non-finite. Finite verbs change

in form to match their subject or to indicate tense.

Example:

go ➞ goes ➞ went.

Non-finite verbs do not change. They include:

present participles e.g. parking

past participles e.g. parked

infinitives e.g. to park

Worksheet information

• Discuss any unfamiliar words with the students, then

allow them to read the text independently.

• Explain the definition of a verb and the words which

indicate ‘being’ or ‘having’. The students complete

Questions 1 and 2 independently.

• The verbs ‘was’ and ‘were’ are commonly confused.

The verbs ‘was’ is used when talking about one

person or thing (singular) and the verb ‘were’ is

usually plural and is used for more than one person

or thing.

Note: The second person singular always uses the

plural form of the verb.

Example:

You were a lucky boy.

Ideas for further practice

• As a class, write a list of interesting verbs to be used

in writing activities. These may be a list of verbs to

replace commonly used words such as ‘said’ and

‘went’ or verbs which give better descriptions of

an action, such as ‘campaigned’, ‘meandered’ and

‘grovelled’ etc.

• Write poems such as pattern poems or syllable

poems using verbs instead of adjectives to describe

what people and things do.

• Play charades using verbs written on cards and ask

the class audience to guess the verb.

Answers

1. (a) Teacher check

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(b) (i) are/is

(ii) is/surrounds

(iii) pounded

(iv) is waiting/to see/will nestle

2. Teacher check

3. (a) were (b) was (c) were (d) were

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Verbs

A verb is a word which shows actions, or states of being or having.

1. (a) Read the poem below then underline all the verbs.

In a grave so wet and dark, a ship is waiting still

Pounded by cold and constant currents — just another enemy kill.

Sailors stay forever young in their watery tomb below

Never to see a sunny sky or feel salty breezes blow.

Mystery surrounds the loss of another wartime vessel.

Headstones are bare. No flowers among the grass will nestle.

(b) Write one word from the poem for each.

(i)

(ii)

a verb of ‘being’

a verb ending with ‘s’

(iii) a verb ending with ‘ed’

(iv) a verb with two parts

2. Complete each sentence by adding verbs of your own.

(a) The torpedo

the vessel.

the warship and there was little hope of

(b) The sailors tried to the ship by the

lifeboats.

(c) No graves were

to .

(d) The family and friends of all the dead sailors

always

for the lost sailors as there were no survivors

them as young men and women.

for them but will

Verbs of having include ‘had’, ‘has’ and ‘have’. Verb of being include ‘are’, ‘is’, ‘were’,

‘was’ and ‘am’.

3. Write the correct verb of ‘being’.

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(a) We

(b) He

(c) Keziah forgot that we

(d) You

late for school today because of the rain. (was/were)

well behaved for Grandma. (was/were)

going to a party. (was/were)

my best friend. (was/were)

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Primary grammar and word study


Parts of speech

Verbs

Focus

Command verbs (imperatives)

Definition

Command verbs are used to order, command or

instruct.

Example:

Button up your jacket because its cold outside.

Set the table please but use the clean placemats.

Finish doing your homework, then you can watch

television!

Explanation

• Verbs can describe actions (‘doing’ words) and must

have someone or something ‘doing’ the action.

• Command verbs are commonly used when writing

procedures and are often the first word in the

sentence.

• Command verbs do not have a stated subject

(anyone or anything doing the action). It is

understood that the person doing the action is ‘you’.

Worksheet information

• This procedure contains command verbs which

are within sentences as well as at the beginning of

sentences.

• It is not expected that students will actually cook the

recipe given.

• Allow the students to read the procedure

independently, offering assistance if required.

• Read the definition together and discuss. Give

examples of other command verbs and ask students

to offer suggestions. Students may like to repeat

commands or orders they are given by their parents

at home.

• When finding command verbs to write in the box for

Question 1, students need to be aware that some

are not at the beginning of the sentences.

• Students can write their own suggestions for

command verbs to complete Question 2, although

some suggestions have been offered in the answers.

Ideas for further practice

• Ask students to select a piece of favourite music

and write instructions for a simple dance routine or

actions using command verbs.

• Using a book from the class or school library,

students find the page with the most command

verbs.

• Play games with the students which involve

commands or orders. Some suggestions include

‘Simon says’ or ‘Red rover cross over!’

Answers

1. (a) Teacher check

(b) Collect, Preheat, Spray (3), Place (2) Fold, Cut,

Repeat, Cook, Combine,

Season, Spoon, Top, serve

2. Teacher check. Suggestions include:

(a) set, tidy/clean

(b) Wiggle, clap

(c) Draw/Sketch, highlight/create.

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Primary grammar and word study 8

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Command verbs

1. (a) Read the recipe.

FETTA AND SPINACH FILO CASES

• 8 sheets of filo pastry

• cooking spray

• drinking glass or round cookie cutter • 250 g frozen spinach, thawed and

drained

• 1 / 2

cup (120 g) light sour cream • 100 g fetta, crumbled

• 2 green onions/shallots, thinly sliced • 1 crushed garlic clove

• 1 tablespoon lemon juice

• 3 drops Tabasco ® sauce

• sprigs of dill

Collect ingredients and equipment.

Preheat oven to 200 ºC or 180 ºC (fan-forced oven).

Spray four 12-hole mini muffin pans lightly with cooking spray.

Spray one sheet of filo pastry lightly with cooking spray.

Place another sheet on top. Fold in half. Spray again.

Cut into 6.5 cm rounds using glass or cookie cutter.

Place rounds carefully into muffin pans. Repeat with remaining pastry.

Cook for 5 minutes until brown and crisp.

Combine remaining ingredients, except dill, in a bowl. Season to taste. Place in

refrigerator for 1 hour. Spoon mixture into pastry cases.

Top with dill and serve.

Command verbs are verbs used to order, command or give instructions.

They are commonly used at the beginning of sentences in a procedure.

(b) Find 17 command verbs in the recipe and write them in the box.

Write the number of times each occurs if it is repeated.

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2. Complete each sentence using command verbs.

(a) Please

your room until tea’s ready.

(b) Step, two, three, four!

(c)

your hands.

charcoal to

the table and then you can

your hips and

a simple outline in the middle and then use

light and dark sections to give depth.

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Primary grammar and word study


Parts of speech

Verbs

Focus

Past, present and future tense (including irregular) verbs;

auxiliary verbs

Definitions

• Verb tense shows whether the action of the verb occurs in

the present, the past or the future.

• Auxiliary verbs are small verbs, often a form of the verb

‘to be’ or ‘to have’, that combine with another verb to form

a compound verb.

Example:

They are looking around because they will need a place

to stay.

Explanation

• There are three basic verb tenses—present, past and

future. These tenses are often formed using an auxiliary or

helping verb such as, ‘is’, ‘can’, ‘had’ and ‘will’.

Example:

Sam’s dad now sells insurance and he is enjoying his job

very much. (present tense)

The seed pushed its tiny shoots through the soil because

we had watered it every day. (past tense)

We will be working in groups on a new homework

assignment soon. (future tense)

• Many verbs in the past tense end in ed. Many present

tense verbs end in s or es.

• In the sentences above, is, had and will are auxiliary

verbs, with is used as part of a present tense verb, had

used as part of the past tense and will and be forming part

of a future tense verb.

• Most verb tense forms are regular (they have -ed, -es

or add auxiliary verbs such as ‘is’ and ‘will’ to make the

correct tense) but many are irregular.

Example:

‘Jamal can usually deal (present tense) cards well but

yesterday he dealt the cards (past tense) in a very clumsy

way.’

Other irregular verbs include be/was/were; begin/began;

do/did; grow/grew; get/got; drink/drank; choose/chose and

make/made.

A more detailed list can be found by searching the Internet.

Worksheet information

• Read the explanation with the students and discuss. Give

some examples if necessary. Revise verbs and ensure

that students realise that some verbs have two or more

parts. The students can then complete Question 1. Check

the answers before proceeding to ensure that students

understand the different tenses.

• Students will need three different coloured pencils—one

to circle each verb tense to complete Question 2. Read the

text with the students and emphasise the verbs, especially

those which have two, three or four parts and also ‘That’s’

which is really ‘That is’ and contains the present tense verb

‘is’.

• Question 3 is an exercise to highlight how many verbs

are irregular. They do not need small words to help them

change tense or the addition of -s, -es or -ed.

Ideas for further practice

• Ask the students to rewrite the text using only simple verbs

to replace those with more than one part, if possible (for

example, ‘will have to do’) and read the text to see how it

sounds.

• Create a series of tongue twisters by trying to quickly say

past, present and future tenses of the same regular or

irregular verb.

Example:

drove, drive, will drive; chose, choose, will choose; fall, fell,

will fall; swam, swim, will swim; patted, pats, will pat etc.

• Hold a competition to see who can find or write the verb

with the most parts.

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Answers

1. (a) present (b) future (c) past (d) present

(e) present (f) future (g) past (h) past

2. Present tense do, is, are doing, are, are saving, is,

work, want, is taking, am finishing

Past tense arrived, were excited, was interested, have

finished

Future tense will work, will be, will have to do, will look,

will post

3. Answers will include:

(a) dealt,have/had dealt

(b) stole, had/have stolen

(c) become/becomes, is/are becoming

(d) understand/understands, is/are understanding

(e) froze, have/had frozen

(f) hid, had/have hidden

(g) sleep/sleeps, is/are sleeping

(h) write/writes, is/are writing

Primary grammar and word study 10

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Verb tense

Verb tense can tell about what happened in the past, what is

happening in the present or what will happen in the future.

Many verbs have more than one part; for example, words such

as are, is and will can be used to complete the verb.

1. Write the words ‘past’, ‘present’ or ‘future’ to

show the tense of each verb.

(a) are playing (b) will be visiting

(c) finished (d) whistles

(e) is singing (f) will come

(g) ran (h) hopped

2. Read the text below. All the verbs are in bold. Some have more than one part. Choose three

different coloured pencils to circle the present, past and future tense verbs.

Dear Mark,

After a long tiring trip, we arrived at the conservation park. We were excited about

seeing all the animals and I was interested in the work the zoologists do with

endangered native species.

The park is small, even though they are doing an important job there. And the animals

are really cute! We heard about the breeding program and how the efforts of different

groups are saving the animals’ native habitat.

I definitely will work with animals when I have finished school. Maybe I will be a vet

or a zoologist. Unfortunately, I will have to do lots of study for that kind of job. That’s

okay! Sometimes you must work hard for what you want.

Today, Mum is taking us to the shops. B-o-r-i-n-g! Still, I will look for some cool stuff

with animals on it!

I am finishing this letter and we will post it in town.

Geoff

3. Write the missing tense of each irregular verb.

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Present Past Present Past

(a) deal (b) steal

(c) became (d) understood

(e) freeze (f) hide

(g) slept (h) wrote

Be

careful!

Irregular verbs

don’t change tense

like other verbs!

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Primary grammar and word study


Parts of speech

Adjectives

Focus

Common adjectives

Definition

• An adjective is a describing word. It adds meaning

to or changes the meaning of a noun or a pronoun.

Example:

I’m wearing leather shoes. (describes the noun,

‘shoes’)

That shark is dangerous. (describes the noun,

‘shark’) Note: The adjective does not always come

before the noun.

He is helpful. (describes the pronoun, ‘he’)

Explanation

The use of suitable adjectives not only makes

written or spoken language more interesting, it gives

the reader or listener a clearer understanding.

Worksheet information

• Discuss adjectives and their purpose with the

students.

Use the pattern poem in Activity 1 to help students

to identify how several adjectives can describe the

same noun. Students then create their own pattern

poem in Activity 2. Their noun could be an animal,

vehicle, place, mythical character etc. This activity

could be done in pairs. Share completed poems.

• In Activity 3, students are required to carefully

consider the most appropriate adjective to complete

the sentences. They could lightly pencil in some

choices before making a final decision. An adjective

may first appear to be a suitable one to choose, but

students may find by reading the next sentence that

it is more suitable in this place.

Example:

‘dangerous’ may seem to be a good choice to use

in front of ‘lioness’ in 3 (a), but it is probably better

in front of ‘object’ in 3 (d).

Students can only use each adjective once. This

activity is intended to reinforce the importance of

choosing suitable adjectives to make written and

spoken language more interesting and to give the

reader/listener a clearer picture.

Ideas for further practice

• In pairs, students write a sentence that includes

three nouns, leaving a space for each adjective.

On a separate sheet of paper, they write what they

consider could be the answers. They give their

sentences to another pair and record that pair’s

answers on their sheet. Continue with other pairs

and then discuss results.

• Identify the adjectives used to describe characters

in books. Some of these adjectives may be found

in a phrase and not necessarily in front of a noun.

They may also be describing a pronoun. (Refer to the

Definition above.)

Answers

1. The words, chocolate, dark, runny and

delicious should be underlined.

2. Teacher check

3. Teacher check. Answers include:

(a) hungry, long, dry

(b) warm, cottage, delightful

(c) narrow, winding, steep

(d) elastic, dangerous, sensitive

(e) juicy, large, orange, clean, white

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Primary grammar and word study 12

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Adjectives 1

Adjectives are words that describe nouns or pronouns. They help make

writing more interesting and clearer.

1. Read the pattern poem below. It uses adjectives to describe the

noun ‘sauce’. Underline them.

Sauce

Chocolate sauce

Dark, chocolate sauce

Runny, dark, chocolate sauce

Delicious, runny, dark, chocolate sauce

2. Write your own pattern poem, adding an adjective on each line.

Illustrate your poem in the space to the right.

,

, ,

, , ,

3. Choose from the words that can be used as adjectives in the box below to complete the

sentences. Use each adjective only once. (Choose the best one, by asking questions such as

‘What kind?’ before the noun.)

winding white sensitive narrow steep delightful

orange warm dry hungry juicy cottage

large dangerous elastic clean long

(a) The lioness carefully stalked her prey through the ,

(b) The

grass.

garden was filled with a

sunshine caused the rosebuds to bloom and the

scent.

(c) We drove slowly along the , track which led to the bottom of

the

mountain.

(d) An band can be a object if it is aimed at or flicked at a

part of the body.

(A noun as the title)

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(e) The mango dripped causing ,

stains on my , shirt.

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Primary grammar and word study


Parts of speech

Adjectives

Focus

Common and proper adjectives

Definitions

• An adjective is a describing word. It adds meaning

to or changes the meaning of a noun or a pronoun.

Example:

He’s wearing a cotton shirt. (describes the noun,

‘shirt’)

That crocodile is enormous! (describes the noun,

‘crocodile’) Note: The adjective does not always

come before the noun.

They are beautiful! (describes the pronoun, ‘they’)

• Proper adjectives are those made from proper

nouns.

Example:

Chinese pottery

Proper adjectives are usually spelled with initial

capital letters. They are also called ‘adjectives of

origin’.

Explanation

The use of suitable adjectives can make written or

spoken language more interesting. It also gives the

reader or listener a clearer understanding.

Worksheet information

• Discuss adjectives and the information and

examples given at the top of page 15. Ask students

for further examples of common and proper

adjectives.

• Students individually or as a group identify the

adjectives and the nouns/pronouns they describe in

the text in Activity 1. Guide them to ask questions

such as ‘What kind?’ in front of the noun or pronoun

to help identification.

• Compare students’ answers after completing Activity

2 and discuss their choices. Ask ‘Did that adjective

give the reader/listener a clearer picture?’. Point out

that it is common to use more than one adjective to

describe something.

• Compare students’ answers to Activity 3, discussing

how clear and interesting they made their

paragraph/sentences.

Ideas for further practice

• Write a paragraph about an object using as many

adjectives as possible to describe it.

• Brainstorm to list various types of adjectives and

display on charts.

Example:

Those that describe colours (blue), shapes (round),

age (youthful), material (sandy), origin (Greek), size

(tiny) or quality (kind).

Answers

1. Adjectives are in bold and nouns and pronouns

underlined.

You must visit the popular local markets located

near the scenic harbour. They are amazing.

Browse through stalls displaying leather

handbags; silk scarves; silver trinkets; wooden

products; attractive scented candles; and

handmade Chinese pottery. All this with buskers

playing instruments such the Irish harp. AND,

don’t forget the food. Choose from crisp organic

vegetables; mouth-watering German sausages

with sauerkraut in a freshly-baked roll; spicy

Indian samosas or delicious stuffed potatoes.

2. 3. Teacher check

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Primary grammar and word study 14

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Adjectives 2

Adjectives are words used to describe nouns or pronouns making

writing clearer and more interesting;

e.g. The old, bent, gnarled tree swayed in the strong breeze.

Proper adjectives are used to describe where a person or object comes

from. They are made from proper nouns and have a capital letter;

e.g. The Japanese rose is beautiful.

1. Read the extract taken from a tourist brochure describing the local market. Highlight the

adjectives and underline the nouns and pronouns they describe.

You must visit the popular local markets located near the scenic harbour. They are amazing!

Browse through stalls displaying leather handbags; silk scarves; silver trinkets; wooden

products; attractive scented candles; and handmade Chinese pottery. All this with buskers

playing instruments such the Irish harp. AND, don’t forget the food. Choose from crisp organic

vegetables; mouth-watering German sausages with sauerkraut in a

freshly-baked roll; spicy Indian samosas or delicious

stuffed potatoes.

2. Choose two or three adjectives to describe these nouns. Share your choices with the class.

(a) a

(b) a

(c) a

(d) a

(e) a

cockroach

volcano

ice-cream

pirate

motorcycle

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3. Write one paragraph or three to four separate sentences, using as many of these words as you

can as adjectives.

bright loud new Italian tasty hot

fast thirsty cheesy spicy green red

Indian shiny hungry large

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Primary grammar and word study


Parts of speech

Adjectives

Focus

Comparative and superlative adjectives

Definitions

• Comparative adjectives are used to compare two

things, usually by adding the suffix ‘er’.

Example:

wide, wider

• Superlative adjectives are used to compare more

than two things usually by adding the suffix ‘est’.

Example:

high, highest

Explanation

• If the adjective has two or more syllables, ‘more’ or

‘most’ is usually added before the adjective.

Example:

wonderful, more wonderful, most wonderful

• But if the adjective of two or more syllables ends in

‘y’, ‘er’ or ‘est’ is usually used.

Example:

grumpy, grumpier, grumpiest

• Some comparative and superlative objectives are

irregular.

Example:

bad, worse, worst

good, better, best

Worksheet information

• Use the information at the top of page 17 to discuss

with the students how we can add ‘er’ or ‘est’

to adjectives to compare things. Use qualities of

common objects or students in the classroom to

practise the concept; e.g. identify three students a

student with long hair, a student with longer hair

and a student with the longest hair. Note how ‘the’

is often used before the superlative form (e.g. the

longest hair).

• Students read the paragraph in Activity 1,

highlighting the comparative and superlative

adjectives. Discuss those that use ‘er’ and ‘est’ and

those that use ‘more’ and ‘most’.

• To complete Activity 2, students need to identify

when to add ‘er’ ,‘est’, ‘more’ or ‘most’ to an

adjective. Sometimes the best way is to say the

choices out loud and hear what sounds correct.

Dictionaries could also be used. Remind students

they may need to change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ in some words

before adding ‘er’ or ‘est’. The last example, (e),

provides an irregular form of comparison—good,

better, best (not good, gooder, goodest!).

• Activity 3 provides practice in using the correct

comparative or superlative form of adjectives in

context. Compare answers.

Ideas for further practice

• In pairs, students prepare short oral or written

reports of facts that compare animals or places

etc., using the correct comparative and superlative

adjectives.

• Identify other irregular forms of comparative and

superlative adjectives other than 2 (e).

These include many/more/most; bad/worse/worst

and little/less/least. Students could use these words

in spoken or written sentences they make up in

pairs or groups.

Answers

1. Many people believe that lions are bigger

than tigers, but tigers, in fact, are the largest

cat species in the world. Their colourings and

markings are also the most vivid of all cat

species. Tigers that live in cold climates are larger

than those that live in warmer climates. They

are also paler in colour and have longer, thicker

fur. Only about 6000 tigers survive in the wild

today, making them one of the most endangered

species.

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2. (a) thirsty, thirstier, thirstiest

(b) ferocious, more ferocious, most ferocious

(c) itch, itchier, itchiest

(d) terrible, more terrible, most terrible

(e) good, better, best

3. Antarctica is the fifth largest continent. It is also

the coldest and has the lowest temperature ever

recorded: 89 ºC. Although it is covered by ice,

it hardly rains and is the driest place on Earth.

Many people consider Antarctica to be the most

beautiful place on our planet.

Primary grammar and word study 16

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Comparing things

When we compare two things we change the adjective, usually by adding er.

Example: ‘This giraffe is tall but that one is taller.’

When we compare three or more things we change the adjective usually by adding est;

For example: ‘This giraffe is tall but that giraffe over there is the tallest of all.’

The words more or most are used before some adjectives to compare things.

Example: ‘delightful, more delightful, most delightful’.

1. Read the paragraph below about tigers. Highlight the adjectives that are used to compare.

Many people believe that lions are bigger

than tigers, but tigers, in fact, are the largest

cat species in the world. Their colourings and

markings are also the most vivid of all cat

species. Tigers that live in cold climates are

larger than those that live in warmer climates.

They are also paler in colour and have longer,

thicker fur. Only about 6000 tigers survive in

the wild today, making them one of the most

endangered species.

2. Finish the table below, changing the adjectives by adding er, est, more or most.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

thirsty

terrible

good

more ferocious

3. Rewrite this paragraph, with the adjectives in bold print in the correct form.

itchiest

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Antarctica is the fifth most large continent. It is also the colder and has the lowerest temperature

ever recorded: 89 ºC. Although it is covered by ice, it hardly rains and is the most dry place on Earth.

Many people consider Antarctica to be the beautifullest place on our planet.

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Primary grammar and word study


Parts of speech

Adverbs

Focus

Common adverbs of manner, time and place

Definition

• An adverb is a word that adds information, usually

to a verb and can tell how (manner), when (time) or

where (place) something happens.

Example:

Yesterday (time) we were upset because the

beautiful forest was tragically (manner) destroyed

by a fire caused by lightning striking nearby (place).

Note: Adverbs can modify (add information to) any

words that are not nouns or pronouns. (These are

modified by adjectives.)

Explanation

• Adverbs can clarify meaning by telling more about

the action, allowing for greater precision and adding

interest to writing.

• Students should be reminded that adding adverbs

will make their speaking and writing more

informative, precise and interesting.

Worksheet information

• After students have read the text, discuss whether

they think it was more likely to have been presented

in written or spoken form. Identify it as an exposition

seeking to persuade others to a particular point of

view and discuss other features of expository text.

• Discuss why some words in the text are in bold.

Remind students that words telling about something

someone does or an occurrence are called verbs

(see pages 611) and that these words are all verbs.

Explain that because adverbs can tell how, when or

where something happens, we need to identify the

verbs before trying to find the adverbs. Note: Some

are compound verbs.

• Model the process of identifying the adverbs by

asking how, when and where of the verb.

Example:

When will I be speaking?—Tonight.

So ‘tonight’ is the adverb. The second verb identified

is ‘believe’. ‘Strongly’ is the adverb because it tells

how I believe. Some students will need to have the

process modelled numerous times before they are

able to complete Question 1 independently.

• In Question 2 the students will need to locate each

adverb, then the verb it modifies. They can then try

to think of other suitable verbs.

Example:

jump here, look here, stay or move here

• The purpose of Question 3 is to demonstrate the

function of adverbs.

Ideas for further practice

• Brainstorm to list on the board adverbs to describe

how someone could, for example, run, catch or

throw. Then consider the more difficult task of

finding one word to describe when and where this

action could occur.

• Students work in small groups. Each group selects

an action to mime and all the members each mime

that action in a different way. Other students need

to try to identify the action and how each group

member is doing it. For example: The action could be

digging. One person could be digging fast, another

carelessly, another sadly and the other smoothly.

Answers

1. (a) The following adverbs should be underlined:

tonight, strongly, urgently, genuinely,

Everywhere, rapidly, dangerously, tragically,

dramatically, now, here, sadly

(b) Manner: strongly, urgently, genuinely, rapidly,

dangerously, tragically, dramatically, sadly

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Time: tonight, now

Place: Everywhere, here

2. (a) heresit (plus teacher check)

(b) dangerouslyis affecting (plus teacher check)

(c) sadlywatch (plus teacher check)

(d) nowmust act (plus teacher check)

3. Teacher check

Primary grammar and word study 18

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Adverbs 1

Words telling how, when or where things occur are called adverbs.

1. (a) Underline the adverbs in the text. There is one for each highlighted verb.

Ladies and gentlemen,

I will be speaking tonight about what I strongly believe are some of the

environmental issues we all urgently need to consider if we genuinely wish to make

a significant difference to the future of our planet.

Everywhere we look there is evidence of how rapidly change is occurring. Pollution is

dangerously affecting the air we breathe, whole species of the world’s fauna and flora

are tragically disappearing and our climate is changing dramatically.

But we must act now, we can’t sit here and sadly watch it happen.

(b) Write each adverb in the chart showing if it tells how, when or where something occurred.

2. Write the verb used in the text with these adverbs and add other suitable verbs that each of the

words could also be used to describe.

(a) here

(b) dangerously

(c) sadly

(d) now

Adverbs of manner

(how)

3. Add only adverbs of manner, time or place to these sentences to make them more informative.

(You may add more than one adverb to each sentence.)

(a) We waited for the train.

Adverbs of manner

(how)

Adverbs of time

(when)

Adverbs of place

(where)

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(b) He dropped the ball.

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Primary grammar and word study


Parts of speech

Adverbs

Focus

Common adverbs of time, place, manner, frequency and

interrogative adverbs

Definitions

• An adverb is a word that adds information, usually to

a verb and can tell how (manner), when (time), where

(place) or how often something happens.

Example:

Yesterday (time) the diver confidently (manner) tied

his boat to a mooring because he usually (frequency)

saw many beautiful fish there (place).

• An interrogative adverb asks questions about how,

when, where or why something happens. The words,

how, when, where and why are interrogative adverbs.

Note: Adverbs can modify (add information to) any words

that are not nouns or pronouns. (These are modified by

adjectives.)

Explanation

• Adverbs can clarify meaning by telling more about the

action, allowing for greater precision and adding interest

to writing.

• Students should be reminded that adding adverbs

will make their writing more informative, precise and

interesting.

• Adverbs have been classified on the worksheet as those

that add information about manner, time, place and,

frequency.

Example:

usually and seldom.

Adverbs of extent is another category that could also

be discussed with students.

Example:

quite and almost.

These adverbs can be used by themselves;

Example:

he nearly drowned.

They are often used with other adverbs;

Example:

He swam quite confidently.

We are almost there.

• Although adverbs often answer the questions how,

when and where about the verb, the actual words how,

when, where and why are themselves adverbs. They

are known as interrogative adverbs.

Worksheet information

• Introduce the worksheet by discussing the acronym,

scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus)

and encourage students to share information about this

popular recreational activity and profession.

• Read the text and identify some of the verbs and

adverbs. Remind students of the close link between

verbs and adverbs by asking how, when or where

questions about the verb and demonstrating how doing

this will help to identify adverbs.

• Explain that adverbs give more information about

verbs and how their speaking and writing will be more

interesting and informative when they use appropriate

adverbs.

• Question 1 provides an opportunity for students to locate

specific adverbs and identify the verbs they modify. They

are then required to identify what the adverb tells about

the verb.

• Adverbs of frequency tell how often something occurs

and are commonly used. In Question 2, students

consider these adverbs and select those they think are

most appropriate to use in each sentence.

• Some teachers may choose to introduce the term

interrogative adverb to describe the question words

used in Question 3 and to explain that these words are

themselves special adverbs which ask questions about

how, when, where or why something occurs.

Ideas for further practice

• Students work in small groups to write a how, when,

where and why question about something that happens

in a game or activity to give to another group to answer.

Example:

Taking a mark in football, winning a swimming race.

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Answers

1. (a) anywhere, swim, where the divers could swim

(b) later, developed, when scientists developed air

tanks

(c) safely, inhale, how divers were able to inhale

compressed air

(d) powerfully, moving, how divers could move

(e) usually, attached, how often they had fins

attached to their feet.

2. Teacher check

3. (a) How (b) Where (c) When (d) Why

Primary grammar and word study 20

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Adverbs - 2

Words telling how, when, where or how often things happen are called

adverbs.

Scuba diving

Underwater diving is not new. Thousands of years ago, the first divers were free divers who simply

held their breath as they briefly dived below in search of their food.

Later, scientists developed air tanks connected to air hoses and regulators to control the flow of air.

Divers were then able to safely inhale compressed air and spend more time underwater. Wearing

masks and wetsuits, they could swim anywhere, moving powerfully through the water, usually with

fins attached to their feet.

1. Find each adverb in the text, write the verb it refers to and what it tells about the verb.

2. Adverbs of frequency tell how often something happens. Choose an adverb from the box to

complete each sentence.

never often always rarely sometimes usually

perhaps likely regularly generally frequently occasionally

(a) You should check your diving equipment .

(b) It is safer to

(c)

(d) I

(e) We

(f)

Adverb Verb What it tells

(a) anywhere

(b) later

(c) safely

(d) powerfully

(e) usually

dive with a partner.

we shouldn’t dive because the water is rough.

wear fins when I dive.

see a huge shark.

I feel quite scared.

3. Some adverbs ask questions about verbs. Underline the adverb in each sentence.

(a) How did they move?

(c) When did they develop air tanks?

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(b) Where did they dive?

(d) Why can they breathe?

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Primary grammar and word study


Parts of speech

Pronouns

Focus

Personal, indefinite and interrogative pronouns

Definitions

• A pronoun is a word substituted for a noun.

• A personal pronoun is used in place of a person or

thing.

Example:

he, she, it, they

• An indefinite pronoun refers to an unspecified

person or thing.

Example:

Someone took the cakes.

• Interrogative pronouns ask questions that give a

noun or pronoun response.

Example:

Who stole the cake?

Explanation

• The use of pronouns prevents constant repetition of

a noun.

• It is important for students to know the correct

pronouns to use in the context of a particular

sentence so that their grammar, in speech and in

writing, is accurate.

• The table at the top of the next column shows which

personal pronoun to use:

When the person the pronoun refers to is the

subject or object:

Example:

I (subject) told her (object) my secret.

We (subject) asked them (object) to visit.

To emphasise the subject of the verb.

Example:

We picked the grapes ourselves (emphatic

pronoun).

To emphasise the object of the verb when it is

the same person as the subject.

Example:

I enjoyed myself (reflexive pronoun).

To indicate possession:

Example:

The dog is ours.

• The 12 indefinite pronouns are shown in the table

below. Some refer to people and others to things.

• These are the five interrogative pronouns which give

a noun or pronoun response.

Worksheet information

• The questions give students the opportunity to revise

and demonstrate their knowledge and understanding

of pronouns.

• In Questions 1 and 2, read through the whole of

each text before placing the correct pronouns.

• In Question 3, students should read both parts of

each question. They will discover that for a who

question the answer is a subjective pronoun. For a

whose question, the answer is an objective pronoun.

Ideas for further practice

• Students create their own tables of pronouns

and write rules for use in their own words with

examples.

• Design a bingo type game with cards containing six

sentences from which pronouns have been removed.

Each student is given a number of small cards on

which a pronoun has been written. The caller calls

out a pronoun. If the students have that card, it is

placed in position on their bingo card.

Answers

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

Person Subjective Objective Emphatic/

reflexive

Possessive

First singular I me myself mine

Second you you yourself yours

Third (male) he him himself his

Third (female) she her herself hers

Third (neuter) it it itself its

First plural we us ourselves ours

Second you you yourselves yours

Third they them themselves theirs

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

somebody anybody nobody everybody

someone anyone no-one everyone

something anything nothing everything

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS

what which who whom whose

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1. (a) themselves (b) They (c) They (d) everyone (e) it

2. (a) he (b) hers (c) it (d) she (e) himself (f) who

(g) Everyone (h) He (i) himself

3. (a) his (b) We (c) theirs (d) mine (e) She (f) You

Primary grammar and word study 22

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Pronouns

A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.

There are a number of different pronouns that must be used in the right way

to make a sentence correct.

1. Read the text below. The mistakes have been highlighted.

The students were talking excitedly among

ourselves as they climbed into the bus. He

had all been chosen to represent the school

at the carnival. You knew no-one at school

would be hoping that the team would do

better this year than us had done last year

when it had come last.

Write the correct pronoun to replace each of these.

(a) ourselves

(c) You

(e) us

2. Choose the correct pronouns to fill the gaps.

(b) He

(d) no-one

He it himself he hers she who Everyone himself

James returned the money to Catherine because

(b)

. He said he was sorry for having taken

(d)

accepted his apology. He was very pleased with

(e)

for being brave enough to own up, but

(g)

would know he was a thief.

(a)

knew it was

(c)

and

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(f)

would trust him now?

(h)

was sad, but he knew he

only had

(i)

to blame.

3. Choose a pronoun to answer the questions. One of each pair is done for you.

(a) Who owns the ball? He does. Whose is the ball? It’s .

(b) Who owns the dog? do. Whose is the dog? It’s ours.

(c) Who owns the cat? They do. Whose is the cat? It’s .

(d) Who owns the rat? I do. Whose is the rat? It’s .

(e) Who owns the doll? does. Whose is the doll? It’s hers.

(f) Who owns the cup? do. Whose is the cup? It’s yours.

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Primary grammar and word study


Parts of speech

Pronouns

Focus

Relative pronouns who, which, that and whose

Definition

• A relative pronoun comes before the relative clause

that describes the noun or pronoun to which it

refers.

Example:

The author who wrote adventure stories was very

popular.

Who comes before the relative clause, wrote

adventure stories which describes the author (the

noun to which it refers).

Explanation

• It is important for students to know the correct

relative pronouns to use in the context of any

sentence so that their grammar, in both speech and

writing is accurate.

• The words who, which, that and whose are only

relative pronouns within the context of a particular

sentence.

Example:

The man who cycled to work was very fit. (relative

pronoun).

Who is that man? (interrogative pronoun).

• In these activities, who, that, which and whose all

refer to the subject of the verb. When referring to the

object of the verb, that, which and whose remain

the same but who is changed to whom.

• The table shows which relative pronouns to use.

Relative pronoun Refers to ...

who

Person only

that/which Things only

whose

Possession person or thing

Example:

The man who climbed a hill was very fit.

Dogs that chew things are not very smart.

My flowers, which bloomed today, are lovely.

The house whose roof collapsed will be

demolished.

The girl whose ankle was swollen had to rest.

Note: The choice of that or which is intuitive. The

general rule for students at this stage is to try that first

but if it doesn’t sound right, use which.

Worksheet information

• It is not necessary to refer to these pronouns as

‘relative’. It is sufficient that the students know their

function and learn how to recognise and use them

within the context of a sentence.

• Explain that a clause is a part of a sentence that

includes a verb and its subject;

Example:

The painters worked very hard, because they

wanted to leave early.

A relative clause relates to the noun or pronoun

joined to it by the relative pronoun

Example:

The cat that sat on the mat.

(The clause in this example is, sat on the mat.)

• Before completing the worksheet, work through

a number of simple examples to ensure that the

students understand when each relative pronoun

should be used.

• In Questions 1 (c) and (d) the preferred answer

is that, and in (f) the preferred answer is which.

However, as the students are taught that either can

be correct, which is acceptable for (c) and (d) and

that for (f).

Ideas for further practice

• In pairs, student take turns to make up sentences,

deliberately using the wrong relative pronoun.

For example, The man that drove a sports car

always drove slowly.

Partners have to explain why the pronoun is

incorrect and say which one should have been used.

• Photocopy and laminate a number of short cloze

passages which require students to choose the

correct relative pronoun. Set them as regular tasks.

• Students look through a page in a book to find an

example of a relative pronoun. Choose students

to read out their sentences. Write each one on the

board and discuss its different parts relating to the

relative pronoun.

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Answers

1. (a) who (b) who (c) that/which

(d) that/which (e) who (f) which

(g) whose (h) whose

2. (a) who (b) that (c) which

(d) whose (e) whose

Primary grammar and word study 24

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Who, which, that and whose

Who, which, that and whose are words that can connect a noun to a

group of words that describe it. This group of words (with a verb) is

called a clause.

The boy who sits next to me. who is always used for people

The robot that was on sale. that or which can be used for things

The student whose bag was stolen. whose is used for people and things.

The thief who stole the jewels that were stored in the royal palace was

captured on Monday. Police were led to the man, whose identity cannot be

released, by a tracking device which was hidden inside the jewels.

1. Choose the correct pronoun to fit into each sentence.

(a) The slave

(b) Here are the gladiators

(c) Temples

(d) Roads

(e) The Romans

ago.

worked well was trusted by his master.

will entertain us today.

were built in honour of the gods were very grand.

were built by the Romans were very straight.

built Hadrian’s wall lived almost two thousand years

(f) The Colosseum,

is in the centre of the city of Rome, was the largest

amphitheatre to be built during the time of the Roman Empire.

(g) The horse

(h) The Roman soldiers,

battles.

2. Circle the correct pronoun and finish each sentence.

(a) The vet that/who

leg was hurt in battle now walks with a limp.

training was very tough, were very successful in

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(b) The river who/that

(c) The books who/which

(d) The pilot whose/which

(e) The building whose/who

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Primary grammar and word study


Parts of speech

Conjunctions

Focus

Conjunctions

Definition

Conjunctions are joining words which can be used to

connect words, phrases, clauses or sentences.

Example:

Salt and pepper

running fast and breathing rapidly

It’s a fast car but difficult to control.

Since I have no money, I can’t go to the circus.

Explanation

• Using conjunctions enables a writer to build and

combine ideas and avoid needless repetition.

Conjunctions can join:

- one adjective with another, such as:

‘The girl was hot and tired.’

- one sentence with another such as:

‘It was raining so I took an umbrella.’

• Conjunctions can be placed between two clauses or

at the beginning of a sentence. The position of the

conjunction helps the reader to know which part of

the sentence is the focus.

Example:

‘If you climb on top of the monkey bars, you will

fall.’ (Focus is on the cause)

‘You will fall if you climb on top of the monkey

bars.’ (Focus is on the consequence)

Worksheet information

• Students use a red pen to make edits through the

text in Question 1 (a). Remind students that words

can be deleted to avoid needless repetition. Words

can also be rearranged. Students cross off the

conjunctions used from the list. Try to use as many

different conjunctions as possible. If students use a

new conjunction, they can write it on the board for

others to see and use.

• Once Question 1 (b) is completed, students can

share their improved text with the class. Make

comparisons between the conjunctions used and the

placement of conjunctions in the shared texts.

Ideas for further practice

• Write sentences which begin with conjunctions, such

as ‘while’, ‘although’, ‘since’, ‘unless’ etc.

• Extend a simple sentence such as ‘The cat sat on

the mat’ by following it with a conjunction (such

as ‘and’, ‘so’, ‘while’, ‘as’) and then a clause. For

example, ‘The cat sat on the mat so his owners

wouldn’t forget to feed him.’,‘The cat sat on the mat

as it was warm from the sun.’

Answers

1. (b) Teacher check. Suggested answer:

Last night, I was snuggled up in bed when

I heard a strange noise. At first, I thought it

was coming from my wardrobe, but it could

have been from the toy box. I was scared

because I didn’t know what was making the

noise. I crept out of bed, tiptoed over to the

wardrobe, then slowly opened the door. First

I gasped then I screamed out for Dad, who

ran in to my room and turned on the light.

Eventually, we both laughed.

2. (a) Although it was raining, I didn’t get wet.

(b) Unless I start studying today, I will fail the

test.

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(c) Whereas you are tall, he is short; or

Whereas he is short, you are tall.

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Conjunctions

A conjunction is a joining word which can be used to join words, phrases,

clauses or sentences.

1. (a) Read the text.

Last night, I was snuggled up in bed. I heard a strange

noise. I thought it was coming from my wardrobe. It

could have been from the toy box. I was scared. I didn’t

know what was making the noise. I tiptoed over to the

wardrobe. I slowly opened the door. I gasped. I screamed

out for Dad. Dad ran in to my room. He turned on the

light. We both laughed.

(b) Rewrite the text to make it more interesting by adding conjunctions. Use the list to help you

or add your own. You can also delete and rearrange words.

Conjunctions can be placed in the middle or at the beginning of two

joined sentences or clauses.

Example: All heads turned as the new student walked in to the classroom.

As the new student walked in to the classroom, all heads turned.

2. Rearrange these sentences so the conjunction is at the beginning.

(a) I didn’t get wet, although it was raining.

who

since

or

before

and

then

when

At first

until

for

next while

although

but

because

eventually

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Don’t forget the

comma between the

two parts!

(b) I will fail unless I start studying for the test today.

(c) He is short whereas you are tall.

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Primary grammar and word study


Parts of speech

Determiners

Focus

Articles: the (definite), a/an (indefinite)

Possessives: my, your, his, her, its, our, their

Demonstratives: this, that (singular), these,

those (plural)

Definitions

• A determiner is a word usually used before a noun

that determines how definite it is. For example, Our

homework was placed on that table with these books

because the teacher wanted us to take a book home

each night.

• Articles is a subclass of determiners. An article

precedes a noun and identifies how definite (specific) or

indefinite (non-specific) that noun is.

Example:

a child (meaning any child), the child (meaning a

particular child)

• A possessive determiner is a word which identifies

who something belongs to.

Example:

Mary sold her book at the fete.

• A demonstrative determiner signals whether the

associated noun is near (this, these) the writer or

speaker or far away (that, those) from the writer or

speaker.

Note: In traditional grammar, some words used as what

are now called determiners in functional grammar,

are referred to as adjectives; e.g. first, seven, or as

possessive pronouns; e.g. my, your.

Explanation

• Determiners are useful for making information more

precise for the reader or listener.

• The definite article the is used to refer to a particular

thing or things and when referring to specific, one-of-akind

things.

Example:

the Nile River, the book (meaning a particular book)

• Indefinite articles such as a and an are used to refer to

any thing. The noun following an indefinite article is nonspecific.

Example:

a boat (meaning any boat) or an umbrella (meaning any

umbrella)

• Articles can indicate a significant difference in meaning.

Example:

a house (any house) and the house (a particular house)

• The indefinite article a precedes a noun that begins with

a consonant sound.

Example:

a yacht, a boat, a dog, a unicycle

• The indefinite article an usually precedes

a noun that begins with a vowel sound.

Example:

an elephant, an ice-cream, an umbrella, an hour

• Possessive determiners are always used before the

noun to say who the noun belongs to. They can be

used in first, second or third person form as well as in

singular or plural. Refer to the table below to see which

possessive determiners are used in each situation.

Person Determiner Pronouns

1st my I, me, mine

2nd your you, yours

his he, him, his

3rd her she, her, hers

its it, its

1st our we, us, ours

2nd your you, yours

3rd their they, them, theirs

• Demonstratives generally indicate the proximity of the

noun to the writer or speaker. This (singular) and these

(plural) suggest the noun/nouns are close by, while that

(singular) and those (plural) suggest the noun/nouns are

far away or out of reach.

Worksheet information

• Question 1 provides the opportunity to study each word

and its function when used in conjunction with a noun.

By exploring the function of particular words, students

will be able to more readily use the correct words in

their own writing. They are then required to use the

words in context. Clues have been given as to the role

of the missing word; however, students must deduce

from the context which word is required to complete the

sentence.

• Question 2 allows students to practise writing sentences

using specific determiners as given. Some students may

find this challenging. It might be helpful to ask students

for example sentences, before they work independently

to create their own sentences.

Ideas for further practice

• Use newspaper articles to search for examples of

sentences which use the determiners dealt with on this

page.

Answers

1. (a) who: my, her, its, their, his, our, your

close/far away: that, those, these, this

general or specific: a, an, the

(b) (i) this

(iii) a; the

2. Teacher check

(ii) a; your; his

(iv) those, that

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Singular

Plural

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Let’s be more precise 1

Some words can be used before a noun to give the reader or listener more precise information.

These words are called determiners. The words in the box below are some examples:

that my a her those its their

his these our an this the your

1. (a) Sort the determiners above into the table below.

(b) Use the words above to complete these sentences.

(i) ‘Is (distance) seat here taken?’ asked Linus.

(ii) ‘John, I am happy you want to bake

cake. Just remember it is

mess, not mine’, stated

(iii) Suddenly

at

(general/specific)

(who) responsibility to clean up the

(who) mum.

(general/specific) strange black and white cat jumped up

(general/specific) window and scared the living daylights out of Taj!

(iv) I am afraid (distance) boys over there will break (distance)

big window on the side of Mr Tan’s house.

2. Use each group of three words in a sentence of your own.

(a)

(b)

(c)

These words tell us who the

noun belongs to.

that

her

an

a

its

this

the

your

those

These words tell us if the

noun(s) is/are close or far

away.

These words tell us whether

the noun is general or

Publicationsspecific.

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Primary grammar and word study


Parts of speech

Determiners

Focus

Determiners:

Distributives: either, neither, each, every

Interrogatives: which, what, whose

Definitions

• A determiner is a word usually used before a noun

that determines how definite it is.

Example:

Her dog was tied to that pole with a chain each

time she went into the shop.

• A distributive is a type of determiner which tells

how something is distributed, shared or divided.

Example:

I think every person is special.

• An interrogative is a type of determiner used before

nouns to form a question.

Example:

Whose book is that?

Note: In traditional grammar some words used as what

are now called determiners in functional grammar,

are referred to as adjectives, e.g. first, seven or

possessive pronouns, e.g. my, your.

Explanation

• Determiners are useful for making information more

precise for the reader or listener.

• Distributive determiners are usually used before

the noun.

• Each and every have similar meanings and it’s often

possible to use either of them.

Each often but not always means everyone

separately or one by one and can be used for one of

two things.

It can be followed by ‘ofand can be used in front of

a verb.

Every can mean each and sometimes all.

Every cannot be used for two things or after ‘of’.

It can be used to say ‘how often’

• Either and neither refer to one or none of two

things.

• Verbs used after each, every, either and neither are

singular as are any related possessive determiners.

Example:

Each of the boys eats his dinner.

Every person has worn his or her hat.

Either sports car appeals to its drivers.

Neither woman wants to drive her

car.

• ‘Which’, ‘what’ and ‘whose’ are also known as

‘question words’. These words are placed before

the noun they relate to and are used to elicit more

precise information about that noun.

Worksheet information

• Discuss Question 1 with students and explain that

some of these distributives have similar meanings.

• Discuss question type words and point out that in

these sentences the interrogatives are used directly

before the noun they relate to. After discussing this

aspect, students can then use the interrogatives in

their own sentences.

Ideas for further practice

• Search newspaper or magazines and highlight the

words, each, every, either and neither. Circle the

verbs and decide if they are singular or plural.

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Answers

1. (a) every (b) each

(c) Neither (d) either

2. (a) Neither: not either; (b) either: one of the two; (c)

each: every, of two or more considered individually

or one by one; (d) every: each, referring one by one

to all members of a group (e) each; referring one

by one to each individual in the pair (f) neither: not

either

3. (a) Whose (b) Which (c) What (d) Which

Teacher check student sentences. Ensure the

interrogative is before the noun.

Primary grammar and word study 30

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Let’s be more precise 2

The words each, every, either and neither can tell how a noun is shared or divided.

These words can be used to describe:

• All the members of a group (every)

• One member of a group (each)

• One member of a group of two (either)

• Not one member of a group of two (neither)

1. Read the sentences and underline the determiner in each.

(a) Every boy in our class played football on Friday.

(b) I think each boy played his best game.

(c) Neither team dominated the game.

(d) We knew it would be either a draw or a very close victory.

2. Choose the best word to complete each sentence.

(a)

boy swam his fastest time. (Either/Neither)

(b) Mum knew that

icy drink would be refreshing on such a hot day.

(either/neither)

(c) The principal gave

of the students a merit certificate.

(every/each)

(d) I think

boy in the team should play for at least one quarter.

(every/each)

(e) They both sang well so the judges gave

(f) It was so cold and windy that

(either/neither)

girl a prize. (every/each)

boy wanted to go swimming.

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3. Underline the word in each sentence that makes it a question. Then use that word to write a

question of your own.

(a) ‘Whose schoolbag has been left on the floor?’ asked the teacher.

(b) ‘Which piece of fruit would you like for morning tea?’ called Mum.

(c) ‘What day of the week do you practise swimming?’ enquired Jamie.

(d) ‘Which book would you like to read?’ questioned his friend.

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Primary grammar and word study


Parts of speech

Prepositions

Focus

Prepositions of time, place and direction

Definition

• Prepositions are words used to show the

relationship between nouns and/or pronouns in the

same sentence.

Example:

The player ran across the field with the football

tucked tightly under his arm.

Explanation

• The word ‘preposition’ combines the prefix ‘pre’

(meaning ‘before’ or ‘in front of’) and the word

‘position’. As such, prepositions are words that are

‘positioned in front’ of nouns or other words that

functions as nouns (such as pronouns, verbal nouns

or noun phrases).

• Prepositions indicate a connection between things

mentioned in a sentence, such as between a person

and where she/he is going;

Example:

Jill moved towards the table.

• Prepositions can refer to manner (he came to

work by bus), time (school starts at 9 am), place

(he left his shoes at the park), position (the cat lay

under the table) and direction (it ran between the

buildings).

Some prepositions are formed by combining multiple

words, such as the phrases in front of, on top of

and prior to.

• Prepositions are often used to introduce phrases

that add more information to the noun or verb, called

prepositional phrases. These phrases start with a

preposition and end with a noun or noun equivalent,

called the object of the preposition. Words that

modify the object are part of the phrase.

Example:

The girl (subject), though tall, was still shorter than

(preposition) her younger brother’ (object). (The

prepositional phrase is underlined.)

• As a rule, prepositions do not come before verbs.

• A former rule was that prepositions should never

end a sentence. This rule no longer applies.

For example, it is commonly accepted as correct

to say ‘Have you found the shoes you were looking

for?’ rather than the old English, ‘Have you found the

shoes for which you were looking?’.

• Prepositions add meaning and detail. They also help

to distinguish between the object and the subject

in a sentence. Commonly used prepositions include

about, above, across, after, against, around,

at, before, behind, beneath, beside, between,

beyond, by, for, from, in, inside, near, off, on,

out, over, through, to, toward, under, until, upon

and with. Bear in mind that these words are not

always prepositions; sometimes they function as

conjunctions or adverbs.

Example:

in ‘Mia decided to stay inside’, ‘inside’ has no

object, and so is an adverb.

Worksheet information

• Write some simple sentences with prepositions

on the board, such as ‘The train came through the

tunnel.’ , ‘The papers are in the top drawer.’, ‘Peter

will leave at midday.’. Ask students to identify the

nouns. Then ask another student to find the word

that makes a connection between the two nouns

(the preposition). Discuss how prepositions connect

the nouns in sentences, and are usually followed by

nouns or pronouns.

• Give each student a copy of the worksheet. Students

having difficulty identifying prepositions may first

wish to highlight the nouns in the sentence, then

look at the words before them to help identify

prepositions.

Ideas for further practice

• Students could make crosswords or word-sleuths

for each other using prepositions.

• There are a number of online quizzes for

prepositions. Type ‘preposition quiz online’ into your

search engine to find suitable ones for your class.

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Answers

1. Prepositions: to, on, at, for, in, under, into, with, at,

in, near

2. Teacher check

3. (a) Prepositions include: in, on, to, into, onto,

opposite.

(b) Other words include: iron, into,

inert, iris, inspire, nipper, nose, noose, noise,

orient, option, pipe, priest, pronto, pointer,

poor, potion, prone, pities, poison, poisoner,

prison, pipe, portion, porpoise, protein,

person, pier, poise, pine, ports, ponies, rinse,

ripen, riot, ripe, rise, sprite, spire, sniper, spirit,

spin, soot, spine, sore, strip, soon, snoop, stir,

spoon, sooner, senior, site, sport, tenor, torso,

tire, tripe.

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Prepositions

Prepositions are words that can show the connection between nouns in

sentences. They usually come before nouns or pronouns, not before verbs.

Prepositions can show …

• where something happens

• when something happens

• where something is going

1. Underline the prepositions in the invitation.

Jesse lives in Colby, near the town centre.

I brush my teeth at night just before bed.

Finn went over the river by bus.

Hi Jenna

Please come to my house on Sunday at 9.30 am for brunch! We’ll have the

brunch in the garden, under the big umbrella. If it looks like it might rain, we’ll

go into the games room instead. You can bring a friend with you if you like. I

live at 27 Hempley Street in Mirandow. My house is near the church.

I hope you can make it!

From Annabel

2. Write four new sentences using some of the prepositions you found.

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3. (a) Find words that can be used as prepositions in the word ‘preposition’ (any length) using the

letters in any order.

preposition

(b) Find any other words of four letters or more.

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Primary grammar and word study

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