RIC-20238 Primary Grammar and Word Study Year 4 – Parts of Speech

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<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study (Book E)<br />

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<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong><br />

word study <strong>–</strong> Book E<br />

Foreword<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study is a series <strong>of</strong> seven books designed<br />

to introduce students to parts <strong>of</strong> speech, ways to underst<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> choose<br />

words, punctuation <strong>and</strong> figures <strong>of</strong> speech.<br />

Titles in this series:<br />

• <strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study Book A (Ages 5<strong>–</strong> 6)<br />

• <strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study Book B (Ages 6<strong>–</strong>7)<br />

• <strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study Book C (Ages 7<strong>–</strong>8)<br />

• <strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study Book D (Ages 8<strong>–</strong>9)<br />

• <strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study Book E (Ages 9 <strong>–</strong>10)<br />

• <strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study Book F (Ages 10<strong>–</strong>11)<br />

• <strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study Book G (Ages 11<strong>–</strong>12)<br />

Teachers notes .............................................. iv <strong>–</strong> v<br />

Curriculum links ................................................... v<br />

Literacy character explanation ..................... vi <strong>–</strong> vii<br />

Checklists ................................................... viii <strong>–</strong> xi<br />

<strong>Parts</strong> <strong>of</strong> speech ............................................. 2<strong>–</strong>33<br />

Nouns .............................................................. 2<strong>–</strong>5<br />

Verbs .............................................................. 6<strong>–</strong>11<br />

Adjectives.................................................... 12<strong>–</strong>17<br />

Adverbs ........................................................ 18<strong>–</strong>21<br />

Pronouns ...................................................... 22<strong>–</strong>25<br />

Conjunctions ................................................ 26<strong>–</strong>27<br />

Determiners ................................................. 28<strong>–</strong>31<br />

Prepositions ................................................ 32<strong>–</strong>33<br />

Underst<strong>and</strong>ing <strong>and</strong> choosing words .......... 34<strong>–</strong>57<br />

<strong>Word</strong>s that are similar ...............................34<strong>–</strong>41<br />

Homographs ......................................... 34<strong>–</strong>35<br />

Homophones ........................................ 36<strong>–</strong>37<br />

<strong>Word</strong> groups ......................................... 38<strong>–</strong>41<br />

<strong>Word</strong>s that change .....................................42<strong>–</strong>49<br />

Plurals .................................................. 46<strong>–</strong>45<br />

Prefixes ................................................ 46<strong>–</strong>47<br />

Suffixes ................................................ 48<strong>–</strong>49<br />

Contents<br />

<strong>Word</strong>s <strong>and</strong> their meanings ........................50<strong>–</strong>53<br />

Synonyms <strong>and</strong> antonyms...................... 50<strong>–</strong>51<br />

<strong>Word</strong> origins ......................................... 52<strong>–</strong>53<br />

Confused words .........................................54<strong>–</strong>57<br />

Punctuation ................................................. 58<strong>–</strong>71<br />

Full stops, question marks <strong>and</strong><br />

exclamation marks ....................................... 58<strong>–</strong>59<br />

Capital letters ............................................... 60<strong>–</strong>61<br />

Commas ....................................................... 62<strong>–</strong>65<br />

Apostrophes ................................................. 66<strong>–</strong>69<br />

Quotation marks ........................................... 70<strong>–</strong>71<br />

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Figures <strong>of</strong> speech ........................................ 72<strong>–</strong>83<br />

Alliteration .................................................... 72<strong>–</strong>73<br />

Anagrams <strong>and</strong> palindromes .......................... 74<strong>–</strong>75<br />

Idioms .......................................................... 76<strong>–</strong>77<br />

Similes ......................................................... 78<strong>–</strong>79<br />

Metaphors .................................................... 80<strong>–</strong>81<br />

Personification .............................................. 82<strong>–</strong>83<br />

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<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study

<strong>Parts</strong> <strong>of</strong> speech<br />

checklist<br />

Name <strong>of</strong> student Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Pronouns Conjunctions Determiners Prepositions<br />

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<strong>Parts</strong> <strong>of</strong> speech<br />

Nouns<br />

Focus<br />

Common, collective <strong>and</strong> proper nouns<br />

Definitions<br />

• Nouns are words used to name people, places,<br />

things, feelings or ideas.<br />

• Common nouns name general, rather than<br />

particular, people, places <strong>and</strong> things.<br />

The words in bold in the following sentence are<br />

nouns (in this context);<br />

Example:<br />

The woman reading a book in the park had<br />

sunglasses on to protect her eyes from the bright<br />

sunlight.<br />

• Proper nouns are used to name specific people,<br />

places or things. They begin with capital letters.<br />

Example:<br />

Susie Miles sat in Albert Park, wearing her new<br />

sunglasses <strong>and</strong> reading the latest book by Mike<br />

Smith.<br />

• Collective nouns are used to name groups <strong>of</strong><br />

objects, people, animals, inanimate things, or<br />

concepts.<br />

Example:<br />

family, herd, flock, group, team, class<br />

Explanation<br />

• The word ‘noun’ comes from the Latin ‘nomen’,<br />

which means ‘name’. Nouns are <strong>of</strong>ten called<br />

‘naming words’.<br />

• Proper nouns are capitalised. Common <strong>and</strong><br />

collective nouns are not capitalised unless they<br />

begin a sentence or start a title. Some nouns that<br />

would appear to need capitalisation, such as the<br />

names <strong>of</strong> seasons (winter, spring, autumn, summer)<br />

are no longer capitalised because, through long<br />

usage, they have come to be considered common<br />

nouns. Cardinal directions, (north, south, east, <strong>and</strong><br />

west) words for relatives (mum, uncle)—unless used<br />

as part <strong>of</strong> the name, such as Uncle Fred, <strong>and</strong> names<br />

<strong>of</strong> subject areas (maths, science) are also no longer<br />

considered proper nouns.<br />

• Names <strong>of</strong> games are common nouns; e.g. football.<br />

• Trade names are capitalised.<br />

• Each collective noun is a single thing made up <strong>of</strong><br />

more than one person or thing. A committee, team,<br />

or family requires at least two people to compose<br />

the unit. So while a collective noun refers to a<br />

number <strong>of</strong> things, it <strong>of</strong>ten specifically refers to the<br />

single group <strong>and</strong> so is usually (but not always)<br />

singular.<br />

Example:<br />

‘The pack <strong>of</strong> wolves was running’ not ‘The pack <strong>of</strong><br />

wolves were running’)<br />

• Some words used as nouns can also be verbs or<br />

adjectives, depending on the context in which they<br />

are used.<br />

Example:<br />

‘John decided to ring (verb) the shop about Suzie’s<br />

damaged ring (noun).’<br />

Worksheet information<br />

• Give each student a copy <strong>of</strong> the worksheet <strong>and</strong><br />

discuss common, proper <strong>and</strong> collective nouns.<br />

Teachers can choose either to explain the worksheet<br />

to the students <strong>and</strong> allow them to complete it on<br />

their own, or read through the text first then allow<br />

students to reread individually, filling in the spaces.<br />

• After completing the cloze, students write two<br />

other collective nouns. They then, on the back <strong>of</strong><br />

the worksheet (or on a separate sheet <strong>of</strong> paper if<br />

preferred), write a follow-up report using common<br />

<strong>and</strong> proper nouns they identified in the story.<br />

Ideas for further practice<br />

• Students can do an online sort <strong>of</strong> collective nouns<br />

(focus on animal groups) at .<br />

• Play games where the teacher calls out an animal<br />

or object, students try to guess what the collective<br />

nouns for a group <strong>of</strong> those items or animals is.<br />

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Answers<br />

1. chain, colony, mob, herd, choir, crowd, panel<br />

2. (a) school, shoal (b) flock, drove, herd, mob<br />

3. Common nouns: p<strong>and</strong>emonium, morning, zoo,<br />

ants, kangaroos, enclosure, walls, stampede, gate,<br />

animals, tents, concert, school, directions, director,<br />

week<br />

Proper nouns: Mr Stan Chuggins, City Zoo, Jemma<br />

Win, Channel Eight News<br />

Collective nouns: herd, furniture, cutlery, crowd,<br />

police<br />

4. Teacher check<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study 2<br />

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Nouns<br />

Nouns are words used to name people, places <strong>and</strong> things.<br />

Different kinds <strong>of</strong> nouns can be used to give information.<br />

Example: Jake <strong>and</strong> Mia went to the oval to watch the football team train.<br />

Proper nouns give us the<br />

specific names <strong>of</strong> people,<br />

places <strong>and</strong> things;<br />

e.g. Jake, Mia.<br />

1. Read the news report. Write the collective nouns in the correct space.<br />

‘A bizarre <strong>of</strong> events led to p<strong>and</strong>emonium this morning at the zoo. It seems<br />

a<br />

agitated<br />

<strong>of</strong> ants swarmed over the kangaroos in their enclosure. Two <strong>of</strong> the<br />

somehow jumped over the walls into a herd <strong>of</strong> zebras. The whole<br />

<strong>of</strong> zebras panicked <strong>and</strong>, in the stampede that followed, charged though a<br />

gate. Together, the freed animals bolted straight into the tents set up for the concert by the local<br />

school<br />

The<br />

, sending furniture, food <strong>and</strong> cutlery flying.<br />

that had gathered to see the concert scattered in all directions.<br />

By the time the police arrived, the animals had been recaptured <strong>and</strong> Mr Stan Chuggins, the director<br />

<strong>of</strong> City Zoo, was attempting to calm the frightened crowd. Luckily, no-one was injured.<br />

A<br />

choir<br />

crowd<br />

this happening again.<br />

A common noun is the name<br />

for general people, places<br />

<strong>and</strong> things;<br />

e.g. oval.<br />

mob<br />

colony<br />

<strong>of</strong> experts will meet next week to discuss what needs to be done to prevent<br />

This is Jemma Win reporting for Channel Eight News.’<br />

herd<br />

A collective noun is the<br />

name <strong>of</strong> a group <strong>of</strong> people,<br />

places or things;<br />

e.g. team.<br />

chain<br />

panel<br />

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2. Write a suitable collective noun for these animals.<br />

(a) fish<br />

(b) sheep<br />

3. Underline 10 common nouns, circle 4 proper nouns <strong>and</strong> highlight 3 collective nouns in the<br />

report.<br />

4. Write a follow-up news story on the back <strong>of</strong> this sheet using nouns from the report, adding<br />

some <strong>of</strong> your own. Present this news report to the class.<br />

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<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study

<strong>Parts</strong> <strong>of</strong> speech<br />

Nouns<br />

Focus<br />

Gender, neuter <strong>and</strong> common nouns<br />

Definitions<br />

• Nouns are words used to name people, places,<br />

things, feelings or ideas.<br />

• Masculine nouns are nouns used to describe<br />

something male as opposed to feminine or neuter.<br />

Example:<br />

prince, husb<strong>and</strong>, gentleman, boy, stag, g<strong>and</strong>er, ram<br />

<strong>and</strong> uncle<br />

• Feminine nouns are nouns used to describe<br />

something female, as opposed to masculine or<br />

neuter.<br />

Example:<br />

lady, aunt, wife, girl, queen, ewe <strong>and</strong> cow<br />

• Common nouns can be used for both males <strong>and</strong><br />

females.<br />

Example:<br />

cousin, teenager, teacher, doctor, cook, student,<br />

parent, friend, relation, leader<br />

• Neuter nouns name things without animal life<br />

(inanimate objects), which are neither male nor<br />

female.<br />

Example:<br />

box, book, chair, joy, broom, table<br />

Explanation<br />

• In language, gender is the classification <strong>of</strong> nouns<br />

according to sex. There are four genders in English;<br />

feminine (representing females), masculine<br />

(representing males), common (for use with either<br />

males or females) <strong>and</strong> neuter (for inanimate objects).<br />

• Unlike most European languages, where the majority<br />

<strong>of</strong> nouns are either masculine or feminine, in English<br />

most nouns are either neuter or common. Many<br />

gender nouns for people that were traditionally<br />

masculine or feminine are now replaced by common<br />

nouns, such as ‘flight attendant’ instead <strong>of</strong> ‘air<br />

hostess’, ‘firefighter’ instead <strong>of</strong> ‘fireman’. Many<br />

abstract nouns are neuter.<br />

• With animals, there is usually one common term<br />

(such as sheep, horse or pig) for the type <strong>of</strong> animal<br />

<strong>and</strong> separate names for the male (e.g. ram, stallion,<br />

hog) <strong>and</strong> the female (e.g. ewe, mare, sow).<br />

Worksheet information<br />

• Read part <strong>of</strong> a newspaper or magazine article about<br />

a royal family to the students, making sure words<br />

such as ‘prince’, ‘queen’ or ‘duke’ are mentioned.<br />

Ask if, for example, the prince is a boy or girl. How<br />

do we know? Students may suggest that if it was<br />

a girl she would be called a princess. Use this<br />

to introduce masculine <strong>and</strong> feminine nouns. Ask<br />

students to suggest other words they know that<br />

refer to males or females specifically. Ask ‘What<br />

about a teacher? How do we know if a teacher we<br />

read about is male or female?’ Use this to discuss<br />

common nouns; those that refer to both males <strong>and</strong><br />

females. Similarly, introduce neuter nouns.<br />

• Read the explanation <strong>and</strong> newspaper article with the<br />

students. Discuss the feminine nouns <strong>and</strong> how they<br />

specifically refer to female jobs, animals, relatives<br />

<strong>and</strong> roles. Also discuss some <strong>of</strong> the feelings that the<br />

people involved in the story may have experienced<br />

(such as fear, fright, gratitude, happiness). Students<br />

then rewrite the article, substituting the feminine<br />

nouns for common or masculine nouns. They will<br />

also need to change some possessive determiners;<br />

e.g. ‘her’. They complete the rest <strong>of</strong> the sheet by<br />

classifying each noun according to its gender.<br />

Ideas for further practice<br />

• Students could act out a follow up article in small<br />

groups;<br />

For example: The hero being awarded a medal for<br />

bravery.<br />

• Students could create common nouns to replace the<br />

separate masculine <strong>and</strong> feminine nouns; e.g. invent<br />

a common noun for both a king <strong>and</strong> queen, an aunt<br />

<strong>and</strong> uncle.<br />

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Answers<br />

1. (a) Answers will vary; teacher check<br />

(b) Six <strong>of</strong> the following: night, play, role,<br />

production, audience, cable, props, company,<br />

bravery.<br />

2. bull: M, aunt: F, manager: C, bride: F, duke: M,<br />

giant: M, child: C, happiness: N, parent: C, bike: N.<br />

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Nouns with a gender<br />

Some nouns name male or female people <strong>and</strong> animals. These are called<br />

gender nouns. The nouns for males are called masculine nouns (e.g. son,<br />

king), <strong>and</strong> those for females are called feminine nouns (e.g. girl, aunt).<br />

Some nouns can be used to name both males <strong>and</strong> females. These are<br />

called common gender nouns (e.g. baby, teacher, cousin, doctor, student,<br />

astronaut).<br />

The nouns that name things that are neither male nor female are called<br />

neuter nouns (e.g. chair, pen, sad).<br />

In the following article, the feminine nouns are in bold.<br />

Local<br />

Chloe Repus, a waitress <strong>and</strong> the niece<br />

<strong>of</strong> a local l<strong>and</strong>lady, came to the rescue at<br />

the opening night <strong>of</strong> the play, ‘The Witches<br />

<strong>of</strong> WA’. Chloe moved to Harvey three years<br />

ago with her two young daughters.<br />

The budding actress played the role <strong>of</strong><br />

the Fairy Queen in the local production.<br />

dubbed ‘The Heroine <strong>of</strong> Harvey.<br />

As the audience watched last night, the cable<br />

lifting Kiara Pord, playing the flying Witch<br />

<strong>of</strong> WA, snapped. Chloe quickly pushed some<br />

stage props, two fluffy ewes, under the falling<br />

mother <strong>of</strong> four, cushioning her fall. The theatre<br />

company praised Chloe’s bravery, calling her<br />

‘The Heroine <strong>of</strong> Harvey!’<br />

1. (a) Rewrite the article, changing the feminine nouns to masculine or common nouns. There are<br />

some other words you will also need to change.<br />

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(b) Circle six neuter nouns in the text.<br />

2. In the box provided next to those words, write N for neuter, C for common, M for masculine or F<br />

for Feminine.<br />

bull aunt manager bride duke<br />

giant child happiness parent bike<br />

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<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study

<strong>Parts</strong> <strong>of</strong> speech<br />

Verbs<br />

Focus<br />

Finite verbs, the verbs ‘to be’ <strong>and</strong> ‘to have’<br />

Definition<br />

• Verbs are words which show actions or states <strong>of</strong><br />

being or having.<br />

Example:<br />

The salty breeze filled the sails <strong>of</strong> the yacht floating<br />

on the waves. (action)<br />

My brother is the type <strong>of</strong> person who worries about<br />

everything. (being)<br />

Our beagle has really sharp teeth which it uses to<br />

eat everything. (having)<br />

Explanation<br />

• Verbs must have someone or something ‘doing’ the<br />

action. This is the subject <strong>of</strong> the sentence.<br />

In the examples above, the actions are done by ‘The<br />

salty breeze’, ‘ My brother’ <strong>and</strong> ‘Our beagle’.<br />

• Every sentence must contain a verb.<br />

• Some verbs have more than one part.<br />

Example:<br />

‘is harmless’, ‘was looking’ <strong>and</strong> ‘will nestle’.<br />

• Verbs can be finite or non-finite. Finite verbs change<br />

in form to match their subject or to indicate tense.<br />

Example:<br />

go ➞ goes ➞ went.<br />

Non-finite verbs do not change. They include:<br />

present participles e.g. parking<br />

past participles e.g. parked<br />

infinitives e.g. to park<br />

Worksheet information<br />

• Discuss any unfamiliar words with the students, then<br />

allow them to read the text independently.<br />

• Explain the definition <strong>of</strong> a verb <strong>and</strong> the words which<br />

indicate ‘being’ or ‘having’. The students complete<br />

Questions 1 <strong>and</strong> 2 independently.<br />

• The verbs ‘was’ <strong>and</strong> ‘were’ are commonly confused.<br />

The verbs ‘was’ is used when talking about one<br />

person or thing (singular) <strong>and</strong> the verb ‘were’ is<br />

usually plural <strong>and</strong> is used for more than one person<br />

or thing.<br />

Note: The second person singular always uses the<br />

plural form <strong>of</strong> the verb.<br />

Example:<br />

You were a lucky boy.<br />

Ideas for further practice<br />

• As a class, write a list <strong>of</strong> interesting verbs to be used<br />

in writing activities. These may be a list <strong>of</strong> verbs to<br />

replace commonly used words such as ‘said’ <strong>and</strong><br />

‘went’ or verbs which give better descriptions <strong>of</strong><br />

an action, such as ‘campaigned’, ‘me<strong>and</strong>ered’ <strong>and</strong><br />

‘grovelled’ etc.<br />

• Write poems such as pattern poems or syllable<br />

poems using verbs instead <strong>of</strong> adjectives to describe<br />

what people <strong>and</strong> things do.<br />

• Play charades using verbs written on cards <strong>and</strong> ask<br />

the class audience to guess the verb.<br />

Answers<br />

1. (a) Teacher check<br />

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(b) (i) are/is<br />

(ii) is/surrounds<br />

(iii) pounded<br />

(iv) is waiting/to see/will nestle<br />

2. Teacher check<br />

3. (a) were (b) was (c) were (d) were<br />

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Verbs<br />

A verb is a word which shows actions, or states <strong>of</strong> being or having.<br />

1. (a) Read the poem below then underline all the verbs.<br />

In a grave so wet <strong>and</strong> dark, a ship is waiting still<br />

Pounded by cold <strong>and</strong> constant currents — just another enemy kill.<br />

Sailors stay forever young in their watery tomb below<br />

Never to see a sunny sky or feel salty breezes blow.<br />

Mystery surrounds the loss <strong>of</strong> another wartime vessel.<br />

Headstones are bare. No flowers among the grass will nestle.<br />

(b) Write one word from the poem for each.<br />

(i)<br />

(ii)<br />

a verb <strong>of</strong> ‘being’<br />

a verb ending with ‘s’<br />

(iii) a verb ending with ‘ed’<br />

(iv) a verb with two parts<br />

2. Complete each sentence by adding verbs <strong>of</strong> your own.<br />

(a) The torpedo<br />

the vessel.<br />

the warship <strong>and</strong> there was little hope <strong>of</strong><br />

(b) The sailors tried to the ship by the<br />

lifeboats.<br />

(c) No graves were<br />

to .<br />

(d) The family <strong>and</strong> friends <strong>of</strong> all the dead sailors<br />

always<br />

for the lost sailors as there were no survivors<br />

them as young men <strong>and</strong> women.<br />

for them but will<br />

Verbs <strong>of</strong> having include ‘had’, ‘has’ <strong>and</strong> ‘have’. Verb <strong>of</strong> being include ‘are’, ‘is’, ‘were’,<br />

‘was’ <strong>and</strong> ‘am’.<br />

3. Write the correct verb <strong>of</strong> ‘being’.<br />

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(a) We<br />

(b) He<br />

(c) Keziah forgot that we<br />

(d) You<br />

late for school today because <strong>of</strong> the rain. (was/were)<br />

well behaved for Gr<strong>and</strong>ma. (was/were)<br />

going to a party. (was/were)<br />

my best friend. (was/were)<br />

R.I.C. Publications ® www.ricpublications.com.au 7<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study

<strong>Parts</strong> <strong>of</strong> speech<br />

Verbs<br />

Focus<br />

Comm<strong>and</strong> verbs (imperatives)<br />

Definition<br />

Comm<strong>and</strong> verbs are used to order, comm<strong>and</strong> or<br />

instruct.<br />

Example:<br />

Button up your jacket because its cold outside.<br />

Set the table please but use the clean placemats.<br />

Finish doing your homework, then you can watch<br />

television!<br />

Explanation<br />

• Verbs can describe actions (‘doing’ words) <strong>and</strong> must<br />

have someone or something ‘doing’ the action.<br />

• Comm<strong>and</strong> verbs are commonly used when writing<br />

procedures <strong>and</strong> are <strong>of</strong>ten the first word in the<br />

sentence.<br />

• Comm<strong>and</strong> verbs do not have a stated subject<br />

(anyone or anything doing the action). It is<br />

understood that the person doing the action is ‘you’.<br />

Worksheet information<br />

• This procedure contains comm<strong>and</strong> verbs which<br />

are within sentences as well as at the beginning <strong>of</strong><br />

sentences.<br />

• It is not expected that students will actually cook the<br />

recipe given.<br />

• Allow the students to read the procedure<br />

independently, <strong>of</strong>fering assistance if required.<br />

• Read the definition together <strong>and</strong> discuss. Give<br />

examples <strong>of</strong> other comm<strong>and</strong> verbs <strong>and</strong> ask students<br />

to <strong>of</strong>fer suggestions. Students may like to repeat<br />

comm<strong>and</strong>s or orders they are given by their parents<br />

at home.<br />

• When finding comm<strong>and</strong> verbs to write in the box for<br />

Question 1, students need to be aware that some<br />

are not at the beginning <strong>of</strong> the sentences.<br />

• Students can write their own suggestions for<br />

comm<strong>and</strong> verbs to complete Question 2, although<br />

some suggestions have been <strong>of</strong>fered in the answers.<br />

Ideas for further practice<br />

• Ask students to select a piece <strong>of</strong> favourite music<br />

<strong>and</strong> write instructions for a simple dance routine or<br />

actions using comm<strong>and</strong> verbs.<br />

• Using a book from the class or school library,<br />

students find the page with the most comm<strong>and</strong><br />

verbs.<br />

• Play games with the students which involve<br />

comm<strong>and</strong>s or orders. Some suggestions include<br />

‘Simon says’ or ‘Red rover cross over!’<br />

Answers<br />

1. (a) Teacher check<br />

(b) Collect, Preheat, Spray (3), Place (2) Fold, Cut,<br />

Repeat, Cook, Combine,<br />

Season, Spoon, Top, serve<br />

2. Teacher check. Suggestions include:<br />

(a) set, tidy/clean<br />

(b) Wiggle, clap<br />

(c) Draw/Sketch, highlight/create.<br />

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Comm<strong>and</strong> verbs<br />

1. (a) Read the recipe.<br />


• 8 sheets <strong>of</strong> filo pastry<br />

• cooking spray<br />

• drinking glass or round cookie cutter • 250 g frozen spinach, thawed <strong>and</strong><br />

drained<br />

• 1 / 2<br />

cup (120 g) light sour cream • 100 g fetta, crumbled<br />

• 2 green onions/shallots, thinly sliced • 1 crushed garlic clove<br />

• 1 tablespoon lemon juice<br />

• 3 drops Tabasco ® sauce<br />

• sprigs <strong>of</strong> dill<br />

Collect ingredients <strong>and</strong> equipment.<br />

Preheat oven to 200 ºC or 180 ºC (fan-forced oven).<br />

Spray four 12-hole mini muffin pans lightly with cooking spray.<br />

Spray one sheet <strong>of</strong> filo pastry lightly with cooking spray.<br />

Place another sheet on top. Fold in half. Spray again.<br />

Cut into 6.5 cm rounds using glass or cookie cutter.<br />

Place rounds carefully into muffin pans. Repeat with remaining pastry.<br />

Cook for 5 minutes until brown <strong>and</strong> crisp.<br />

Combine remaining ingredients, except dill, in a bowl. Season to taste. Place in<br />

refrigerator for 1 hour. Spoon mixture into pastry cases.<br />

Top with dill <strong>and</strong> serve.<br />

Comm<strong>and</strong> verbs are verbs used to order, comm<strong>and</strong> or give instructions.<br />

They are commonly used at the beginning <strong>of</strong> sentences in a procedure.<br />

(b) Find 17 comm<strong>and</strong> verbs in the recipe <strong>and</strong> write them in the box.<br />

Write the number <strong>of</strong> times each occurs if it is repeated.<br />

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2. Complete each sentence using comm<strong>and</strong> verbs.<br />

(a) Please<br />

your room until tea’s ready.<br />

(b) Step, two, three, four!<br />

(c)<br />

your h<strong>and</strong>s.<br />

charcoal to<br />

the table <strong>and</strong> then you can<br />

your hips <strong>and</strong><br />

a simple outline in the middle <strong>and</strong> then use<br />

light <strong>and</strong> dark sections to give depth.<br />

R.I.C. Publications ® www.ricpublications.com.au 9<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study

<strong>Parts</strong> <strong>of</strong> speech<br />

Verbs<br />

Focus<br />

Past, present <strong>and</strong> future tense (including irregular) verbs;<br />

auxiliary verbs<br />

Definitions<br />

• Verb tense shows whether the action <strong>of</strong> the verb occurs in<br />

the present, the past or the future.<br />

• Auxiliary verbs are small verbs, <strong>of</strong>ten a form <strong>of</strong> the verb<br />

‘to be’ or ‘to have’, that combine with another verb to form<br />

a compound verb.<br />

Example:<br />

They are looking around because they will need a place<br />

to stay.<br />

Explanation<br />

• There are three basic verb tenses—present, past <strong>and</strong><br />

future. These tenses are <strong>of</strong>ten formed using an auxiliary or<br />

helping verb such as, ‘is’, ‘can’, ‘had’ <strong>and</strong> ‘will’.<br />

Example:<br />

Sam’s dad now sells insurance <strong>and</strong> he is enjoying his job<br />

very much. (present tense)<br />

The seed pushed its tiny shoots through the soil because<br />

we had watered it every day. (past tense)<br />

We will be working in groups on a new homework<br />

assignment soon. (future tense)<br />

• Many verbs in the past tense end in ed. Many present<br />

tense verbs end in s or es.<br />

• In the sentences above, is, had <strong>and</strong> will are auxiliary<br />

verbs, with is used as part <strong>of</strong> a present tense verb, had<br />

used as part <strong>of</strong> the past tense <strong>and</strong> will <strong>and</strong> be forming part<br />

<strong>of</strong> a future tense verb.<br />

• Most verb tense forms are regular (they have -ed, -es<br />

or add auxiliary verbs such as ‘is’ <strong>and</strong> ‘will’ to make the<br />

correct tense) but many are irregular.<br />

Example:<br />

‘Jamal can usually deal (present tense) cards well but<br />

yesterday he dealt the cards (past tense) in a very clumsy<br />

way.’<br />

Other irregular verbs include be/was/were; begin/began;<br />

do/did; grow/grew; get/got; drink/drank; choose/chose <strong>and</strong><br />

make/made.<br />

A more detailed list can be found by searching the Internet.<br />

Worksheet information<br />

• Read the explanation with the students <strong>and</strong> discuss. Give<br />

some examples if necessary. Revise verbs <strong>and</strong> ensure<br />

that students realise that some verbs have two or more<br />

parts. The students can then complete Question 1. Check<br />

the answers before proceeding to ensure that students<br />

underst<strong>and</strong> the different tenses.<br />

• Students will need three different coloured pencils—one<br />

to circle each verb tense to complete Question 2. Read the<br />

text with the students <strong>and</strong> emphasise the verbs, especially<br />

those which have two, three or four parts <strong>and</strong> also ‘That’s’<br />

which is really ‘That is’ <strong>and</strong> contains the present tense verb<br />

‘is’.<br />

• Question 3 is an exercise to highlight how many verbs<br />

are irregular. They do not need small words to help them<br />

change tense or the addition <strong>of</strong> -s, -es or -ed.<br />

Ideas for further practice<br />

• Ask the students to rewrite the text using only simple verbs<br />

to replace those with more than one part, if possible (for<br />

example, ‘will have to do’) <strong>and</strong> read the text to see how it<br />

sounds.<br />

• Create a series <strong>of</strong> tongue twisters by trying to quickly say<br />

past, present <strong>and</strong> future tenses <strong>of</strong> the same regular or<br />

irregular verb.<br />

Example:<br />

drove, drive, will drive; chose, choose, will choose; fall, fell,<br />

will fall; swam, swim, will swim; patted, pats, will pat etc.<br />

• Hold a competition to see who can find or write the verb<br />

with the most parts.<br />

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Answers<br />

1. (a) present (b) future (c) past (d) present<br />

(e) present (f) future (g) past (h) past<br />

2. Present tense <strong>–</strong> do, is, are doing, are, are saving, is,<br />

work, want, is taking, am finishing<br />

Past tense <strong>–</strong> arrived, were excited, was interested, have<br />

finished<br />

Future tense <strong>–</strong> will work, will be, will have to do, will look,<br />

will post<br />

3. Answers will include:<br />

(a) dealt,have/had dealt<br />

(b) stole, had/have stolen<br />

(c) become/becomes, is/are becoming<br />

(d) underst<strong>and</strong>/underst<strong>and</strong>s, is/are underst<strong>and</strong>ing<br />

(e) froze, have/had frozen<br />

(f) hid, had/have hidden<br />

(g) sleep/sleeps, is/are sleeping<br />

(h) write/writes, is/are writing<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study 10<br />

www.ricpublications.com.au R.I.C. Publications ®

Verb tense<br />

Verb tense can tell about what happened in the past, what is<br />

happening in the present or what will happen in the future.<br />

Many verbs have more than one part; for example, words such<br />

as are, is <strong>and</strong> will can be used to complete the verb.<br />

1. Write the words ‘past’, ‘present’ or ‘future’ to<br />

show the tense <strong>of</strong> each verb.<br />

(a) are playing (b) will be visiting<br />

(c) finished (d) whistles<br />

(e) is singing (f) will come<br />

(g) ran (h) hopped<br />

2. Read the text below. All the verbs are in bold. Some have more than one part. Choose three<br />

different coloured pencils to circle the present, past <strong>and</strong> future tense verbs.<br />

Dear Mark,<br />

After a long tiring trip, we arrived at the conservation park. We were excited about<br />

seeing all the animals <strong>and</strong> I was interested in the work the zoologists do with<br />

endangered native species.<br />

The park is small, even though they are doing an important job there. And the animals<br />

are really cute! We heard about the breeding program <strong>and</strong> how the efforts <strong>of</strong> different<br />

groups are saving the animals’ native habitat.<br />

I definitely will work with animals when I have finished school. Maybe I will be a vet<br />

or a zoologist. Unfortunately, I will have to do lots <strong>of</strong> study for that kind <strong>of</strong> job. That’s<br />

okay! Sometimes you must work hard for what you want.<br />

Today, Mum is taking us to the shops. B-o-r-i-n-g! Still, I will look for some cool stuff<br />

with animals on it!<br />

I am finishing this letter <strong>and</strong> we will post it in town.<br />

Ge<strong>of</strong>f<br />

3. Write the missing tense <strong>of</strong> each irregular verb.<br />

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Present Past Present Past<br />

(a) deal (b) steal<br />

(c) became (d) understood<br />

(e) freeze (f) hide<br />

(g) slept (h) wrote<br />

Be<br />

careful!<br />

Irregular verbs<br />

don’t change tense<br />

like other verbs!<br />

R.I.C. Publications ® www.ricpublications.com.au 11<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study

<strong>Parts</strong> <strong>of</strong> speech<br />

Adjectives<br />

Focus<br />

Common adjectives<br />

Definition<br />

• An adjective is a describing word. It adds meaning<br />

to or changes the meaning <strong>of</strong> a noun or a pronoun.<br />

Example:<br />

I’m wearing leather shoes. (describes the noun,<br />

‘shoes’)<br />

That shark is dangerous. (describes the noun,<br />

‘shark’) Note: The adjective does not always come<br />

before the noun.<br />

He is helpful. (describes the pronoun, ‘he’)<br />

Explanation<br />

The use <strong>of</strong> suitable adjectives not only makes<br />

written or spoken language more interesting, it gives<br />

the reader or listener a clearer underst<strong>and</strong>ing.<br />

Worksheet information<br />

• Discuss adjectives <strong>and</strong> their purpose with the<br />

students.<br />

Use the pattern poem in Activity 1 to help students<br />

to identify how several adjectives can describe the<br />

same noun. Students then create their own pattern<br />

poem in Activity 2. Their noun could be an animal,<br />

vehicle, place, mythical character etc. This activity<br />

could be done in pairs. Share completed poems.<br />

• In Activity 3, students are required to carefully<br />

consider the most appropriate adjective to complete<br />

the sentences. They could lightly pencil in some<br />

choices before making a final decision. An adjective<br />

may first appear to be a suitable one to choose, but<br />

students may find by reading the next sentence that<br />

it is more suitable in this place.<br />

Example:<br />

‘dangerous’ may seem to be a good choice to use<br />

in front <strong>of</strong> ‘lioness’ in 3 (a), but it is probably better<br />

in front <strong>of</strong> ‘object’ in 3 (d).<br />

Students can only use each adjective once. This<br />

activity is intended to reinforce the importance <strong>of</strong><br />

choosing suitable adjectives to make written <strong>and</strong><br />

spoken language more interesting <strong>and</strong> to give the<br />

reader/listener a clearer picture.<br />

Ideas for further practice<br />

• In pairs, students write a sentence that includes<br />

three nouns, leaving a space for each adjective.<br />

On a separate sheet <strong>of</strong> paper, they write what they<br />

consider could be the answers. They give their<br />

sentences to another pair <strong>and</strong> record that pair’s<br />

answers on their sheet. Continue with other pairs<br />

<strong>and</strong> then discuss results.<br />

• Identify the adjectives used to describe characters<br />

in books. Some <strong>of</strong> these adjectives may be found<br />

in a phrase <strong>and</strong> not necessarily in front <strong>of</strong> a noun.<br />

They may also be describing a pronoun. (Refer to the<br />

Definition above.)<br />

Answers<br />

1. The words, chocolate, dark, runny <strong>and</strong><br />

delicious should be underlined.<br />

2. Teacher check<br />

3. Teacher check. Answers include:<br />

(a) hungry, long, dry<br />

(b) warm, cottage, delightful<br />

(c) narrow, winding, steep<br />

(d) elastic, dangerous, sensitive<br />

(e) juicy, large, orange, clean, white<br />

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<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study 12<br />

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Adjectives <strong>–</strong> 1<br />

Adjectives are words that describe nouns or pronouns. They help make<br />

writing more interesting <strong>and</strong> clearer.<br />

1. Read the pattern poem below. It uses adjectives to describe the<br />

noun ‘sauce’. Underline them.<br />

Sauce<br />

Chocolate sauce<br />

Dark, chocolate sauce<br />

Runny, dark, chocolate sauce<br />

Delicious, runny, dark, chocolate sauce<br />

2. Write your own pattern poem, adding an adjective on each line.<br />

Illustrate your poem in the space to the right.<br />

,<br />

, ,<br />

, , ,<br />

3. Choose from the words that can be used as adjectives in the box below to complete the<br />

sentences. Use each adjective only once. (Choose the best one, by asking questions such as<br />

‘What kind?’ before the noun.)<br />

winding white sensitive narrow steep delightful<br />

orange warm dry hungry juicy cottage<br />

large dangerous elastic clean long<br />

(a) The lioness carefully stalked her prey through the ,<br />

(b) The<br />

grass.<br />

garden was filled with a<br />

sunshine caused the rosebuds to bloom <strong>and</strong> the<br />

scent.<br />

(c) We drove slowly along the , track which led to the bottom <strong>of</strong><br />

the<br />

mountain.<br />

(d) An b<strong>and</strong> can be a object if it is aimed at or flicked at a<br />

part <strong>of</strong> the body.<br />

(A noun as the title)<br />

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(e) The mango dripped causing ,<br />

stains on my , shirt.<br />

R.I.C. Publications ® www.ricpublications.com.au 13<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study

<strong>Parts</strong> <strong>of</strong> speech<br />

Adjectives<br />

Focus<br />

Common <strong>and</strong> proper adjectives<br />

Definitions<br />

• An adjective is a describing word. It adds meaning<br />

to or changes the meaning <strong>of</strong> a noun or a pronoun.<br />

Example:<br />

He’s wearing a cotton shirt. (describes the noun,<br />

‘shirt’)<br />

That crocodile is enormous! (describes the noun,<br />

‘crocodile’) Note: The adjective does not always<br />

come before the noun.<br />

They are beautiful! (describes the pronoun, ‘they’)<br />

• Proper adjectives are those made from proper<br />

nouns.<br />

Example:<br />

Chinese pottery<br />

Proper adjectives are usually spelled with initial<br />

capital letters. They are also called ‘adjectives <strong>of</strong><br />

origin’.<br />

Explanation<br />

The use <strong>of</strong> suitable adjectives can make written or<br />

spoken language more interesting. It also gives the<br />

reader or listener a clearer underst<strong>and</strong>ing.<br />

Worksheet information<br />

• Discuss adjectives <strong>and</strong> the information <strong>and</strong><br />

examples given at the top <strong>of</strong> page 15. Ask students<br />

for further examples <strong>of</strong> common <strong>and</strong> proper<br />

adjectives.<br />

• Students individually or as a group identify the<br />

adjectives <strong>and</strong> the nouns/pronouns they describe in<br />

the text in Activity 1. Guide them to ask questions<br />

such as ‘What kind?’ in front <strong>of</strong> the noun or pronoun<br />

to help identification.<br />

• Compare students’ answers after completing Activity<br />

2 <strong>and</strong> discuss their choices. Ask ‘Did that adjective<br />

give the reader/listener a clearer picture?’. Point out<br />

that it is common to use more than one adjective to<br />

describe something.<br />

• Compare students’ answers to Activity 3, discussing<br />

how clear <strong>and</strong> interesting they made their<br />

paragraph/sentences.<br />

Ideas for further practice<br />

• Write a paragraph about an object using as many<br />

adjectives as possible to describe it.<br />

• Brainstorm to list various types <strong>of</strong> adjectives <strong>and</strong><br />

display on charts.<br />

Example:<br />

Those that describe colours (blue), shapes (round),<br />

age (youthful), material (s<strong>and</strong>y), origin (Greek), size<br />

(tiny) or quality (kind).<br />

Answers<br />

1. Adjectives are in bold <strong>and</strong> nouns <strong>and</strong> pronouns<br />

underlined.<br />

You must visit the popular local markets located<br />

near the scenic harbour. They are amazing.<br />

Browse through stalls displaying leather<br />

h<strong>and</strong>bags; silk scarves; silver trinkets; wooden<br />

products; attractive scented c<strong>and</strong>les; <strong>and</strong><br />

h<strong>and</strong>made Chinese pottery. All this with buskers<br />

playing instruments such the Irish harp. AND,<br />

don’t forget the food. Choose from crisp organic<br />

vegetables; mouth-watering German sausages<br />

with sauerkraut in a freshly-baked roll; spicy<br />

Indian samosas or delicious stuffed potatoes.<br />

2. <strong>–</strong> 3. Teacher check<br />

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<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study 14<br />

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Adjectives <strong>–</strong> 2<br />

Adjectives are words used to describe nouns or pronouns making<br />

writing clearer <strong>and</strong> more interesting;<br />

e.g. The old, bent, gnarled tree swayed in the strong breeze.<br />

Proper adjectives are used to describe where a person or object comes<br />

from. They are made from proper nouns <strong>and</strong> have a capital letter;<br />

e.g. The Japanese rose is beautiful.<br />

1. Read the extract taken from a tourist brochure describing the local market. Highlight the<br />

adjectives <strong>and</strong> underline the nouns <strong>and</strong> pronouns they describe.<br />

You must visit the popular local markets located near the scenic harbour. They are amazing!<br />

Browse through stalls displaying leather h<strong>and</strong>bags; silk scarves; silver trinkets; wooden<br />

products; attractive scented c<strong>and</strong>les; <strong>and</strong> h<strong>and</strong>made Chinese pottery. All this with buskers<br />

playing instruments such the Irish harp. AND, don’t forget the food. Choose from crisp organic<br />

vegetables; mouth-watering German sausages with sauerkraut in a<br />

freshly-baked roll; spicy Indian samosas or delicious<br />

stuffed potatoes.<br />

2. Choose two or three adjectives to describe these nouns. Share your choices with the class.<br />

(a) a<br />

(b) a<br />

(c) a<br />

(d) a<br />

(e) a<br />

cockroach<br />

volcano<br />

ice-cream<br />

pirate<br />

motorcycle<br />

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3. Write one paragraph or three to four separate sentences, using as many <strong>of</strong> these words as you<br />

can as adjectives.<br />

bright loud new Italian tasty hot<br />

fast thirsty cheesy spicy green red<br />

Indian shiny hungry large<br />

R.I.C. Publications ® www.ricpublications.com.au 15<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study

<strong>Parts</strong> <strong>of</strong> speech<br />

Adjectives<br />

Focus<br />

Comparative <strong>and</strong> superlative adjectives<br />

Definitions<br />

• Comparative adjectives are used to compare two<br />

things, usually by adding the suffix ‘er’.<br />

Example:<br />

wide, wider<br />

• Superlative adjectives are used to compare more<br />

than two things usually by adding the suffix ‘est’.<br />

Example:<br />

high, highest<br />

Explanation<br />

• If the adjective has two or more syllables, ‘more’ or<br />

‘most’ is usually added before the adjective.<br />

Example:<br />

wonderful, more wonderful, most wonderful<br />

• But if the adjective <strong>of</strong> two or more syllables ends in<br />

‘y’, ‘er’ or ‘est’ is usually used.<br />

Example:<br />

grumpy, grumpier, grumpiest<br />

• Some comparative <strong>and</strong> superlative objectives are<br />

irregular.<br />

Example:<br />

bad, worse, worst<br />

good, better, best<br />

Worksheet information<br />

• Use the information at the top <strong>of</strong> page 17 to discuss<br />

with the students how we can add ‘er’ or ‘est’<br />

to adjectives to compare things. Use qualities <strong>of</strong><br />

common objects or students in the classroom to<br />

practise the concept; e.g. identify three students <strong>–</strong> a<br />

student with long hair, a student with longer hair<br />

<strong>and</strong> a student with the longest hair. Note how ‘the’<br />

is <strong>of</strong>ten used before the superlative form (e.g. the<br />

longest hair).<br />

• Students read the paragraph in Activity 1,<br />

highlighting the comparative <strong>and</strong> superlative<br />

adjectives. Discuss those that use ‘er’ <strong>and</strong> ‘est’ <strong>and</strong><br />

those that use ‘more’ <strong>and</strong> ‘most’.<br />

• To complete Activity 2, students need to identify<br />

when to add ‘er’ ,‘est’, ‘more’ or ‘most’ to an<br />

adjective. Sometimes the best way is to say the<br />

choices out loud <strong>and</strong> hear what sounds correct.<br />

Dictionaries could also be used. Remind students<br />

they may need to change the ‘y’ to ‘i’ in some words<br />

before adding ‘er’ or ‘est’. The last example, (e),<br />

provides an irregular form <strong>of</strong> comparison—good,<br />

better, best (not good, gooder, goodest!).<br />

• Activity 3 provides practice in using the correct<br />

comparative or superlative form <strong>of</strong> adjectives in<br />

context. Compare answers.<br />

Ideas for further practice<br />

• In pairs, students prepare short oral or written<br />

reports <strong>of</strong> facts that compare animals or places<br />

etc., using the correct comparative <strong>and</strong> superlative<br />

adjectives.<br />

• Identify other irregular forms <strong>of</strong> comparative <strong>and</strong><br />

superlative adjectives other than 2 (e).<br />

These include many/more/most; bad/worse/worst<br />

<strong>and</strong> little/less/least. Students could use these words<br />

in spoken or written sentences they make up in<br />

pairs or groups.<br />

Answers<br />

1. Many people believe that lions are bigger<br />

than tigers, but tigers, in fact, are the largest<br />

cat species in the world. Their colourings <strong>and</strong><br />

markings are also the most vivid <strong>of</strong> all cat<br />

species. Tigers that live in cold climates are larger<br />

than those that live in warmer climates. They<br />

are also paler in colour <strong>and</strong> have longer, thicker<br />

fur. Only about 6000 tigers survive in the wild<br />

today, making them one <strong>of</strong> the most endangered<br />

species.<br />

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2. (a) thirsty, thirstier, thirstiest<br />

(b) ferocious, more ferocious, most ferocious<br />

(c) itch, itchier, itchiest<br />

(d) terrible, more terrible, most terrible<br />

(e) good, better, best<br />

3. Antarctica is the fifth largest continent. It is also<br />

the coldest <strong>and</strong> has the lowest temperature ever<br />

recorded: <strong>–</strong>89 ºC. Although it is covered by ice,<br />

it hardly rains <strong>and</strong> is the driest place on Earth.<br />

Many people consider Antarctica to be the most<br />

beautiful place on our planet.<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study 16<br />

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Comparing things<br />

When we compare two things we change the adjective, usually by adding er.<br />

Example: ‘This giraffe is tall but that one is taller.’<br />

When we compare three or more things we change the adjective usually by adding est;<br />

For example: ‘This giraffe is tall but that giraffe over there is the tallest <strong>of</strong> all.’<br />

The words more or most are used before some adjectives to compare things.<br />

Example: ‘delightful, more delightful, most delightful’.<br />

1. Read the paragraph below about tigers. Highlight the adjectives that are used to compare.<br />

Many people believe that lions are bigger<br />

than tigers, but tigers, in fact, are the largest<br />

cat species in the world. Their colourings <strong>and</strong><br />

markings are also the most vivid <strong>of</strong> all cat<br />

species. Tigers that live in cold climates are<br />

larger than those that live in warmer climates.<br />

They are also paler in colour <strong>and</strong> have longer,<br />

thicker fur. Only about 6000 tigers survive in<br />

the wild today, making them one <strong>of</strong> the most<br />

endangered species.<br />

2. Finish the table below, changing the adjectives by adding er, est, more or most.<br />

(a)<br />

(b)<br />

(c)<br />

(d)<br />

(e)<br />

thirsty<br />

terrible<br />

good<br />

more ferocious<br />

3. Rewrite this paragraph, with the adjectives in bold print in the correct form.<br />

itchiest<br />

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Antarctica is the fifth most large continent. It is also the colder <strong>and</strong> has the lowerest temperature<br />

ever recorded: <strong>–</strong>89 ºC. Although it is covered by ice, it hardly rains <strong>and</strong> is the most dry place on Earth.<br />

Many people consider Antarctica to be the beautifullest place on our planet.<br />

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<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study

<strong>Parts</strong> <strong>of</strong> speech<br />

Adverbs<br />

Focus<br />

Common adverbs <strong>of</strong> manner, time <strong>and</strong> place<br />

Definition<br />

• An adverb is a word that adds information, usually<br />

to a verb <strong>and</strong> can tell how (manner), when (time) or<br />

where (place) something happens.<br />

Example:<br />

Yesterday (time) we were upset because the<br />

beautiful forest was tragically (manner) destroyed<br />

by a fire caused by lightning striking nearby (place).<br />

Note: Adverbs can modify (add information to) any<br />

words that are not nouns or pronouns. (These are<br />

modified by adjectives.)<br />

Explanation<br />

• Adverbs can clarify meaning by telling more about<br />

the action, allowing for greater precision <strong>and</strong> adding<br />

interest to writing.<br />

• Students should be reminded that adding adverbs<br />

will make their speaking <strong>and</strong> writing more<br />

informative, precise <strong>and</strong> interesting.<br />

Worksheet information<br />

• After students have read the text, discuss whether<br />

they think it was more likely to have been presented<br />

in written or spoken form. Identify it as an exposition<br />

seeking to persuade others to a particular point <strong>of</strong><br />

view <strong>and</strong> discuss other features <strong>of</strong> expository text.<br />

• Discuss why some words in the text are in bold.<br />

Remind students that words telling about something<br />

someone does or an occurrence are called verbs<br />

(see pages 6<strong>–</strong>11) <strong>and</strong> that these words are all verbs.<br />

Explain that because adverbs can tell how, when or<br />

where something happens, we need to identify the<br />

verbs before trying to find the adverbs. Note: Some<br />

are compound verbs.<br />

• Model the process <strong>of</strong> identifying the adverbs by<br />

asking how, when <strong>and</strong> where <strong>of</strong> the verb.<br />

Example:<br />

When will I be speaking?—Tonight.<br />

So ‘tonight’ is the adverb. The second verb identified<br />

is ‘believe’. ‘Strongly’ is the adverb because it tells<br />

how I believe. Some students will need to have the<br />

process modelled numerous times before they are<br />

able to complete Question 1 independently.<br />

• In Question 2 the students will need to locate each<br />

adverb, then the verb it modifies. They can then try<br />

to think <strong>of</strong> other suitable verbs.<br />

Example:<br />

jump here, look here, stay or move here<br />

• The purpose <strong>of</strong> Question 3 is to demonstrate the<br />

function <strong>of</strong> adverbs.<br />

Ideas for further practice<br />

• Brainstorm to list on the board adverbs to describe<br />

how someone could, for example, run, catch or<br />

throw. Then consider the more difficult task <strong>of</strong><br />

finding one word to describe when <strong>and</strong> where this<br />

action could occur.<br />

• Students work in small groups. Each group selects<br />

an action to mime <strong>and</strong> all the members each mime<br />

that action in a different way. Other students need<br />

to try to identify the action <strong>and</strong> how each group<br />

member is doing it. For example: The action could be<br />

digging. One person could be digging fast, another<br />

carelessly, another sadly <strong>and</strong> the other smoothly.<br />

Answers<br />

1. (a) The following adverbs should be underlined:<br />

tonight, strongly, urgently, genuinely,<br />

Everywhere, rapidly, dangerously, tragically,<br />

dramatically, now, here, sadly<br />

(b) Manner: strongly, urgently, genuinely, rapidly,<br />

dangerously, tragically, dramatically, sadly<br />

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Time: tonight, now<br />

Place: Everywhere, here<br />

2. (a) here<strong>–</strong>sit (plus teacher check)<br />

(b) dangerously<strong>–</strong>is affecting (plus teacher check)<br />

(c) sadly<strong>–</strong>watch (plus teacher check)<br />

(d) now<strong>–</strong>must act (plus teacher check)<br />

3. Teacher check<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study 18<br />

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Adverbs <strong>–</strong> 1<br />

<strong>Word</strong>s telling how, when or where things occur are called adverbs.<br />

1. (a) Underline the adverbs in the text. There is one for each highlighted verb.<br />

Ladies <strong>and</strong> gentlemen,<br />

I will be speaking tonight about what I strongly believe are some <strong>of</strong> the<br />

environmental issues we all urgently need to consider if we genuinely wish to make<br />

a significant difference to the future <strong>of</strong> our planet.<br />

Everywhere we look there is evidence <strong>of</strong> how rapidly change is occurring. Pollution is<br />

dangerously affecting the air we breathe, whole species <strong>of</strong> the world’s fauna <strong>and</strong> flora<br />

are tragically disappearing <strong>and</strong> our climate is changing dramatically.<br />

But we must act now, we can’t sit here <strong>and</strong> sadly watch it happen.<br />

(b) Write each adverb in the chart showing if it tells how, when or where something occurred.<br />

2. Write the verb used in the text with these adverbs <strong>and</strong> add other suitable verbs that each <strong>of</strong> the<br />

words could also be used to describe.<br />

(a) here<br />

(b) dangerously<br />

(c) sadly<br />

(d) now<br />

Adverbs <strong>of</strong> manner<br />

(how)<br />

3. Add only adverbs <strong>of</strong> manner, time or place to these sentences to make them more informative.<br />

(You may add more than one adverb to each sentence.)<br />

(a) We waited for the train.<br />

Adverbs <strong>of</strong> manner<br />

(how)<br />

Adverbs <strong>of</strong> time<br />

(when)<br />

Adverbs <strong>of</strong> place<br />

(where)<br />

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(b) He dropped the ball.<br />

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<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study

<strong>Parts</strong> <strong>of</strong> speech<br />

Adverbs<br />

Focus<br />

Common adverbs <strong>of</strong> time, place, manner, frequency <strong>and</strong><br />

interrogative adverbs<br />

Definitions<br />

• An adverb is a word that adds information, usually to<br />

a verb <strong>and</strong> can tell how (manner), when (time), where<br />

(place) or how <strong>of</strong>ten something happens.<br />

Example:<br />

Yesterday (time) the diver confidently (manner) tied<br />

his boat to a mooring because he usually (frequency)<br />

saw many beautiful fish there (place).<br />

• An interrogative adverb asks questions about how,<br />

when, where or why something happens. The words,<br />

how, when, where <strong>and</strong> why are interrogative adverbs.<br />

Note: Adverbs can modify (add information to) any words<br />

that are not nouns or pronouns. (These are modified by<br />

adjectives.)<br />

Explanation<br />

• Adverbs can clarify meaning by telling more about the<br />

action, allowing for greater precision <strong>and</strong> adding interest<br />

to writing.<br />

• Students should be reminded that adding adverbs<br />

will make their writing more informative, precise <strong>and</strong><br />

interesting.<br />

• Adverbs have been classified on the worksheet as those<br />

that add information about manner, time, place <strong>and</strong>,<br />

frequency.<br />

Example:<br />

usually <strong>and</strong> seldom.<br />

Adverbs <strong>of</strong> extent is another category that could also<br />

be discussed with students.<br />

Example:<br />

quite <strong>and</strong> almost.<br />

These adverbs can be used by themselves;<br />

Example:<br />

he nearly drowned.<br />

They are <strong>of</strong>ten used with other adverbs;<br />

Example:<br />

He swam quite confidently.<br />

We are almost there.<br />

• Although adverbs <strong>of</strong>ten answer the questions how,<br />

when <strong>and</strong> where about the verb, the actual words how,<br />

when, where <strong>and</strong> why are themselves adverbs. They<br />

are known as interrogative adverbs.<br />

Worksheet information<br />

• Introduce the worksheet by discussing the acronym,<br />

scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus)<br />

<strong>and</strong> encourage students to share information about this<br />

popular recreational activity <strong>and</strong> pr<strong>of</strong>ession.<br />

• Read the text <strong>and</strong> identify some <strong>of</strong> the verbs <strong>and</strong><br />

adverbs. Remind students <strong>of</strong> the close link between<br />

verbs <strong>and</strong> adverbs by asking how, when or where<br />

questions about the verb <strong>and</strong> demonstrating how doing<br />

this will help to identify adverbs.<br />

• Explain that adverbs give more information about<br />

verbs <strong>and</strong> how their speaking <strong>and</strong> writing will be more<br />

interesting <strong>and</strong> informative when they use appropriate<br />

adverbs.<br />

• Question 1 provides an opportunity for students to locate<br />

specific adverbs <strong>and</strong> identify the verbs they modify. They<br />

are then required to identify what the adverb tells about<br />

the verb.<br />

• Adverbs <strong>of</strong> frequency tell how <strong>of</strong>ten something occurs<br />

<strong>and</strong> are commonly used. In Question 2, students<br />

consider these adverbs <strong>and</strong> select those they think are<br />

most appropriate to use in each sentence.<br />

• Some teachers may choose to introduce the term<br />

interrogative adverb to describe the question words<br />

used in Question 3 <strong>and</strong> to explain that these words are<br />

themselves special adverbs which ask questions about<br />

how, when, where or why something occurs.<br />

Ideas for further practice<br />

• Students work in small groups to write a how, when,<br />

where <strong>and</strong> why question about something that happens<br />

in a game or activity to give to another group to answer.<br />

Example:<br />

Taking a mark in football, winning a swimming race.<br />

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Answers<br />

1. (a) anywhere, swim, where the divers could swim<br />

(b) later, developed, when scientists developed air<br />

tanks<br />

(c) safely, inhale, how divers were able to inhale<br />

compressed air<br />

(d) powerfully, moving, how divers could move<br />

(e) usually, attached, how <strong>of</strong>ten they had fins<br />

attached to their feet.<br />

2. Teacher check<br />

3. (a) How (b) Where (c) When (d) Why<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study 20<br />

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Adverbs - 2<br />

<strong>Word</strong>s telling how, when, where or how <strong>of</strong>ten things happen are called<br />

adverbs.<br />

Scuba diving<br />

Underwater diving is not new. Thous<strong>and</strong>s <strong>of</strong> years ago, the first divers were free divers who simply<br />

held their breath as they briefly dived below in search <strong>of</strong> their food.<br />

Later, scientists developed air tanks connected to air hoses <strong>and</strong> regulators to control the flow <strong>of</strong> air.<br />

Divers were then able to safely inhale compressed air <strong>and</strong> spend more time underwater. Wearing<br />

masks <strong>and</strong> wetsuits, they could swim anywhere, moving powerfully through the water, usually with<br />

fins attached to their feet.<br />

1. Find each adverb in the text, write the verb it refers to <strong>and</strong> what it tells about the verb.<br />

2. Adverbs <strong>of</strong> frequency tell how <strong>of</strong>ten something happens. Choose an adverb from the box to<br />

complete each sentence.<br />

never <strong>of</strong>ten always rarely sometimes usually<br />

perhaps likely regularly generally frequently occasionally<br />

(a) You should check your diving equipment .<br />

(b) It is safer to<br />

(c)<br />

(d) I<br />

(e) We<br />

(f)<br />

Adverb Verb What it tells<br />

(a) anywhere<br />

(b) later<br />

(c) safely<br />

(d) powerfully<br />

(e) usually<br />

dive with a partner.<br />

we shouldn’t dive because the water is rough.<br />

wear fins when I dive.<br />

see a huge shark.<br />

I feel quite scared.<br />

3. Some adverbs ask questions about verbs. Underline the adverb in each sentence.<br />

(a) How did they move?<br />

(c) When did they develop air tanks?<br />

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(b) Where did they dive?<br />

(d) Why can they breathe?<br />

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<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study

<strong>Parts</strong> <strong>of</strong> speech<br />

Pronouns<br />

Focus<br />

Personal, indefinite <strong>and</strong> interrogative pronouns<br />

Definitions<br />

• A pronoun is a word substituted for a noun.<br />

• A personal pronoun is used in place <strong>of</strong> a person or<br />

thing.<br />

Example:<br />

he, she, it, they<br />

• An indefinite pronoun refers to an unspecified<br />

person or thing.<br />

Example:<br />

Someone took the cakes.<br />

• Interrogative pronouns ask questions that give a<br />

noun or pronoun response.<br />

Example:<br />

Who stole the cake?<br />

Explanation<br />

• The use <strong>of</strong> pronouns prevents constant repetition <strong>of</strong><br />

a noun.<br />

• It is important for students to know the correct<br />

pronouns to use in the context <strong>of</strong> a particular<br />

sentence so that their grammar, in speech <strong>and</strong> in<br />

writing, is accurate.<br />

• The table at the top <strong>of</strong> the next column shows which<br />

personal pronoun to use:<br />

<strong>–</strong> When the person the pronoun refers to is the<br />

subject or object:<br />

Example:<br />

I (subject) told her (object) my secret.<br />

We (subject) asked them (object) to visit.<br />

<strong>–</strong> To emphasise the subject <strong>of</strong> the verb.<br />

Example:<br />

We picked the grapes ourselves (emphatic<br />

pronoun).<br />

<strong>–</strong> To emphasise the object <strong>of</strong> the verb when it is<br />

the same person as the subject.<br />

Example:<br />

<strong>–</strong> I enjoyed myself (reflexive pronoun).<br />

To indicate possession:<br />

Example:<br />

The dog is ours.<br />

• The 12 indefinite pronouns are shown in the table<br />

below. Some refer to people <strong>and</strong> others to things.<br />

• These are the five interrogative pronouns which give<br />

a noun or pronoun response.<br />

Worksheet information<br />

• The questions give students the opportunity to revise<br />

<strong>and</strong> demonstrate their knowledge <strong>and</strong> underst<strong>and</strong>ing<br />

<strong>of</strong> pronouns.<br />

• In Questions 1 <strong>and</strong> 2, read through the whole <strong>of</strong><br />

each text before placing the correct pronouns.<br />

• In Question 3, students should read both parts <strong>of</strong><br />

each question. They will discover that for a who<br />

question the answer is a subjective pronoun. For a<br />

whose question, the answer is an objective pronoun.<br />

Ideas for further practice<br />

• Students create their own tables <strong>of</strong> pronouns<br />

<strong>and</strong> write rules for use in their own words with<br />

examples.<br />

• Design a bingo type game with cards containing six<br />

sentences from which pronouns have been removed.<br />

Each student is given a number <strong>of</strong> small cards on<br />

which a pronoun has been written. The caller calls<br />

out a pronoun. If the students have that card, it is<br />

placed in position on their bingo card.<br />

Answers<br />


Person Subjective Objective Emphatic/<br />

reflexive<br />

Possessive<br />

First singular I me myself mine<br />

Second you you yourself yours<br />

Third (male) he him himself his<br />

Third (female) she her herself hers<br />

Third (neuter) it it itself its<br />

First plural we us ourselves ours<br />

Second you you yourselves yours<br />

Third they them themselves theirs<br />


somebody anybody nobody everybody<br />

someone anyone no-one everyone<br />

something anything nothing everything<br />


what which who whom whose<br />

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1. (a) themselves (b) They (c) They (d) everyone (e) it<br />

2. (a) he (b) hers (c) it (d) she (e) himself (f) who<br />

(g) Everyone (h) He (i) himself<br />

3. (a) his (b) We (c) theirs (d) mine (e) She (f) You<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study 22<br />

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Pronouns<br />

A pronoun is a word used instead <strong>of</strong> a noun.<br />

There are a number <strong>of</strong> different pronouns that must be used in the right way<br />

to make a sentence correct.<br />

1. Read the text below. The mistakes have been highlighted.<br />

The students were talking excitedly among<br />

ourselves as they climbed into the bus. He<br />

had all been chosen to represent the school<br />

at the carnival. You knew no-one at school<br />

would be hoping that the team would do<br />

better this year than us had done last year<br />

when it had come last.<br />

Write the correct pronoun to replace each <strong>of</strong> these.<br />

(a) ourselves<br />

(c) You<br />

(e) us<br />

2. Choose the correct pronouns to fill the gaps.<br />

(b) He<br />

(d) no-one<br />

He it himself he hers she who Everyone himself<br />

James returned the money to Catherine because<br />

(b)<br />

. He said he was sorry for having taken<br />

(d)<br />

accepted his apology. He was very pleased with<br />

(e)<br />

for being brave enough to own up, but<br />

(g)<br />

would know he was a thief.<br />

(a)<br />

knew it was<br />

(c)<br />

<strong>and</strong><br />

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(f)<br />

would trust him now?<br />

(h)<br />

was sad, but he knew he<br />

only had<br />

(i)<br />

to blame.<br />

3. Choose a pronoun to answer the questions. One <strong>of</strong> each pair is done for you.<br />

(a) Who owns the ball? He does. Whose is the ball? It’s .<br />

(b) Who owns the dog? do. Whose is the dog? It’s ours.<br />

(c) Who owns the cat? They do. Whose is the cat? It’s .<br />

(d) Who owns the rat? I do. Whose is the rat? It’s .<br />

(e) Who owns the doll? does. Whose is the doll? It’s hers.<br />

(f) Who owns the cup? do. Whose is the cup? It’s yours.<br />

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<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study

<strong>Parts</strong> <strong>of</strong> speech<br />

Pronouns<br />

Focus<br />

Relative pronouns who, which, that <strong>and</strong> whose<br />

Definition<br />

• A relative pronoun comes before the relative clause<br />

that describes the noun or pronoun to which it<br />

refers.<br />

Example:<br />

The author who wrote adventure stories was very<br />

popular.<br />

Who comes before the relative clause, wrote<br />

adventure stories which describes the author (the<br />

noun to which it refers).<br />

Explanation<br />

• It is important for students to know the correct<br />

relative pronouns to use in the context <strong>of</strong> any<br />

sentence so that their grammar, in both speech <strong>and</strong><br />

writing is accurate.<br />

• The words who, which, that <strong>and</strong> whose are only<br />

relative pronouns within the context <strong>of</strong> a particular<br />

sentence.<br />

Example:<br />

The man who cycled to work was very fit. (relative<br />

pronoun).<br />

Who is that man? (interrogative pronoun).<br />

• In these activities, who, that, which <strong>and</strong> whose all<br />

refer to the subject <strong>of</strong> the verb. When referring to the<br />

object <strong>of</strong> the verb, that, which <strong>and</strong> whose remain<br />

the same but who is changed to whom.<br />

• The table shows which relative pronouns to use.<br />

Relative pronoun Refers to ...<br />

who<br />

Person only<br />

that/which Things only<br />

whose<br />

Possession <strong>–</strong> person or thing<br />

Example:<br />

The man who climbed a hill was very fit.<br />

Dogs that chew things are not very smart.<br />

My flowers, which bloomed today, are lovely.<br />

The house whose ro<strong>of</strong> collapsed will be<br />

demolished.<br />

The girl whose ankle was swollen had to rest.<br />

Note: The choice <strong>of</strong> that or which is intuitive. The<br />

general rule for students at this stage is to try that first<br />

but if it doesn’t sound right, use which.<br />

Worksheet information<br />

• It is not necessary to refer to these pronouns as<br />

‘relative’. It is sufficient that the students know their<br />

function <strong>and</strong> learn how to recognise <strong>and</strong> use them<br />

within the context <strong>of</strong> a sentence.<br />

• Explain that a clause is a part <strong>of</strong> a sentence that<br />

includes a verb <strong>and</strong> its subject;<br />

Example:<br />

The painters worked very hard, because they<br />

wanted to leave early.<br />

A relative clause relates to the noun or pronoun<br />

joined to it by the relative pronoun<br />

Example:<br />

The cat that sat on the mat.<br />

(The clause in this example is, sat on the mat.)<br />

• Before completing the worksheet, work through<br />

a number <strong>of</strong> simple examples to ensure that the<br />

students underst<strong>and</strong> when each relative pronoun<br />

should be used.<br />

• In Questions 1 (c) <strong>and</strong> (d) the preferred answer<br />

is that, <strong>and</strong> in (f) the preferred answer is which.<br />

However, as the students are taught that either can<br />

be correct, which is acceptable for (c) <strong>and</strong> (d) <strong>and</strong><br />

that for (f).<br />

Ideas for further practice<br />

• In pairs, student take turns to make up sentences,<br />

deliberately using the wrong relative pronoun.<br />

For example, The man that drove a sports car<br />

always drove slowly.<br />

Partners have to explain why the pronoun is<br />

incorrect <strong>and</strong> say which one should have been used.<br />

• Photocopy <strong>and</strong> laminate a number <strong>of</strong> short cloze<br />

passages which require students to choose the<br />

correct relative pronoun. Set them as regular tasks.<br />

• Students look through a page in a book to find an<br />

example <strong>of</strong> a relative pronoun. Choose students<br />

to read out their sentences. Write each one on the<br />

board <strong>and</strong> discuss its different parts relating to the<br />

relative pronoun.<br />

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Answers<br />

1. (a) who (b) who (c) that/which<br />

(d) that/which (e) who (f) which<br />

(g) whose (h) whose<br />

2. (a) who (b) that (c) which<br />

(d) whose (e) whose<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study 24<br />

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Who, which, that <strong>and</strong> whose<br />

Who, which, that <strong>and</strong> whose are words that can connect a noun to a<br />

group <strong>of</strong> words that describe it. This group <strong>of</strong> words (with a verb) is<br />

called a clause.<br />

The boy who sits next to me. <strong>–</strong> who is always used for people<br />

The robot that was on sale. <strong>–</strong> that or which can be used for things<br />

The student whose bag was stolen. <strong>–</strong> whose is used for people <strong>and</strong> things.<br />

The thief who stole the jewels that were stored in the royal palace was<br />

captured on Monday. Police were led to the man, whose identity cannot be<br />

released, by a tracking device which was hidden inside the jewels.<br />

1. Choose the correct pronoun to fit into each sentence.<br />

(a) The slave<br />

(b) Here are the gladiators<br />

(c) Temples<br />

(d) Roads<br />

(e) The Romans<br />

ago.<br />

worked well was trusted by his master.<br />

will entertain us today.<br />

were built in honour <strong>of</strong> the gods were very gr<strong>and</strong>.<br />

were built by the Romans were very straight.<br />

built Hadrian’s wall lived almost two thous<strong>and</strong> years<br />

(f) The Colosseum,<br />

is in the centre <strong>of</strong> the city <strong>of</strong> Rome, was the largest<br />

amphitheatre to be built during the time <strong>of</strong> the Roman Empire.<br />

(g) The horse<br />

(h) The Roman soldiers,<br />

battles.<br />

2. Circle the correct pronoun <strong>and</strong> finish each sentence.<br />

(a) The vet that/who<br />

leg was hurt in battle now walks with a limp.<br />

training was very tough, were very successful in<br />

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(b) The river who/that<br />

(c) The books who/which<br />

(d) The pilot whose/which<br />

(e) The building whose/who<br />

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<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study

<strong>Parts</strong> <strong>of</strong> speech<br />

Conjunctions<br />

Focus<br />

Conjunctions<br />

Definition<br />

Conjunctions are joining words which can be used to<br />

connect words, phrases, clauses or sentences.<br />

Example:<br />

Salt <strong>and</strong> pepper<br />

running fast <strong>and</strong> breathing rapidly<br />

It’s a fast car but difficult to control.<br />

Since I have no money, I can’t go to the circus.<br />

Explanation<br />

• Using conjunctions enables a writer to build <strong>and</strong><br />

combine ideas <strong>and</strong> avoid needless repetition.<br />

Conjunctions can join:<br />

- one adjective with another, such as:<br />

‘The girl was hot <strong>and</strong> tired.’<br />

- one sentence with another such as:<br />

‘It was raining so I took an umbrella.’<br />

• Conjunctions can be placed between two clauses or<br />

at the beginning <strong>of</strong> a sentence. The position <strong>of</strong> the<br />

conjunction helps the reader to know which part <strong>of</strong><br />

the sentence is the focus.<br />

Example:<br />

‘If you climb on top <strong>of</strong> the monkey bars, you will<br />

fall.’ (Focus is on the cause)<br />

‘You will fall if you climb on top <strong>of</strong> the monkey<br />

bars.’ (Focus is on the consequence)<br />

Worksheet information<br />

• Students use a red pen to make edits through the<br />

text in Question 1 (a). Remind students that words<br />

can be deleted to avoid needless repetition. <strong>Word</strong>s<br />

can also be rearranged. Students cross <strong>of</strong>f the<br />

conjunctions used from the list. Try to use as many<br />

different conjunctions as possible. If students use a<br />

new conjunction, they can write it on the board for<br />

others to see <strong>and</strong> use.<br />

• Once Question 1 (b) is completed, students can<br />

share their improved text with the class. Make<br />

comparisons between the conjunctions used <strong>and</strong> the<br />

placement <strong>of</strong> conjunctions in the shared texts.<br />

Ideas for further practice<br />

• Write sentences which begin with conjunctions, such<br />

as ‘while’, ‘although’, ‘since’, ‘unless’ etc.<br />

• Extend a simple sentence such as ‘The cat sat on<br />

the mat’ by following it with a conjunction (such<br />

as ‘<strong>and</strong>’, ‘so’, ‘while’, ‘as’) <strong>and</strong> then a clause. For<br />

example, ‘The cat sat on the mat so his owners<br />

wouldn’t forget to feed him.’,‘The cat sat on the mat<br />

as it was warm from the sun.’<br />

Answers<br />

1. (b) Teacher check. Suggested answer:<br />

Last night, I was snuggled up in bed when<br />

I heard a strange noise. At first, I thought it<br />

was coming from my wardrobe, but it could<br />

have been from the toy box. I was scared<br />

because I didn’t know what was making the<br />

noise. I crept out <strong>of</strong> bed, tiptoed over to the<br />

wardrobe, then slowly opened the door. First<br />

I gasped then I screamed out for Dad, who<br />

ran in to my room <strong>and</strong> turned on the light.<br />

Eventually, we both laughed.<br />

2. (a) Although it was raining, I didn’t get wet.<br />

(b) Unless I start studying today, I will fail the<br />

test.<br />

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(c) Whereas you are tall, he is short; or<br />

Whereas he is short, you are tall.<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study 26<br />

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Conjunctions<br />

A conjunction is a joining word which can be used to join words, phrases,<br />

clauses or sentences.<br />

1. (a) Read the text.<br />

Last night, I was snuggled up in bed. I heard a strange<br />

noise. I thought it was coming from my wardrobe. It<br />

could have been from the toy box. I was scared. I didn’t<br />

know what was making the noise. I tiptoed over to the<br />

wardrobe. I slowly opened the door. I gasped. I screamed<br />

out for Dad. Dad ran in to my room. He turned on the<br />

light. We both laughed.<br />

(b) Rewrite the text to make it more interesting by adding conjunctions. Use the list to help you<br />

or add your own. You can also delete <strong>and</strong> rearrange words.<br />

Conjunctions can be placed in the middle or at the beginning <strong>of</strong> two<br />

joined sentences or clauses.<br />

Example: All heads turned as the new student walked in to the classroom.<br />

As the new student walked in to the classroom, all heads turned.<br />

2. Rearrange these sentences so the conjunction is at the beginning.<br />

(a) I didn’t get wet, although it was raining.<br />

who<br />

since<br />

or<br />

before<br />

<strong>and</strong><br />

then<br />

when<br />

At first<br />

until<br />

for<br />

next while<br />

although<br />

but<br />

because<br />

eventually<br />

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Don’t forget the<br />

comma between the<br />

two parts!<br />

(b) I will fail unless I start studying for the test today.<br />

(c) He is short whereas you are tall.<br />

R.I.C. Publications ® www.ricpublications.com.au 27<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study

<strong>Parts</strong> <strong>of</strong> speech<br />

Determiners<br />

Focus<br />

Articles: the (definite), a/an (indefinite)<br />

Possessives: my, your, his, her, its, our, their<br />

Demonstratives: this, that (singular), these,<br />

those (plural)<br />

Definitions<br />

• A determiner is a word usually used before a noun<br />

that determines how definite it is. For example, Our<br />

homework was placed on that table with these books<br />

because the teacher wanted us to take a book home<br />

each night.<br />

• Articles is a subclass <strong>of</strong> determiners. An article<br />

precedes a noun <strong>and</strong> identifies how definite (specific) or<br />

indefinite (non-specific) that noun is.<br />

Example:<br />

a child (meaning any child), the child (meaning a<br />

particular child)<br />

• A possessive determiner is a word which identifies<br />

who something belongs to.<br />

Example:<br />

Mary sold her book at the fete.<br />

• A demonstrative determiner signals whether the<br />

associated noun is near (this, these) the writer or<br />

speaker or far away (that, those) from the writer or<br />

speaker.<br />

Note: In traditional grammar, some words used as what<br />

are now called determiners in functional grammar,<br />

are referred to as adjectives; e.g. first, seven, or as<br />

possessive pronouns; e.g. my, your.<br />

Explanation<br />

• Determiners are useful for making information more<br />

precise for the reader or listener.<br />

• The definite article the is used to refer to a particular<br />

thing or things <strong>and</strong> when referring to specific, one-<strong>of</strong>-akind<br />

things.<br />

Example:<br />

the Nile River, the book (meaning a particular book)<br />

• Indefinite articles such as a <strong>and</strong> an are used to refer to<br />

any thing. The noun following an indefinite article is nonspecific.<br />

Example:<br />

a boat (meaning any boat) or an umbrella (meaning any<br />

umbrella)<br />

• Articles can indicate a significant difference in meaning.<br />

Example:<br />

a house (any house) <strong>and</strong> the house (a particular house)<br />

• The indefinite article a precedes a noun that begins with<br />

a consonant sound.<br />

Example:<br />

a yacht, a boat, a dog, a unicycle<br />

• The indefinite article an usually precedes<br />

a noun that begins with a vowel sound.<br />

Example:<br />

an elephant, an ice-cream, an umbrella, an hour<br />

• Possessive determiners are always used before the<br />

noun to say who the noun belongs to. They can be<br />

used in first, second or third person form as well as in<br />

singular or plural. Refer to the table below to see which<br />

possessive determiners are used in each situation.<br />

Person Determiner Pronouns<br />

1st my I, me, mine<br />

2nd your you, yours<br />

his he, him, his<br />

3rd her she, her, hers<br />

its it, its<br />

1st our we, us, ours<br />

2nd your you, yours<br />

3rd their they, them, theirs<br />

• Demonstratives generally indicate the proximity <strong>of</strong> the<br />

noun to the writer or speaker. This (singular) <strong>and</strong> these<br />

(plural) suggest the noun/nouns are close by, while that<br />

(singular) <strong>and</strong> those (plural) suggest the noun/nouns are<br />

far away or out <strong>of</strong> reach.<br />

Worksheet information<br />

• Question 1 provides the opportunity to study each word<br />

<strong>and</strong> its function when used in conjunction with a noun.<br />

By exploring the function <strong>of</strong> particular words, students<br />

will be able to more readily use the correct words in<br />

their own writing. They are then required to use the<br />

words in context. Clues have been given as to the role<br />

<strong>of</strong> the missing word; however, students must deduce<br />

from the context which word is required to complete the<br />

sentence.<br />

• Question 2 allows students to practise writing sentences<br />

using specific determiners as given. Some students may<br />

find this challenging. It might be helpful to ask students<br />

for example sentences, before they work independently<br />

to create their own sentences.<br />

Ideas for further practice<br />

• Use newspaper articles to search for examples <strong>of</strong><br />

sentences which use the determiners dealt with on this<br />

page.<br />

Answers<br />

1. (a) who: my, her, its, their, his, our, your<br />

close/far away: that, those, these, this<br />

general or specific: a, an, the<br />

(b) (i) this<br />

(iii) a; the<br />

2. Teacher check<br />

(ii) a; your; his<br />

(iv) those, that<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study 28<br />

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Singular<br />

Plural<br />

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Let’s be more precise <strong>–</strong> 1<br />

Some words can be used before a noun to give the reader or listener more precise information.<br />

These words are called determiners. The words in the box below are some examples:<br />

that my a her those its their<br />

his these our an this the your<br />

1. (a) Sort the determiners above into the table below.<br />

(b) Use the words above to complete these sentences.<br />

(i) ‘Is (distance) seat here taken?’ asked Linus.<br />

(ii) ‘John, I am happy you want to bake<br />

cake. Just remember it is<br />

mess, not mine’, stated<br />

(iii) Suddenly<br />

at<br />

(general/specific)<br />

(who) responsibility to clean up the<br />

(who) mum.<br />

(general/specific) strange black <strong>and</strong> white cat jumped up<br />

(general/specific) window <strong>and</strong> scared the living daylights out <strong>of</strong> Taj!<br />

(iv) I am afraid (distance) boys over there will break (distance)<br />

big window on the side <strong>of</strong> Mr Tan’s house.<br />

2. Use each group <strong>of</strong> three words in a sentence <strong>of</strong> your own.<br />

(a)<br />

(b)<br />

(c)<br />

These words tell us who the<br />

noun belongs to.<br />

that<br />

her<br />

an<br />

a<br />

its<br />

this<br />

the<br />

your<br />

those<br />

These words tell us if the<br />

noun(s) is/are close or far<br />

away.<br />

These words tell us whether<br />

the noun is general or<br />

Publicationsspecific.<br />

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R.I.C. Publications ® www.ricpublications.com.au 29<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study

<strong>Parts</strong> <strong>of</strong> speech<br />

Determiners<br />

Focus<br />

Determiners:<br />

Distributives: either, neither, each, every<br />

Interrogatives: which, what, whose<br />

Definitions<br />

• A determiner is a word usually used before a noun<br />

that determines how definite it is.<br />

Example:<br />

Her dog was tied to that pole with a chain each<br />

time she went into the shop.<br />

• A distributive is a type <strong>of</strong> determiner which tells<br />

how something is distributed, shared or divided.<br />

Example:<br />

I think every person is special.<br />

• An interrogative is a type <strong>of</strong> determiner used before<br />

nouns to form a question.<br />

Example:<br />

Whose book is that?<br />

Note: In traditional grammar some words used as what<br />

are now called determiners in functional grammar,<br />

are referred to as adjectives, e.g. first, seven or<br />

possessive pronouns, e.g. my, your.<br />

Explanation<br />

• Determiners are useful for making information more<br />

precise for the reader or listener.<br />

• Distributive determiners are usually used before<br />

the noun.<br />

• Each <strong>and</strong> every have similar meanings <strong>and</strong> it’s <strong>of</strong>ten<br />

possible to use either <strong>of</strong> them.<br />

Each <strong>of</strong>ten but not always means everyone<br />

separately or one by one <strong>and</strong> can be used for one <strong>of</strong><br />

two things.<br />

It can be followed by ‘<strong>of</strong>’ <strong>and</strong> can be used in front <strong>of</strong><br />

a verb.<br />

Every can mean each <strong>and</strong> sometimes all.<br />

Every cannot be used for two things or after ‘<strong>of</strong>’.<br />

It can be used to say ‘how <strong>of</strong>ten’<br />

• Either <strong>and</strong> neither refer to one or none <strong>of</strong> two<br />

things.<br />

• Verbs used after each, every, either <strong>and</strong> neither are<br />

singular as are any related possessive determiners.<br />

Example:<br />

Each <strong>of</strong> the boys eats his dinner.<br />

Every person has worn his or her hat.<br />

Either sports car appeals to its drivers.<br />

Neither woman wants to drive her<br />

car.<br />

• ‘Which’, ‘what’ <strong>and</strong> ‘whose’ are also known as<br />

‘question words’. These words are placed before<br />

the noun they relate to <strong>and</strong> are used to elicit more<br />

precise information about that noun.<br />

Worksheet information<br />

• Discuss Question 1 with students <strong>and</strong> explain that<br />

some <strong>of</strong> these distributives have similar meanings.<br />

• Discuss question type words <strong>and</strong> point out that in<br />

these sentences the interrogatives are used directly<br />

before the noun they relate to. After discussing this<br />

aspect, students can then use the interrogatives in<br />

their own sentences.<br />

Ideas for further practice<br />

• Search newspaper or magazines <strong>and</strong> highlight the<br />

words, each, every, either <strong>and</strong> neither. Circle the<br />

verbs <strong>and</strong> decide if they are singular or plural.<br />

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Answers<br />

1. (a) every (b) each<br />

(c) Neither (d) either<br />

2. (a) Neither: not either; (b) either: one <strong>of</strong> the two; (c)<br />

each: every, <strong>of</strong> two or more considered individually<br />

or one by one; (d) every: each, referring one by one<br />

to all members <strong>of</strong> a group (e) each; referring one<br />

by one to each individual in the pair (f) neither: not<br />

either<br />

3. (a) Whose (b) Which (c) What (d) Which<br />

Teacher check student sentences. Ensure the<br />

interrogative is before the noun.<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study 30<br />

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Let’s be more precise <strong>–</strong> 2<br />

The words each, every, either <strong>and</strong> neither can tell how a noun is shared or divided.<br />

These words can be used to describe:<br />

• All the members <strong>of</strong> a group (every)<br />

• One member <strong>of</strong> a group (each)<br />

• One member <strong>of</strong> a group <strong>of</strong> two (either)<br />

• Not one member <strong>of</strong> a group <strong>of</strong> two (neither)<br />

1. Read the sentences <strong>and</strong> underline the determiner in each.<br />

(a) Every boy in our class played football on Friday.<br />

(b) I think each boy played his best game.<br />

(c) Neither team dominated the game.<br />

(d) We knew it would be either a draw or a very close victory.<br />

2. Choose the best word to complete each sentence.<br />

(a)<br />

boy swam his fastest time. (Either/Neither)<br />

(b) Mum knew that<br />

icy drink would be refreshing on such a hot day.<br />

(either/neither)<br />

(c) The principal gave<br />

<strong>of</strong> the students a merit certificate.<br />

(every/each)<br />

(d) I think<br />

boy in the team should play for at least one quarter.<br />

(every/each)<br />

(e) They both sang well so the judges gave<br />

(f) It was so cold <strong>and</strong> windy that<br />

(either/neither)<br />

girl a prize. (every/each)<br />

boy wanted to go swimming.<br />

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3. Underline the word in each sentence that makes it a question. Then use that word to write a<br />

question <strong>of</strong> your own.<br />

(a) ‘Whose schoolbag has been left on the floor?’ asked the teacher.<br />

(b) ‘Which piece <strong>of</strong> fruit would you like for morning tea?’ called Mum.<br />

(c) ‘What day <strong>of</strong> the week do you practise swimming?’ enquired Jamie.<br />

(d) ‘Which book would you like to read?’ questioned his friend.<br />

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<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study

<strong>Parts</strong> <strong>of</strong> speech<br />

Prepositions<br />

Focus<br />

Prepositions <strong>of</strong> time, place <strong>and</strong> direction<br />

Definition<br />

• Prepositions are words used to show the<br />

relationship between nouns <strong>and</strong>/or pronouns in the<br />

same sentence.<br />

Example:<br />

The player ran across the field with the football<br />

tucked tightly under his arm.<br />

Explanation<br />

• The word ‘preposition’ combines the prefix ‘pre’<br />

(meaning ‘before’ or ‘in front <strong>of</strong>’) <strong>and</strong> the word<br />

‘position’. As such, prepositions are words that are<br />

‘positioned in front’ <strong>of</strong> nouns or other words that<br />

functions as nouns (such as pronouns, verbal nouns<br />

or noun phrases).<br />

• Prepositions indicate a connection between things<br />

mentioned in a sentence, such as between a person<br />

<strong>and</strong> where she/he is going;<br />

Example:<br />

Jill moved towards the table.<br />

• Prepositions can refer to manner (he came to<br />

work by bus), time (school starts at 9 am), place<br />

(he left his shoes at the park), position (the cat lay<br />

under the table) <strong>and</strong> direction (it ran between the<br />

buildings).<br />

Some prepositions are formed by combining multiple<br />

words, such as the phrases in front <strong>of</strong>, on top <strong>of</strong><br />

<strong>and</strong> prior to.<br />

• Prepositions are <strong>of</strong>ten used to introduce phrases<br />

that add more information to the noun or verb, called<br />

prepositional phrases. These phrases start with a<br />

preposition <strong>and</strong> end with a noun or noun equivalent,<br />

called the object <strong>of</strong> the preposition. <strong>Word</strong>s that<br />

modify the object are part <strong>of</strong> the phrase.<br />

Example:<br />

The girl (subject), though tall, was still shorter than<br />

(preposition) her younger brother’ (object). (The<br />

prepositional phrase is underlined.)<br />

• As a rule, prepositions do not come before verbs.<br />

• A former rule was that prepositions should never<br />

end a sentence. This rule no longer applies.<br />

For example, it is commonly accepted as correct<br />

to say ‘Have you found the shoes you were looking<br />

for?’ rather than the old English, ‘Have you found the<br />

shoes for which you were looking?’.<br />

• Prepositions add meaning <strong>and</strong> detail. They also help<br />

to distinguish between the object <strong>and</strong> the subject<br />

in a sentence. Commonly used prepositions include<br />

about, above, across, after, against, around,<br />

at, before, behind, beneath, beside, between,<br />

beyond, by, for, from, in, inside, near, <strong>of</strong>f, on,<br />

out, over, through, to, toward, under, until, upon<br />

<strong>and</strong> with. Bear in mind that these words are not<br />

always prepositions; sometimes they function as<br />

conjunctions or adverbs.<br />

Example:<br />

in ‘Mia decided to stay inside’, ‘inside’ has no<br />

object, <strong>and</strong> so is an adverb.<br />

Worksheet information<br />

• Write some simple sentences with prepositions<br />

on the board, such as ‘The train came through the<br />

tunnel.’ , ‘The papers are in the top drawer.’, ‘Peter<br />

will leave at midday.’. Ask students to identify the<br />

nouns. Then ask another student to find the word<br />

that makes a connection between the two nouns<br />

(the preposition). Discuss how prepositions connect<br />

the nouns in sentences, <strong>and</strong> are usually followed by<br />

nouns or pronouns.<br />

• Give each student a copy <strong>of</strong> the worksheet. Students<br />

having difficulty identifying prepositions may first<br />

wish to highlight the nouns in the sentence, then<br />

look at the words before them to help identify<br />

prepositions.<br />

Ideas for further practice<br />

• Students could make crosswords or word-sleuths<br />

for each other using prepositions.<br />

• There are a number <strong>of</strong> online quizzes for<br />

prepositions. Type ‘preposition quiz online’ into your<br />

search engine to find suitable ones for your class.<br />

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Answers<br />

1. Prepositions: to, on, at, for, in, under, into, with, at,<br />

in, near<br />

2. Teacher check<br />

3. (a) Prepositions include: in, on, to, into, onto,<br />

opposite.<br />

(b) Other words include: iron, into,<br />

inert, iris, inspire, nipper, nose, noose, noise,<br />

orient, option, pipe, priest, pronto, pointer,<br />

poor, potion, prone, pities, poison, poisoner,<br />

prison, pipe, portion, porpoise, protein,<br />

person, pier, poise, pine, ports, ponies, rinse,<br />

ripen, riot, ripe, rise, sprite, spire, sniper, spirit,<br />

spin, soot, spine, sore, strip, soon, snoop, stir,<br />

spoon, sooner, senior, site, sport, tenor, torso,<br />

tire, tripe.<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study 32<br />

www.ricpublications.com.au R.I.C. Publications ®

Prepositions<br />

Prepositions are words that can show the connection between nouns in<br />

sentences. They usually come before nouns or pronouns, not before verbs.<br />

Prepositions can show …<br />

• where something happens<br />

• when something happens<br />

• where something is going<br />

1. Underline the prepositions in the invitation.<br />

Jesse lives in Colby, near the town centre.<br />

I brush my teeth at night just before bed.<br />

Finn went over the river by bus.<br />

Hi Jenna<br />

Please come to my house on Sunday at 9.30 am for brunch! We’ll have the<br />

brunch in the garden, under the big umbrella. If it looks like it might rain, we’ll<br />

go into the games room instead. You can bring a friend with you if you like. I<br />

live at 27 Hempley Street in Mir<strong>and</strong>ow. My house is near the church.<br />

I hope you can make it!<br />

From Annabel<br />

2. Write four new sentences using some <strong>of</strong> the prepositions you found.<br />

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3. (a) Find words that can be used as prepositions in the word ‘preposition’ (any length) using the<br />

letters in any order.<br />

preposition<br />

(b) Find any other words <strong>of</strong> four letters or more.<br />

R.I.C. Publications ® www.ricpublications.com.au 33<br />

<strong>Primary</strong> grammar <strong>and</strong> word study

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