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BOOK D<br />

TEACHING<br />

STRATEGIES<br />

FOR WRITING<br />

Word <strong>choices</strong><br />

Australian Primary Publisher<br />

of the Year 2015 and 2016


<strong>Teaching</strong> strategies <strong>for</strong> writing (Book D)<br />

Published by R.I.C. Publications ® 2018<br />

Copyright © Diane Henderson and Bruce Tuffin 2018<br />

<strong>RIC</strong>–<strong>20798</strong><br />

Titles in this series:<br />

<strong>Teaching</strong> strategies <strong>for</strong> writing (Book A)<br />

<strong>Teaching</strong> strategies <strong>for</strong> writing (Book B)<br />

<strong>Teaching</strong> strategies <strong>for</strong> writing (Book C)<br />

<strong>Teaching</strong> strategies <strong>for</strong> writing (Book D)<br />

<strong>Teaching</strong> strategies <strong>for</strong> writing (Book E)<br />

<strong>Teaching</strong> strategies <strong>for</strong> writing (Book F)<br />

Copyright Notice<br />

A number of pages in this book are worksheets.<br />

The publisher licenses the individual teacher<br />

who purchased this book to photocopy these<br />

pages to hand out to students in their own<br />

classes.<br />

Except as allowed under the Copyright Act 1968,<br />

any other use (including digital and online uses<br />

and the creation of overhead transparencies<br />

or posters) or any use by or <strong>for</strong> other people<br />

(including by or <strong>for</strong> other teachers, students or<br />

institutions) is prohibited. If you want a licence<br />

to do anything outside the scope of the BLM<br />

licence above, please contact the Publisher.<br />

This in<strong>for</strong>mation is provided to clarify the limits<br />

of this licence and its interaction with the<br />

Copyright Act.<br />

For your added protection in the case of<br />

copyright inspection, please complete the <strong>for</strong>m<br />

below. Retain this <strong>for</strong>m, the complete original<br />

document and the invoice or receipt as proof<br />

of purchase.<br />

Name of Purchaser:<br />

Date of Purchase:<br />

Supplier:<br />

School Order# (if applicable):<br />

Signature of Purchaser:<br />

Internet websites<br />

In some instances, websites or specific URLs may be recommended. While these are checked and rechecked at the time of<br />

publication, the publisher has no control over any subsequent changes which may be made to webpages. It is strongly recommended<br />

that the class teacher checks all URLs be<strong>for</strong>e allowing students to access them.<br />

View all pages online<br />

PO Box 332 Greenwood Western Australia 6924<br />

Website: www.ricpublications.com.au<br />

Email: mail@ricpublications.com.au


FOREWORD<br />

<strong>Teaching</strong> strategies <strong>for</strong> writing is series of six books using modelling, guided and independent practice to teach<br />

students strategies they can use to improve the clarity, correctness and richness of their writing. The focus is on<br />

sentences, their structure, punctuation and <strong>word</strong> <strong>choices</strong> and on developing editing and proofreading skills and their<br />

habitual use.<br />

Titles in this series:<br />

• <strong>Teaching</strong> strategies <strong>for</strong> writing (Book A) • <strong>Teaching</strong> strategies <strong>for</strong> writing (Book D)<br />

• <strong>Teaching</strong> strategies <strong>for</strong> writing (Book B) • <strong>Teaching</strong> strategies <strong>for</strong> writing (Book E)<br />

• <strong>Teaching</strong> strategies <strong>for</strong> writing (Book C) • <strong>Teaching</strong> strategies <strong>for</strong> writing (Book F)<br />

TABLE OF CONTENTS<br />

Teacher notes ........................................................................................................................ iv–v<br />

Class recording sheets<br />

Assessment activities ..................................................................................................... vi–ix<br />

Assessment writing .......................................................................................................... x–xi<br />

Student writing checklist ........................................................................................................ xii<br />

Student writing task – self-evaluation .................................................................................. xiii<br />

WORD CHOICES<br />

Unit 1 Nouns, noun groups and adjectives ............................................................ 2–7<br />

Unit 2 Pronouns, confusing pronouns (me/I), which pronoun? ........................... 8–13<br />

Unit 3 Verbs, descriptive and overused verbs, adverbials ................................. 14–19<br />

Unit 4 Choosing correct verbs: tense, consistency,<br />

subject, regular, irregular ......................................................................... 20–25<br />

Assessment................................................................................................................... 26–29<br />

SENTENCE STRUCTURE<br />

Unit 5 Sentences, <strong>word</strong> order, statements, questions ....................................... 30–35<br />

Unit 6 Sentence beginnings ............................................................................... 36–41<br />

Unit 7 Conjunctions ............................................................................................ 42–47<br />

Unit 8 Paragraphs ............................................................................................... 48–53<br />

Assessment................................................................................................................... 54–57<br />

PUNCTUATION<br />

Unit 9 Using punctuation in sentences .............................................................. 58–63<br />

Unit 10 Full stops, capital letters, commas, direct speech ................................. 64–69<br />

Unit 11 Apostrophes in contractions ................................................................... 70–75<br />

Unit 12 Apostrophes <strong>for</strong> possession .................................................................... 76–81<br />

Assessment................................................................................................................... 82–85<br />

EDITING AND PROOFREADING<br />

Unit 13<br />

Unit 14<br />

Unit 15<br />

Unit 16<br />

Spelling (vowel sounds), sentence structure,<br />

punctuation, <strong>word</strong> <strong>choices</strong>, editing ........................................................ 86–91<br />

Spelling (more vowel sounds), sentence structure,<br />

punctuation, <strong>word</strong> <strong>choices</strong>, editing ......................................................... 92–97<br />

Spelling (suffixes) sentence structure,<br />

punctuation, <strong>word</strong> <strong>choices</strong>, editing ....................................................... 98–103<br />

Spelling (homophones), sentence structure,<br />

punctuation, <strong>word</strong> <strong>choices</strong>, editing ..................................................... 104–109<br />

Assessment............................................................................................................... 110–113<br />

TEACHING STRATEGIES FOR WRITING (Book D)<br />

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iii


TEACHER NOTES<br />

ABOUT WRITING<br />

A good writer is not simply one who knows about and can<br />

use text types. A good writer is one with the capacity to<br />

produce interesting, in<strong>for</strong>mative, grammatically correct<br />

text, <strong>for</strong> a specific purpose, that achieves any writer’s<br />

intent – clear, precise communication.<br />

TEACHING WRITING<br />

Students can and should be taught strategies that will<br />

help them to write better. These include improvements<br />

in <strong>word</strong> <strong>choices</strong>, sentence structure, punctuation and<br />

editing and proofreading. <strong>Writing</strong> strategies taught<br />

should be modelled, discussed and then applied, firstly<br />

with teacher support and then independently. However,<br />

the emphasis should always be on the writing process,<br />

which requires <strong>for</strong>ethought, planning and a rational,<br />

measured approach in order to produce the desired<br />

outcome. Editing and proofreading are essential<br />

components of any writing. It is important that students<br />

edit and proofread habitually, with a specific purpose,<br />

and concentrate on the careful consideration of each<br />

sentence, one at a time. Activities provided in this series<br />

encourage students to think about appropriate aspects<br />

of their writing be<strong>for</strong>e, during and after the process.<br />

LESSON PROCEDURE<br />

Introduction<br />

Discuss the text title with the students. Ask <strong>for</strong> their<br />

interpretations of what the title could mean.<br />

Discuss the text type. Why does it fit into this category?<br />

What are the specific features of this type of text?<br />

Guide the discussion to introduce the teaching points/<br />

strategies to be covered during the course of the unit.<br />

For example, check they understand terms such as noun<br />

group, adverbial, sentence, paragraph and comma.<br />

Development<br />

Read and discuss the text, either in groups or as a<br />

class. Assist students with any unfamiliar vocabulary or<br />

expressions.<br />

Differentiation<br />

Work through the introductory activities with the class<br />

as a whole, ensuring students understand what is<br />

required of them.<br />

Work with those requiring additional assistance while<br />

the remainder of the class work independently on the<br />

activities.<br />

ASSESSMENT<br />

An assessment is included <strong>for</strong> each unit in the book.<br />

Because of the way it is structured, this assessment<br />

will allow you to see individual student’s understandings<br />

as well as any common points of weakness which may<br />

require further assistance.<br />

FORMAT<br />

<strong>Teaching</strong> strategies <strong>for</strong> writing is organised into four<br />

sections:<br />

Word <strong>choices</strong><br />

Punctuation<br />

Sentence structure<br />

Editing and proofreading<br />

Each section has four units of work and one assessment<br />

unit.<br />

<strong>Teaching</strong> units<br />

Each six-page unit of work has a specific focus, two<br />

teacher pages and four activity pages.<br />

Assessment units<br />

• Following each section is a four-page unit of<br />

assessment activities–one page <strong>for</strong> each unit.<br />

• Answers are provided in the teacher pages <strong>for</strong> that<br />

unit.<br />

• Teacher record sheets – see pages vi–ix.<br />

Assessment writing tasks<br />

• A suggested paragraph writing topic <strong>for</strong> each unit is<br />

provided on the teacher pages.<br />

• Teacher recording sheet – see page x–xi.<br />

• Student writing checklist – see page xii.<br />

• Student self-evaluation – see page xiii.<br />

Review<br />

In pairs or small groups, students review their answers,<br />

giving their reasoning where required and critiquing the<br />

longer sentence or paragraph responses.<br />

iv<br />

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TEACHER NOTES<br />

Sample open pages<br />

Teacher page 1 Teacher page 2<br />

Activity page 1 Activity page 2<br />

Activity page 3 Activity page 4<br />

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ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES<br />

CLASS RECORD<br />

Date:<br />

Name Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4<br />

vi<br />

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ASSESSMENT WRITING<br />

CLASS RECORD<br />

Unit: Focus: Date:<br />

Paragraph topic:<br />

Name<br />

Comment<br />

x<br />

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STUDENT WRITING CHECKLIST<br />

Name:<br />

Date:<br />

Assessment writing topic:<br />

Paragraph<br />

I have read the paragraph and it makes sense. ..........................................................<br />

I have read it to check <strong>for</strong> spelling errors. ..................................................................<br />

I have made corrections. ............................................................................................<br />

Punctuation<br />

I have checked the sentences one at a time <strong>for</strong>:<br />

• capital letters to start sentences and proper nouns. ...........................................<br />

• full stops, question marks, exclamation marks. .................................................<br />

• commas. ................................................................................................................<br />

• apostrophes <strong>for</strong> contractions and ownership. ......................................................<br />

• speech marks. .......................................................................................................<br />

I have made corrections. ............................................................................................<br />

Sentences<br />

I have checked the sentences one at a time <strong>for</strong>:<br />

• sense – Does each sentence make sense by itself? ............................................<br />

• length – Are any sentences too long? ...................................................................<br />

Should they be separated? .....................................................................<br />

Should some be joined? ..........................................................................<br />

• beginnings – Have I used interesting beginnings? ...............................................<br />

Word <strong>choices</strong><br />

I have made changes. ......................................................................<br />

verbs – Are they in<strong>for</strong>mative and different? ...............................................................<br />

Have I used the correct verb tense? ...............................................................<br />

Are there too many boring verbs? ..................................................................<br />

adverbials – Do some verbs need adverbials to tell how,<br />

when or where something happened? ...................................................<br />

noun groups – Are the noun groups descriptive? ......................................................<br />

Can I add some descriptive adjectives to tell<br />

more about nouns and pronouns? ......................................................<br />

pronouns – Have I used the correct pronouns? .........................................................<br />

I have made changes and corrections. ....................................................<br />

xii<br />

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STUDENT SELF-EVALUATION<br />

Name: Unit: Date:<br />

I wrote a paragraph about:<br />

My goal was to focus on:<br />

How well did I achieve my goal?<br />

Three things I did well in my writing were:<br />

•<br />

•<br />

•<br />

Next time I write a paragraph I will try to:<br />

STUDENT SELF-EVALUATION<br />

Name: Unit: Date:<br />

I wrote a paragraph about:<br />

My goal was to focus on:<br />

How well did I achieve my goal?<br />

Three things I did well in my writing were:<br />

•<br />

•<br />

•<br />

Next time I write a paragraph I will try to:<br />

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TEACHER INFORMATION<br />

NOUNS, NOUN GROUPS<br />

AND ADJECTIVES<br />

UNIT 1<br />

Focus<br />

Word <strong>choices</strong> – nouns, noun groups and adjectives<br />

Progression<br />

Recognise<br />

Students will recognise a noun/noun group/adjective from<br />

modelled examples.<br />

Choose<br />

Students will choose in<strong>for</strong>mative nouns/noun groups/adjectives<br />

from given examples, with teacher support.<br />

Use<br />

Students will choose and use appropriate, in<strong>for</strong>mative nouns/noun<br />

groups/adjectives in supplied and self-written sentences.<br />

Definition of terms<br />

Nouns are <strong>word</strong>s used to name people, places, things, feelings and<br />

ideas.<br />

A noun group is a noun with other <strong>word</strong>s used to name people,<br />

places, things, feelings and ideas.<br />

Adjectives are describing <strong>word</strong>s adding to or changing the<br />

meaning of a noun or pronoun.<br />

Introduction<br />

Good writers improve their writing by their choice of <strong>word</strong>s used<br />

to correctly name people, places, things, feelings and ideas. They<br />

can choose <strong>word</strong>s to add in<strong>for</strong>mation to nouns to make a more<br />

precise noun group. Noun groups have a noun, plus:<br />

• a determiner; e.g. the drone, many rules<br />

• a possessive; e.g. the drone’s joystick, Dad’s turn<br />

• an adjective; e.g. colourful paper, remote control<br />

• nouns; e.g. practice flight, drone models<br />

• a number; e.g. four rotors<br />

LESSON NOTES AND PLANS<br />

Introduction<br />

• Discuss the text title with students.<br />

• Do they think the text will be an imaginative story or will it be giving<br />

them in<strong>for</strong>mation?<br />

• Why do they think this? What are some of the features of in<strong>for</strong>mative<br />

or imaginative texts?<br />

• Introduce the term ‘noun/noun group’ and explain that the <strong>word</strong>s<br />

naming different people, places, things, feelings and ideas are<br />

nouns. Use examples from the classroom: board, desks, students,<br />

teacher, Michael (any student name), school name.<br />

• Read the text with or to the class.<br />

• Identify some of the nouns used in the text to name people, places,<br />

things, feelings and ideas.<br />

• Identify nouns with capital letters. What do these nouns name? Why<br />

do these nouns have capital letters?<br />

Nouns – Page 5<br />

• Read and discuss the definition at the top of the page.<br />

• Discuss why nouns are an important part of every sentence and<br />

why it is important <strong>for</strong> writers to think about nouns and to choose<br />

interesting and in<strong>for</strong>mative nouns.<br />

• Work through the activities with the class as a whole, ensuring they<br />

understand what is required of them.<br />

• Work with those requiring additional assistance while the remainder<br />

of the class work independently on the activities.<br />

• Encourage students to share and discuss their answers to<br />

Question 4(b).<br />

Noun groups – Page 6<br />

• Read and discuss the definition at the top of the page.<br />

• Explain that instead of using just one <strong>word</strong> to name something, good<br />

writers will often add more in<strong>for</strong>mation by writing a group of <strong>word</strong>s.<br />

• Work through the examples of noun groups given on this page.<br />

• Show by example how careful choice of noun groups can lead to a<br />

clearer understanding by the reader; <strong>for</strong> example, The drone lifted<br />

off vs The powerful remote-controlled drone lifted off.<br />

Adjectives – Page 7<br />

• Read and discuss the definition at the top of the page.<br />

• Explain that while adjectives can make writing more interesting and<br />

precise, they can be overdone.<br />

• Encourage the students to discuss their answer to Question 5, and in<br />

particular why the chose the adjectives they did.<br />

2<br />

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TEACHER INFORMATION<br />

NOUNS, NOUN GROUPS<br />

AND ADJECTIVES<br />

UNIT 1<br />

ANSWERS<br />

Nouns – Page 5<br />

1. (a) ground<br />

(b) rotor<br />

(c) joystick<br />

(d) feeling<br />

2. (a) rules<br />

(b) handbook<br />

(c) screen<br />

(d) drone<br />

3. Teacher check<br />

4. (a) Mum, Dad, Sarah, Zycon, Mr Clumsy<br />

(b) Teacher check–should incorporate ‘Mr Clumsy’<br />

Noun groups – Page 6<br />

ASSESSMENT ANSWERS<br />

Assessment activity – Page 26<br />

1. (a) body<br />

(b) joystick<br />

(c) insect<br />

(d) horse<br />

2.–5. Teacher check<br />

Class record sheet – Page vi<br />

ASSESSMENT WRITING<br />

• Paragraph topic – The toy I wish I could have<br />

• Focus: Word <strong>choices</strong> – nouns, noun groups and adjectives<br />

Self-evaluation – Page xiii<br />

1. (a) an alien insect<br />

(b) a single black eye<br />

(c) a startled horse<br />

(d) flaming red lettering<br />

(e) the first few flights<br />

2.–3. Teacher check<br />

4. bright red and yellow body; a single black eye<br />

5. Teacher check<br />

Adjectives – Page 7<br />

1. Teacher check<br />

2. (a) colourful<br />

(b) sleek, strong<br />

(c) excited<br />

3.–5. Teacher check<br />

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TAKE-OFF!<br />

UNIT 1<br />

1. I tore the colourful paper off my birthday<br />

present with shaking hands. The box was<br />

square–and heavy. Could it be? Was it? Please,<br />

please let it be … Yes! It was exactly what I<br />

wanted, what I’d been pestering Mum and Dad<br />

about <strong>for</strong> months.<br />

2. In flaming red lettering on the front of the box<br />

it declared, ‘Zycon remote-controlled drone’.<br />

The photo showed a young boy flying his drone.<br />

He was smiling happily.<br />

3. ‘Thank you so much’, I said to Mum and Dad. ‘I<br />

didn’t think you’d remember.’<br />

4. ‘How could we <strong>for</strong>get, Sarah? You nearly<br />

nagged us to death about it!’ laughed Mum.<br />

5. Dad said seriously, ‘Don’t <strong>for</strong>get there are rules<br />

about flying drones. You can’t fly near people,<br />

or close to buildings or near airports …’<br />

6. ‘I know the rules, Dad’, I interrupted. ‘I learned<br />

them off by heart.’<br />

7. ‘Well, OK. But I think I had better be with you <strong>for</strong><br />

the first few flights. Don’t you?’<br />

8. I didn’t really, but I was too busy unpacking the<br />

drone. Its bright red and yellow body looked<br />

sleek and strong, with the camera lens like a<br />

single, black eye. I plugged in the charger. The<br />

battery had to be fully charged be<strong>for</strong>e use.<br />

9. I ate breakfast quickly, skimming through the<br />

handbook. It all looked easy. I hadn’t flown a<br />

real drone be<strong>for</strong>e, but I had flown drone models<br />

on the internet–many, many times.<br />

10. By the time breakfast was finished, the light on<br />

the drone had changed to green. Fully charged!<br />

I gathered the remote control, called Dad and<br />

we took the drone outside.<br />

11. Luckily, our back garden was big enough <strong>for</strong><br />

a practice flight. And as a bonus, there was<br />

almost no breeze. Perfect! I sat the drone on<br />

the grass and turned on the controller.<br />

12. The screen flickered and suddenly I was<br />

seeing the world through the drone’s camera<br />

lens. Cool! I pressed the ‘Start’ button and the<br />

four rotors whirred into life. I pushed <strong>for</strong>ward<br />

on the joystick, the rotors started to whine–<br />

and my drone left the ground. When it was as<br />

high as the roof, I pushed the ‘Hold’ button. The<br />

drone stopped climbing and sat there, waiting.<br />

It looked like an alien insect, hovering. I moved<br />

the left joystick and the drone turned to face<br />

us. Dad and I appeared in the picture on the<br />

remote control’s screen, looking upwards. It<br />

was a weird feeling seeing ourselves like that.<br />

13. ‘Let me have a go’, said Dad. He sounded like<br />

an excited kid. Reluctantly, I passed over the<br />

controls. I started to say, ‘Go gently on the<br />

controls, Dad’, but it was too late. Mr Clumsy<br />

jammed the controls all over the place. The<br />

drone reared upwards like a startled horse,<br />

then dropped its nose and hurtled down–<br />

straight at us! Dad threw himself flat on the<br />

grass. I snatched up the control and hit ‘Hold’<br />

again. The drone stopped in mid-air.<br />

14. ‘Well,’ said Dad, brushing grass off his shirt as<br />

he stood up, ‘now I’ve deliberately taught you<br />

how not to fly a drone, I guess you can carry<br />

on.’ He smiled weakly–and headed inside.<br />

4<br />

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UNIT 1<br />

NOUNS<br />

Nouns are naming <strong>word</strong>s <strong>for</strong> people, places and things.<br />

For example: drone, Mum, camera.<br />

Good writers choose their nouns carefully and add <strong>word</strong>s to make noun groups.<br />

For example: Instead of writing ‘thunder’, a better writer would perhaps write, ‘earshattering<br />

thunder’.<br />

1. Which noun in Paragraph 12 means:<br />

(a) Earth’s surface?<br />

(b) horizontal propellers?<br />

(c) a control column?<br />

(d) an emotion?<br />

2. Choose the best noun <strong>for</strong> each sentence.<br />

drone handbook screen rules<br />

(a) There are<br />

about where drones can be flown.<br />

(b) Read the instructions in the .<br />

(c) The<br />

(d) Pushing <strong>for</strong>ward on the joystick made the<br />

3. Write an interesting sentence using each noun.<br />

(a) flights<br />

displayed what the camera was seeing.<br />

climb.<br />

(b) lens<br />

(c) internet<br />

4. Proper nouns name specific things or people. They always start with a capital<br />

letter.<br />

(a) Find five proper nouns in the text.<br />

(b) On the back of this page, write an interesting sentence using the most unusual<br />

proper noun you found.<br />

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WORD<br />

CHOICES<br />

logo<br />

NOUN GROUPS<br />

UNIT 1<br />

A noun group is a noun with other <strong>word</strong>s which add more in<strong>for</strong>mation about the noun.<br />

For example: cold, white iceberg; some pencils; my drone.<br />

Good writers use in<strong>for</strong>mative noun groups to make their writing more precise.<br />

1. Write the whole noun group from the text.<br />

(a) insect<br />

(b) eye<br />

(c) horse<br />

(d) lettering<br />

(e) flights<br />

2. Add some <strong>word</strong>s to each noun to make an in<strong>for</strong>mative noun group.<br />

(a) drone<br />

(b) airport<br />

(c) screen<br />

(d) box<br />

(e) rules<br />

3. Write an interesting sentence using two of the noun groups from Question 2.<br />

4. Write two noun groups from Paragraph 8.<br />

(a)<br />

(b)<br />

5. (a) Write a noun group using the <strong>word</strong> ‘camera’.<br />

(b) Use this noun group in an interesting sentence.<br />

6<br />

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ADJECTIVES<br />

UNIT 1<br />

Adjectives are describing <strong>word</strong>s. They can tell more about a noun.<br />

For example: a sleek, powerful drone.<br />

1. Write three interesting adjectives you could use to describe each noun.<br />

(a) drone<br />

(b) Dad<br />

(c) insect<br />

(d) joystick<br />

2. Write the adjective(s) used in the text to describe each noun/noun group.<br />

(a)<br />

(b) red and yellow body<br />

(c)<br />

paper<br />

kid<br />

3. Use each adjective to describe a noun in an interesting sentence.<br />

(a) remote-controlled<br />

(b) flaming<br />

4. Add adjectives to make the sentences more descriptive.<br />

(a) One boy broke his toy.<br />

(b) My present came in a box.<br />

(c) A drone flew above the trees.<br />

(d) The screen showed the picture.<br />

5. On the back of this page, write a descriptive paragraph about your favourite toy.<br />

Be<strong>for</strong>e you start, think about adjectives you could use to tell how it looks, what it<br />

does and how it sounds. Write some of these adjectives in the box below.<br />

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TEACHER INFORMATION<br />

PRONOUNS, CONFUSING PRONOUNS<br />

(ME/I), WHICH PRONOUN?<br />

UNIT 2<br />

Focus<br />

Word <strong>choices</strong> – pronouns, confusing pronouns (me/I), which<br />

pronoun?<br />

Progression<br />

Recognise<br />

Students will recognise a pronoun from modelled examples.<br />

Choose<br />

Students will choose appropriate pronouns from given examples,<br />

with teacher support.<br />

Use<br />

Students will choose and use correct and appropriate pronouns in<br />

supplied and self-written sentences.<br />

Definition of terms<br />

Pronouns are <strong>word</strong>s used to replace nouns.<br />

Personal pronouns are used in place of a person or thing.<br />

A relative pronoun comes be<strong>for</strong>e the clause describing the noun<br />

or pronoun to which it refers.<br />

A possessive pronoun replaces a noun identifying ownership by<br />

the person or thing to which it refers.<br />

A noun group is a noun with other <strong>word</strong>s used to name people,<br />

places and things.<br />

The subject of a verb is the person or thing ‘doing’ the action.<br />

The object of a verb is the person or thing affected by the action.<br />

Introduction<br />

Good writers improve their writing by replacing nouns with<br />

appropriate and correct pronouns. The use of pronouns prevents<br />

constant repetition of a noun, making text more manageable and<br />

fluid. It is important <strong>for</strong> students to know the correct pronouns to<br />

use in the context of a sentence.<br />

Possessive pronouns are used to replace the name of a person or<br />

thing; e.g. That book belongs to him (John), it is his.<br />

Note: The <strong>word</strong>s ‘his’ and ‘its’ can be used as a possessive<br />

determiner as well as a possessive pronoun; e.g. his bag, its tail.<br />

The following table shows subjective, objective and possessive<br />

personal pronouns.<br />

Note: Subjective and objective pronouns are required when the<br />

pronoun refers to the subject or object of the verb; <strong>for</strong> example,<br />

I (subject) boarded the ship. The crew welcomed us (object)<br />

onboard.<br />

LESSON NOTES AND PLANS<br />

Introduction<br />

• Discuss the text title with students.<br />

• Do they think the text will be an imaginative story or will it be giving<br />

them in<strong>for</strong>mation?<br />

• Why do they think this? What are some of the features of in<strong>for</strong>mative<br />

and imaginative text?<br />

• Introduce the term ‘pronoun’ and explain that <strong>word</strong>s replacing nouns<br />

are pronouns. Use examples from the classroom; e.g. Tran = he,<br />

Mary = she, the board = it, the tallest boy in the class = he.<br />

• Read the text with or to the class.<br />

• Identify some of the pronouns used in the text to replace people,<br />

places and things.<br />

• Identify single and plural pronouns from the text.<br />

Pronouns – Page 11<br />

Personal pronouns<br />

Person Subjective Objective Emphatic/<br />

reflexive<br />

• Read and discuss the definition at the top of the page.<br />

• Explain that good writers use pronouns instead of repeating the<br />

same nouns.<br />

• Explain why it is important to use the correct pronoun <strong>for</strong> the noun it<br />

replaces.<br />

• Work through the activities with the class as a whole, ensuring they<br />

understand what is required of them.<br />

• Work with those requiring additional assistance while the remainder<br />

of the class work independently on the activities.<br />

• Encourage students to share their answers to Question 5.<br />

Possessive<br />

First singular I me myself mine<br />

Second you you yourself yours<br />

Third (male) he him himself his<br />

Third (female) she her herself hers<br />

Third (neuter) it it itself its<br />

First plural we us ourselves ours<br />

Second you you yourselves yours<br />

Third they them themselves theirs<br />

The relative pronouns ‘who’, ‘which’ and ‘that’ are used to refer to<br />

nouns and pronouns; e.g., the boy who, he who, the team that, the<br />

book which.<br />

The correct use of ‘who’ <strong>for</strong> people is more critical. Although<br />

‘which’ and ‘that’ can both be used in many contexts, ‘which’ should<br />

strictly be used to refer to a particular desk (telling which one);<br />

e.g. the desk which is by the door. The relative pronoun ‘that’ has<br />

a broader reference and doesn’t refer to one desk; e.g. the desks<br />

that are by the door.<br />

8<br />

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TEACHER INFORMATION<br />

PRONOUNS, CONFUSING PRONOUNS<br />

(ME/I), WHICH PRONOUN?<br />

UNIT 2<br />

Confusing pronouns – me or I? – Page 12<br />

• Discuss the examples at the top of the page and the terms ‘subject’<br />

and ‘object’.<br />

• Encourage students to read the sentences aloud to help them to<br />

choose the correct pronouns. Encourage them to ask the question<br />

‘Who did it?’; if the answer is ‘I’, then ‘I’ is correct; if not, it should be<br />

‘me’.<br />

• Explain that adding another person in front of ‘me’ and ‘I’ makes<br />

selecting the correct pronoun difficult, even <strong>for</strong> many adults. Some<br />

of them always say ‘somebody and I’, which can be incorrect.<br />

• Read the ‘Hint’ and examples with students and have them practise<br />

omitting the other person.<br />

• Provide opportunities <strong>for</strong> the class to share their answers to<br />

Question 4 and to discuss how they tackled the task.<br />

Which pronoun – who, that or which? – Page 13<br />

• Questions 1 and 2 focus on the relative pronouns ‘who’, ‘that’ and<br />

‘which’.<br />

• Explain that ‘who’ must be used <strong>for</strong> people. NOTE: ‘That’ and ‘which’<br />

refer to things, places and can both be used <strong>for</strong> groups of people;<br />

e.g. the team which, a class that, (but ‘the members of the team<br />

who’).<br />

• Be<strong>for</strong>e completing Question 3, discuss nouns that the pronouns in<br />

the box could be used to replace.<br />

ANSWERS<br />

Pronouns – Page 11<br />

1. (a) she (b) them (c) it (d) they<br />

2. she – Carly<br />

it – the cruise ship<br />

they – the passengers/people on board<br />

3. (a) Repeating nouns/noun groups instead of using pronouns.<br />

(b) When Carly told her friends she was going on a cruise they<br />

were horrified and they yelled at her.<br />

4. (a) they (b) it<br />

(c) them (d) him<br />

Which pronoun – who, that or which? – Page 13<br />

1. (a) that (b) who (c) that<br />

(d) that (e) who<br />

2. (a) who – Teacher check<br />

(b) that – Teacher check<br />

(c) which – Teacher check<br />

3. (a) hers (b) yours (c) mine (d) theirs<br />

(e) his (f) ours<br />

ASSESSMENT ANSWERS<br />

Assessment activity – Page 27<br />

1. (a) they (b) she<br />

2. When Carly’s parents went to the buffet, they were so horrified<br />

they called it ‘The Zoo’.<br />

3. it, hers<br />

4. (a) me<br />

(b) I<br />

(c) I<br />

(d) I<br />

(e) me<br />

5. (a) who<br />

(b) which/that<br />

6. (a) which/that – Teacher check<br />

(b) who – Teacher check<br />

Class record sheet – Page vi<br />

ASSESSMENT WRITING<br />

• Paragraph topic – The best holiday ever<br />

• Focus: Word <strong>choices</strong> – pronouns<br />

Self-evaluation – Page xiii<br />

5. (a)–(c) Teacher check; could include it, they/them,<br />

he/she/him/her<br />

Confusing pronouns – me or I? – Page 12<br />

1. (a) I (b) I (c) me (d) me<br />

2. (a) ✓ (b) ✘ (c) ✓ (d) ✘<br />

3. (a) I (b) me (c) me (d) me<br />

4. Teacher check<br />

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UNIT 2<br />

CRUISE ON<br />

1. Carly was having great fun. She had never been on a cruise ship be<strong>for</strong>e. It was ginormous! There was<br />

so much to see and do—even when they weren’t in port.<br />

2. Her parents had told her she would have a great time, and they weren’t kidding! Her favourite place<br />

was the ‘Kids’ Klub’, which was full of books and video games and beanbags and computers hooked<br />

up to the internet. Best of all, no adults were allowed! Carly’s dad wanted to have a look inside, but the<br />

crew member who was in charge said he wasn’t allowed! Carly’s mum laughed when she heard that.<br />

3. And the food! Anything, anytime, anywhere. Apart from the dining rooms and the buffet, there was a<br />

pizza bar, a burger bar, an ice cream bar—and they were open from sunrise until midnight! Carly’s<br />

parents liked to eat in the dining room. They said it was nicer to have their food served to them by a<br />

waiter. Some passengers were so rude in the buffet, pushing and shoving to take far more food than<br />

they needed, that Carly’s parents called it ‘The Zoo’! ‘We don’t like to fight <strong>for</strong> our food’, Dad explained.<br />

‘We prefer ours delivered to us. Other people may like to help themselves to theirs.’<br />

4. During the day, Carly spent a lot of time in the swimming pool. Actually, she had a choice of four pools<br />

and two spas. She tried them all. One had a waterslide so tall you needed a lift to get to the top. Another<br />

had a machine that made waves you could ‘bodysurf’ the full length of the pool.<br />

5. There was also a climbing wall that went right up the funnels and a flying fox from the top of the<br />

funnel down to the stern. It was very fast. But the scariest ride, Carly thought, was a sort of cage on<br />

top of a long hydraulic arm. People were strapped inside the cage, then the arm lifted them way, way<br />

up until they could see inside the funnels. Then it swooped over the side of the ship and down until the<br />

passengers thought they were going to be swimming. Carly was a little frightened, but she loved it! Her<br />

parents, though, went once and said, ‘We won’t do that again’.<br />

6. At night, after dinner, there were movies outdoors near the pool. People sat in deckchairs to watch<br />

them. The screen was as large as the side of a two-storey house! The best part <strong>for</strong> Carly was when<br />

they brought around free popcorn.<br />

7. When she had told her friends at school that she was going on a cruise, they were horrified. ‘All that<br />

time with old people!’ ‘Yuck!’ ‘There’s nothing to do!’ ‘I would die of boredom!’ ‘Who would want to do<br />

that?’ She could hardly wait to tell them just how wrong they were.<br />

10<br />

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UNIT 2<br />

PRONOUNS<br />

A pronoun is used to replace a noun/noun group.<br />

For example: a favourite place – it; friends at school – they.<br />

1. Which pronoun is used in each sentence?<br />

(a) Carly was a little frightened but she loved the ride.<br />

(b) There were four pools and Carly tried all of them.<br />

(c) The movie was shown outside <strong>for</strong> people to watch it.<br />

(d) Greedy passengers took more food than they needed.<br />

2. Write the three pronouns used in Paragraph 1 and the noun/noun group replaced.<br />

3. (a) What mistake has the writer of this sentence made?<br />

When Carly told her friends Carly was going on a cruise her friends were<br />

horrified and her friends yelled at Carly.<br />

(b) Rewrite the sentence.<br />

4. Write a pronoun to replace the underlined noun group.<br />

(a) Carly’s parents preferred to eat in the dining room.<br />

(b) The flying fox was an exciting ride.<br />

(c) The waiters served food to Carly’s parents.<br />

(d) ‘Kids’ Klub’ staff said the club was not <strong>for</strong> Carly’s dad.<br />

5. Think of a short sentence <strong>for</strong> each noun group. Write the sentence using a<br />

pronoun.<br />

(a) a scary ride<br />

(b) passengers at the buffet<br />

(c) a waiter<br />

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WORD<br />

CHOICES<br />

logo<br />

CONFUSING PRONOUNS – ME OR I?<br />

UNIT 2<br />

Good writers choose correct pronouns.<br />

The pronoun ‘I’ is used as the subject of a verb.<br />

The pronoun ‘me’ is used as the object of a verb.<br />

For example: I was writing a story. (who was writing? = subject = I)<br />

The story was written by me. (was written by whom? = object = me)<br />

1. Circle the correct pronouns. The verbs are underlined.<br />

(a) I’m sure (I, me) would die of boredom on a cruise.<br />

(b) There were four pools and (I, me) tried all of them.<br />

(c) The crew brought (I, me) some popcorn.<br />

(d) Dad didn’t believe (I, me) when I said he was banned<br />

from the Kids’ Klub.<br />

2. Are the pronouns correct? Put a tick or a cross in the box.<br />

(a) Will you meet me at the buffet <strong>for</strong> lunch?<br />

(b) He asked I to go <strong>for</strong> another swim.<br />

(c) I think, <strong>for</strong> me, the cage was the scariest ride.<br />

(d) Mum told I about the cruise last summer.<br />

When ‘I' and ‘me’ are used with two or more other people, it can be more difficult to<br />

choose the correct pronoun.<br />

Hint: Try saying the sentence with only the pronoun.<br />

Example 1: My parents and (I or me) enjoyed the flying fox.<br />

Try saying the pronouns separately: ‘I’ enjoyed the flying fox./‘Me’ enjoyed the flying<br />

fox.<br />

Example 2: The flying fox was enjoyable <strong>for</strong> my parents and (I, me).<br />

Try saying: The flying fox was enjoyable <strong>for</strong> ‘I’./The flying fox was enjoyable <strong>for</strong> ‘me’.<br />

3. Circle the correct pronoun.<br />

(a) My friends and (I or me) will talk about the cruise.<br />

(b) Dad took Mum and (I or me) to have a pizza.<br />

(c) A friend I met came to the movies with Mum and (I or me).<br />

(d) Mum took a photo of Dad and (I or me) swimming in the pool.<br />

4. Write an interesting sentence on the back of this page using:<br />

(a) Dad and I …<br />

(b) … Mum and me<br />

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UNIT 2<br />

WHICH PRONOUN – WHO, THAT OR WHICH?<br />

Good writers use the pronoun ‘who’ <strong>for</strong> people and ‘that’ or ‘which’ <strong>for</strong> everything<br />

except people.<br />

For example: The waiter who served us dinner ...<br />

The holiday that we enjoyed ...<br />

The cruise, which went to Italy, ...<br />

1. Add ‘who’ or ‘that’.<br />

(a) We went on a waterslide<br />

(b) The people<br />

screamed.<br />

(c) The machine<br />

(d) The popcorn<br />

(e) Some of the adults<br />

upset.<br />

had a lift to the top.<br />

were strapped inside the cage<br />

made waves was fantastic.<br />

the crew gave us was delicious.<br />

were banned were quite<br />

2. Write ‘who’, ‘that’ or ‘which’ on the first line, then complete the sentence.<br />

(a) The captain, ,<br />

(b) The climbing wall, ,<br />

(c) The movies, ,<br />

3. Complete the sentences using these pronouns.<br />

mine yours his hers ours theirs<br />

(a) Mum was asked if a watch they found was .<br />

(b) They told her, ‘If it’s<br />

, you can take it’.<br />

(c) Mum said, ‘Yes, please give it to me, it’s ’.<br />

(d) I found my cabin easily, but my parents couldn’t find .<br />

(e) Mum used her cabin key because Dad had lost .<br />

(f) Mum and I didn’t want to lose<br />

, so we wore them on a lanyard<br />

around our necks.<br />

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TEACHER INFORMATION<br />

VERBS, DESCRIPTIVE AND<br />

OVERUSED VERBS, ADVERBIALS<br />

UNIT 3<br />

Focus<br />

Word <strong>choices</strong> – verbs, descriptive verbs, overused verbs,<br />

adverbials<br />

Progression<br />

Recognise<br />

Students will recognise a verb/adverbial from modelled examples.<br />

Choose<br />

Students will choose the more or most in<strong>for</strong>mative verb/adverbial<br />

from given examples, with teacher support.<br />

Use<br />

Students will choose and use appropriate, in<strong>for</strong>mative verbs/<br />

adverbials in supplied and self-written sentences.<br />

Definition of terms<br />

Verbs or ‘doing’ <strong>word</strong>s show actions or states of being or having.<br />

A verb group is a verb combined with other auxiliary verbs.<br />

An action verb is one which describes an action or feeling.<br />

Adverbials are <strong>word</strong>s or groups of <strong>word</strong>s that add in<strong>for</strong>mation,<br />

usually to a verb or verb group. They can tell how (manner), when<br />

(time) or where (place) something happens. Adverbs can modify<br />

(add in<strong>for</strong>mation to) any <strong>word</strong>s that are not nouns or pronouns.<br />

(These are modified by adjectives.)<br />

Introduction<br />

Good writers improve their writing by their choice of in<strong>for</strong>mative<br />

and appropriate verbs and adverbials.<br />

LESSON NOTES AND PLANS<br />

Introduction<br />

• Discuss the text title with the class. What do they think would make<br />

a dog ‘dangerous’? What might a dangerous dog do? Elicit answers<br />

such as ‘bite’, ‘snarl’, ‘attack’.<br />

• Point out that these are verbs or verb groups that show (in this case)<br />

an action.<br />

• Show by example how careful choice of action verbs can lead to a<br />

clearer understanding by the reader. For example, The dog barked at<br />

the man vs The dog snarled at the man.<br />

Descriptive verbs – Page 17<br />

• Read and discuss the in<strong>for</strong>mation at the top of the page.<br />

• Discuss why verbs are an important part of every sentence and why<br />

it is important <strong>for</strong> writers to think about verbs and choose good,<br />

interesting and in<strong>for</strong>mative verbs.<br />

• Work through the activities with the class as a whole, ensuring they<br />

understand what is required of them.<br />

• Work with those requiring additional assistance while the remainder<br />

of the class work independently on the activities.<br />

Overused verbs – Page 18<br />

• Review students’ understanding of the term ‘verb’ and ask them to<br />

provide examples.<br />

• Discuss the overuse of boring verbs like saw, went and said and<br />

give alternatives <strong>for</strong> said, such as yelled, screamed, whispered.<br />

• Explain that better verbs can give more in<strong>for</strong>mation about what is<br />

happening and can change the meaning of a sentence.<br />

• Brainstorm and list more in<strong>for</strong>mative verbs <strong>for</strong> got. This will assist<br />

the class to complete the questions on the page.<br />

• Provide opportunities <strong>for</strong> the class to share the paragraphs they<br />

wrote <strong>for</strong> Question 5.<br />

Descriptive adverbials – Page 19<br />

• Read and discuss the definition of adverbials and the examples<br />

given.<br />

• Explain that good writers add adverbials to give the reader more<br />

in<strong>for</strong>mation about verbs and to make their writing more interesting.<br />

• Brainstorm and make three lists of adverbials that could tell how,<br />

when and where.<br />

• Work through the activities with those requiring assistance. Others<br />

should complete the activities independently.<br />

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TEACHER INFORMATION<br />

VERBS, DESCRIPTIVE AND<br />

OVERUSED VERBS, ADVERBIALS<br />

UNIT 3<br />

ANSWERS<br />

Descriptive verbs – Page 17<br />

1. (a) reported – a more authoritative context<br />

(b) described – implies more detail<br />

2. (a) smothered<br />

(b) staggered<br />

(c) mistreated<br />

3. Teacher check<br />

4. (a) euthanised<br />

(b) put down; destroyed<br />

(c) Teacher check<br />

5. (a) assaulted; but accept others with reason<br />

(b) Teacher check<br />

ASSESSMENT ANSWERS<br />

Assessment activity – Page 28<br />

1. (a) accused<br />

(b) explained<br />

2.–7. Teacher check<br />

Class record sheet – Page vi<br />

ASSESSMENT WRITING<br />

• Paragraph topic – A dangerous animal<br />

• Focus: Word <strong>choices</strong> – verbs and adverbials<br />

Self-evaluation – Page xiii<br />

Overused verbs– Page 18<br />

1. (a) witnessed<br />

(b)–(d) Teacher check<br />

2.–5. Teacher check<br />

Descriptive adverbials – Page 19<br />

1. (a) viciously – describes the attack<br />

(b) sympathetically – he gave her another chance<br />

2. (a) savagely<br />

(b) yesterday afternoon<br />

(c) on the leg<br />

3. cruelly<br />

4.–7. Teacher check<br />

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A VERY DANGEROUS DOG<br />

UNIT 3<br />

1. When I heard the <strong>word</strong>s, ‘That’s a very dangerous<br />

dog and I’m seriously considering recommending<br />

that it should be euthanised immediately be<strong>for</strong>e it<br />

harms somebody else’, I felt sick.<br />

2. I couldn’t believe my ears! Could the city ranger<br />

be referring to Stella, our beautiful black Staffy<br />

cross? She was sitting quietly on my knee, licking<br />

my hand lovingly. She really is such a sook, and it’s<br />

hard to believe that she could or would hurt a fly.<br />

3. However, a man who lives in our street would<br />

disagree. He reported Stella, accusing her of<br />

biting him savagely on the leg. I wouldn’t have<br />

believed it, but he has four stitches in his leg and<br />

Dad actually witnessed the attack. Stella assaulted<br />

him as he was bringing in his empty rubbish bin<br />

yesterday afternoon.<br />

4. It just doesn’t make sense. I know Stella is a bit wary of men until she gets to know them, but to actually<br />

bite one is totally out of character <strong>for</strong> our much-loved pet.<br />

5. We adopted Stella about a year ago. She was our friends’ dog and we were told they couldn’t keep her.<br />

I was so excited and pleased to have her I didn’t ask why they had given up such a loveable animal. But<br />

the reason didn’t matter to us. She was ours and we loved her more and more each day.<br />

6. But now, Dad was explaining her sad history to the ranger. He told him that be<strong>for</strong>e she was given up,<br />

she had been cruelly mistreated by our friend’s partner, who just didn’t like her. After looking into her<br />

beautiful brown eyes, Dad knew he had to rescue her immediately.<br />

7. I was shocked by this story–and so was the ranger. Dad went on to say that he thought it was possible<br />

Stella may have been thrown into a rubbish bin at some time, or perhaps the neighbour reminded her<br />

of the man who had treated her so cruelly.<br />

8. Fortunately, the ranger decided it was worth giving Stella one more chance, but she has been given a<br />

warning.<br />

9. Now, we all watch Stella like hawks, making sure she is never outside by herself, and she’s always on a<br />

lead when we walk her. Although she is perfectly behaved <strong>for</strong> us, we are very aware of how careful we<br />

all must be.<br />

16<br />

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UNIT 3<br />

DESCRIPTIVE VERBS<br />

Good writers want their readers to have the clearest understanding of what is<br />

happening in their writing. One of the ways they can do this is by choosing their<br />

action verbs carefully.<br />

For example: instead of writing, ‘The dog ate its food’, a better writer would try to<br />

think of a more descriptive verb or verb group and perhaps write, ‘The dog wolfed<br />

down its food’.<br />

1. Think about each verb and circle the one that gives more in<strong>for</strong>mation.<br />

(a) The man told the authorities about Stella.<br />

The man reported Stella to the authorities.<br />

2. Choose the best verb to complete each sentence.<br />

staggered smothered mistreated<br />

(a) The loving dog<br />

(b) The injured man<br />

(c) Her cruel partner<br />

(b) The man described the attack.<br />

me with kisses.<br />

into the house.<br />

the dog.<br />

3. Write each descriptive verb in an interesting sentence.<br />

(a) adored<br />

(b) attacked<br />

(c) threatened<br />

4. Good writers often find new or unusual verbs to use.<br />

(a) Which verb in Paragraph 1 do you think the writer<br />

used because it was new or unusual?<br />

(b) What do you think it means?<br />

(c) Write an interesting sentence using this new verb.<br />

The man said he was attacked.<br />

5. (a) Which verb from Paragraph 3 do you think is the<br />

most unusual?<br />

(b) Write a good sentence using this verb.<br />

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UNIT 3<br />

OVERUSED VERBS<br />

There are some verbs we use all the time in our writing that are boring and not very<br />

in<strong>for</strong>mative.<br />

For example: ‘took’, ‘said’, ‘went’ and ‘got’.<br />

1. (a) Which verb in Paragraph 3 did the writer use instead<br />

of the verb ‘saw’?<br />

(b) Use the verb you chose in a new and interesting sentence.<br />

(c) Write two other descriptive verbs you could use instead of ‘saw’.<br />

(d) Write a sentence using one of these verbs.<br />

2. (a) Choose a different verb to describe exactly what may have happened to Stella.<br />

(Paragraph 7)<br />

Stella may have been<br />

into a rubbish bin.<br />

(b) Write an interesting new sentence using the descriptive verb you chose.<br />

3. (a) Write a sentence using the verb ‘got’.<br />

(b) Write the sentence again using a better, more descriptive verb.<br />

4. (a) Write a sentence using the verb ‘went’.<br />

(b) Write the sentence again using a better, more descriptive verb.<br />

5. Write a short paragraph on the back of this page about a trip you made to an<br />

interesting place. Think of some good, descriptive verbs to include in your writing.<br />

You must not use the verb ‘went’.<br />

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UNIT 3<br />

DESCRIPTIVE ADVERBIALS<br />

An adverbial can tell when, how or where the verb happens. Good writers can add<br />

meaning to verbs by choosing in<strong>for</strong>mative adverbials.<br />

For example: Instead of writing ‘The dog wolfed down its food’, a better writer could<br />

add in<strong>for</strong>mation about how he ate and write, ‘The dog wolfed down its food hungrily’<br />

or tell when by adding ‘in ten seconds flat’.<br />

1. Circle the adverbial that helps the reader to better understand what<br />

happened.<br />

(a) The dog attacked the man (viciously/sadly).<br />

(b) The ranger listened to Dad (angrily/sympathetically).<br />

2. Which adverbial in Paragraph 3 tells:<br />

(a) how Stella bit the man?<br />

(b) when the man was bringing in his rubbish bin?<br />

(c) where Stella bit the man?<br />

3. Which adverbial in Paragraph 6 tells how Stella had been<br />

mistreated in the past?<br />

4. Think of a descriptive adverbial of time to tell when each verb could happen.<br />

(a) We take our dog <strong>for</strong> a walk.<br />

(b) Our dog is fed.<br />

5. Think of a descriptive adverbial of place to tell where each verb could happen.<br />

(a) The puppies pounced on the squeaky toy.<br />

(b) The dog buried the bone.<br />

6. Think of a good adverbial to add each sentence to tell how, when or where an<br />

event could have happened.<br />

(a) The dog barked.<br />

(b) A vet examined the injured animal.<br />

7. Complete the sentences. Each one starts with an adverbial. You will need to think<br />

of a good verb to match it. Underline the verbs you chose.<br />

(a) Amazingly, the dog .<br />

(b) Angrily, Dad .<br />

(c) After she attacked the man, she<br />

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TEACHER INFORMATION<br />

CHOOSING CORRECT VERBS: TENSE,<br />

CONSISTENCY, SUBJECT, REGULAR, IRREGULAR<br />

UNIT 4<br />

Focus<br />

Word <strong>choices</strong> – choosing correct verbs: tense, consistency, subject, regular<br />

and irregular<br />

Progression<br />

Recognise<br />

Students will recognise the tense of a verb; subject–verb agreement (asking<br />

‘who or what is doing the action?’); regular and irregular verbs; and auxiliary<br />

verbs, from modelled examples.<br />

Choose<br />

Students will choose the tense of a verb; subject–verb agreement; regular<br />

and irregular verbs; and auxiliary verbs, from given examples, with teacher<br />

support.<br />

Use<br />

Students will use the correct tense; subject–verb agreement; regular and<br />

irregular verbs; and auxiliary verbs in self-written sentences and paragraphs.<br />

Definition of terms<br />

Verb tense – happening now = present tense; already happened = past<br />

tense; yet to happen = future tense.<br />

Subject–verb agreement – The <strong>for</strong>m of the verb must match who or what is<br />

per<strong>for</strong>ming the action; e.g. I am reading, They are reading.<br />

Main verb – the verb describing the action.<br />

Auxiliary verbs are verbs added to the main verb which can change its<br />

tense; e.g. He swims. He is swimming. He had been swimming.<br />

Regular verbs follow a regular pattern when changing from the present to<br />

the past tense; e.g. shop – shopped, rate – rated.<br />

Irregular verbs are verbs which do not follow a regular pattern when<br />

changing from the present to the past tense; e.g. buy – bought, swim – swam,<br />

fly – flew.<br />

Note: Auxiliary verbs<br />

The verbs to be and to have are used as auxiliary or ‘helper’ verbs. They have<br />

many <strong>for</strong>ms which change with subject and the tense. See the chart below.<br />

Introduction<br />

The verb ‘to be’<br />

The verb ‘to have’<br />

Person Pronoun Present Past Present Past<br />

First I am was have had<br />

Second you are were have had<br />

third he/she/it is was has had<br />

First we are were have had<br />

Second you are were have had<br />

Third they are were have had<br />

Good writers improve their writing by their choice and use of correct verb<br />

<strong>for</strong>ms <strong>for</strong> emphasis and to make meaning explicit.<br />

LESSON NOTES AND PLANS<br />

Introduction<br />

• Discuss the text title with students.<br />

• What in<strong>for</strong>mation does it give concerning what the story<br />

may be about?<br />

• What could the disaster be?<br />

• Does the title make the reader want to read on to find out<br />

more?<br />

• Read and discuss the text, either in groups or as a class.<br />

Verb tense – Page 23<br />

• Read and discuss the in<strong>for</strong>mation at the top of the page.<br />

• Discuss and elicit from students the tense of the story<br />

(past tense; it has happened).<br />

• Could the story be written in another tense? Which one?<br />

(Present; future would be very difficult!)<br />

• Work through the activities with the class as a whole,<br />

ensuring they understand what is required of them.<br />

• Work with those requiring additional assistance while<br />

the remainder of the class work independently on the<br />

activities.<br />

Changing verbs – Page 24<br />

• Review students’ understanding of the term ‘verb’ and ask<br />

them to provide examples.<br />

• Explain that regular verbs follow a pattern in the past<br />

tense, but that there are many English verbs that are<br />

irregular and don’t do this. They will need to think about<br />

verbs carefully when they write.<br />

• Discuss regular and irregular verbs with the class and ask<br />

them <strong>for</strong> examples.<br />

• Introduce the concept of auxiliary verbs as ‘helper’ verbs;<br />

that is, they help the main verb. For example, I had been<br />

hoping <strong>for</strong> a good result in my test.<br />

• Identify examples of auxiliary verbs used in the text.<br />

• List some present and past tense and singular and plural<br />

<strong>for</strong>ms of the verbs ‘to be’ and ‘to have’.<br />

Matching verbs – Page 25<br />

• Discuss with students how verb <strong>for</strong>ms change, depending<br />

on who or what is doing the action. Use simple examples; I<br />

am running; we are running.<br />

• Introduce the concept of the subject; i.e. ask who or what<br />

is doing the action. For example; The mother duck and her<br />

ducklings are hiding in the garden. Ask who or what ‘are<br />

hiding in the garden’. The mother duck and her ducklings<br />

(the subject) are hiding in the garden.<br />

• Work through the activities with the class as a whole,<br />

ensuring they understand what is required of them.<br />

• Provide opportunities <strong>for</strong> students to share and discuss<br />

sentences from Question 4 with a partner.<br />

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TEACHER INFORMATION<br />

CHOOSING CORRECT VERBS: TENSE,<br />

CONSISTENCY, SUBJECT, REGULAR, IRREGULAR<br />

UNIT 4<br />

ANSWERS<br />

Verb tense – Page 23<br />

1. (a) past<br />

(b) future<br />

(c) present<br />

2. (a) crossed<br />

(b) caught<br />

(c) watch<br />

3. (a) will take<br />

(b) will watch<br />

(c) will waddle<br />

4. Teacher check<br />

5. makes, guesses, brings<br />

6. Teacher check<br />

Changing verbs – Page 24<br />

1. Teacher check<br />

2. (a) brought<br />

(b) took<br />

(c) knew , would<br />

(d) left<br />

3. (a) had been sitting – past<br />

(b) will be hoping – future<br />

(c) is going to have – present<br />

ASSESSMENT ANSWERS<br />

Assessment activity – Page 31<br />

1. (a) future<br />

(b) present<br />

(c) past<br />

2. (a) walked<br />

(b) will watch<br />

3. (a) shouted<br />

(b) slept<br />

(c) lost/have lost<br />

4. Sentences should use the following <strong>for</strong>ms of the verb to fly:<br />

(a) flies/flying<br />

(b) flew<br />

(c) will fly<br />

5. Teacher check<br />

Class record sheet – Page vi<br />

ASSESSMENT WRITING<br />

• Paragraph topic – A disaster!<br />

• Focus: Word <strong>choices</strong> – verbs tense, matching verbs<br />

Self-evaluation – Page xiii<br />

4. Teacher check<br />

Matching verbs – Page 25<br />

1. (a) hid – the mother and her ducklings<br />

(b) herded – Evie<br />

(c) were attacking – the greedy crows.<br />

2. (a) ✘<br />

(b) ✓<br />

(c) ✘<br />

(d) ✘<br />

3.–4. Teacher check<br />

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UNIT 4<br />

DUCKLING DISASTER<br />

1. Evie was in the kitchen, pouring herself a glass of cold water, when she heard the noise outside. She<br />

lifted the curtain and looked out the window. In the garden, she could see four crows. They were all<br />

calling loudly and taking turns to rush at something under the bushes.<br />

2. When she saw what they were attacking, her blood ran cold. There was a mother duck, with two tiny<br />

ducklings hiding behind her, against the fence. The crows were trying to get the ducklings and the<br />

mother was fighting them off.<br />

3. Evie knew the duck would get tired and in the end the crows would get her babies. Then Evie saw the<br />

fifth crow. It was sitting in the lilac tree—and in its beak was the limp body of another duckling.<br />

4. The sight made Evie angry. She guessed the mother had brought her ducklings up from the pond in<br />

the nearby park.<br />

5. Slamming her glass down, Evie rushed to the kitchen door. She wrenched it open and ran into the<br />

garden, shouting and waving her arms frantically. At first, she thought the crows were going to ignore<br />

her—or even attack her! They simply turned and looked at her with their horrible, beady black eyes.<br />

6. Reluctantly, they took a couple of hopping steps and flapped into the air. Evie continued to chase them,<br />

still shouting, ‘Go away! Go on, get out of here! Shoo!’ as loudly as she could. Only when she was sure<br />

the birds were really going did she stop.<br />

7. She walked back to the mother duck, who was still guarding her babies and watching Evie carefully.<br />

What could Evie do? She knew the mother couldn’t take her babies down the road in daylight, because<br />

they would be in the open. And she knew the mother would never let her close enough to pick the<br />

babies up and carry them to safety.<br />

8. Then she had a brainwave. Putting her arms out and saying ‘Come on’ softly, Evie herded the mother<br />

and her ducklings towards the front of the house. There they would be able to hide in the rose garden.<br />

Beneath the ferocious <strong>for</strong>tress of thorns, they would be safe from any attacks. And the crows would<br />

have to spot them first! The mother and babies would be able<br />

to hide until dark, when the crows would be asleep.<br />

9. Evie left them huddled in the soft ground beneath the<br />

rosebushes and went back inside. But <strong>for</strong> the rest of the<br />

afternoon, she kept her eyes open <strong>for</strong> any crows!<br />

10. The next day, on her way to school, Evie passed the small pond<br />

in the park. There she saw a mother duck and her two babies<br />

swimming among the reeds.<br />

11. They had made it!<br />

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UNIT 4<br />

VERB TENSE<br />

Verbs can have many different <strong>for</strong>ms and different endings.<br />

A verb or verb group changes according to its tense.<br />

• He runs. (present) • He ran/He has run. (past) • He will run. (future)<br />

If an event is happening, it must be in the present tense; if it has happened, it must be<br />

in the past tense; if it hasn’t happened yet, it must be in the future tense.<br />

1. What is the tense of each verb? Write ‘past’, ‘present’ or ‘future’ after each sentence.<br />

(a) The ducklings crossed the road.<br />

(b) Mother duck will protect her ducklings.<br />

(c) The ducklings are following their mother.<br />

Writers also need to think carefully to avoid mixing up tenses .<br />

For example: Yesterday I come (present) to school and wrote (past) a story.<br />

2. Correct the tense of the verb and write it in the space provided.<br />

(a) Yesterday on my way to school, I cross at the traffic lights.<br />

(b) Every day last week, I catch the bus to football training.<br />

(c) I watched my favourite TV show at 7.30 every night.<br />

3. Change the verb group from the present to the future tense.<br />

(a) My brother is taking a photo of the ducklings.<br />

(b) My sisters are watching the crows.<br />

(c) The ducklings are waddling across the road.<br />

4. Write a short sentence to show how to use each tense of the verb ‘to shine’ correctly.<br />

(a) present tense<br />

(b) past tense<br />

(c) future tense<br />

5. Change the past tense verbs in Paragraph 4 to the present tense and write them below.<br />

6. (a) Write an interesting sentence telling what ducklings do on a pond. (present<br />

tense)<br />

(b) Change your sentence, telling what they did on the pond. (past tense)<br />

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UNIT 4<br />

CHANGING VERBS<br />

Regular verbs Changing most verbs to the past tense is easy – we add ‘ed’ or ‘d’ (if<br />

the <strong>word</strong> ends with ‘e’).<br />

For example: jump – jumped, wave – waved.<br />

1. Write a short, interesting sentence using the past tense of each regular verb.<br />

(a) quack<br />

(b) waddle<br />

(c) guard<br />

Irregular verbs need to change more.<br />

For example: run – ran, catch – caught, buy – bought<br />

2. Write the past tense of the irregular verbs from the story.<br />

(a) We will bring bread <strong>for</strong> the ducks.<br />

(b) Mother duck takes her ducklings to safety.<br />

(c) Elvie knows the mother duck will get tired.<br />

(d) She leaves them huddled in the soft ground.<br />

Auxiliary verbs<br />

There can be a number of different verbs in a verb group helping the main verb.<br />

They are called auxiliary verbs. The verbs ‘to have’ and ‘to be’ are the most common<br />

auxiliary verbs. They change more than the main verb.<br />

For example: He is hiding. He has been hiding.<br />

3. Circle the verb group (main and auxiliaries) and write the verb tense on the line.<br />

(a) They had been sitting on the fence <strong>for</strong> a long time.<br />

(b) Evie will be hoping to see the ducklings tomorrow.<br />

(c) Hopefully, this story is going to have a happy ending.<br />

4. Write a verb group with at least three auxiliary verbs in:<br />

(a) the future tense<br />

(b) the past tense<br />

(c) the present tense<br />

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UNIT 4<br />

MATCHING VERBS<br />

Verbs can also change to show who or what is doing the action and when it happened.<br />

For example: I was reading. They were reading. I am reading. She is reading.<br />

1. Circle the verb then draw a line under who or what is doing the action.<br />

(a) The mother and her ducklings hid under the roses.<br />

(b) Evie herded the ducks to safety.<br />

(c) The greedy crows were attacking the frightened animals.<br />

2. Put a tick or a cross after each sentence to show if the verb group<br />

is correct/incorrect.<br />

(a) Evie stopped when she were sure the crows were leaving.<br />

(b) The mother duck couldn’t take her babies down the road.<br />

(c) The two ducklings is going to be safe now.<br />

(d) I hopes those crows never come back.<br />

3. Write a verb or verb group to match who or what is doing the action.<br />

(a) On her way to school, Evie<br />

(b) I felt pleased that this sad story<br />

(c) Stories about animals<br />

(d) What<br />

a small pond.<br />

my favourites.<br />

you like best about this story?<br />

a happy ending.<br />

4. Choose a suitable subject to match each verb group and use them together in an<br />

interesting sentence.<br />

(a) will be watching<br />

(b) have been brave<br />

(c) is going to have to<br />

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ASSESSMENT UNIT 1<br />

NOUNS, NOUN GROUPS, ADJECTIVES<br />

Name:<br />

Date:<br />

1. Choose the best noun <strong>for</strong> each sentence.<br />

joystick horse body insect<br />

(a) Its bright red and yellow<br />

looked sleek and strong.<br />

(b) I pushed <strong>for</strong>ward on the<br />

and the drone<br />

left the ground.<br />

(c) It looked like an alien<br />

, hovering.<br />

(d) The drone reared up like a startled .<br />

2. Write an interesting sentence using each noun.<br />

(a) breeze<br />

(b) handbook<br />

(c) grass<br />

3. Add some <strong>word</strong>s to each noun to make an in<strong>for</strong>mative noun group.<br />

(a) lettering<br />

(b) breakfast<br />

(c) shirt<br />

(d) alien<br />

4. Write an interesting sentence using one of the noun groups from Question 3.<br />

5. Add adjectives to make the sentences more descriptive.<br />

(a) The light said the battery was<br />

charged.<br />

(b) I tore the paper as I opened the box.<br />

(c) My father dived <strong>for</strong> the grass.<br />

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ASSESSMENT UNIT 2<br />

PRONOUNS<br />

Name:<br />

Date:<br />

1. Which pronoun is used in the sentence to replace a noun?<br />

(a) Carly’s parents were happy when they ate in the dining room.<br />

(b) Carly said that she enjoyed being on a cruise ship.<br />

2. Rewrite the sentence, replacing the repeated noun group with pronouns.<br />

When Carly’s parents went to the buffet, Carly’s parents were so horrified by greedy<br />

people that Carly’s parents called it ‘The Zoo’.<br />

3. Complete the sentence, adding appropriate pronouns.<br />

The crew showed a book to Carly and asked if was .<br />

4. Circle the correct pronouns.<br />

(a) Free popcorn was the best thing <strong>for</strong> (I, me).<br />

(b) Mum and Dad said (I, me) could go to the buffet.<br />

(c) My parents and (I, me) went on the ride.<br />

(d) Mum said she and (I, me) still had our cabin keys.<br />

(e) The crew brought popcorn to my friends and (I, me).<br />

5. Add ‘who’ or ‘that’.<br />

(a) The people<br />

were so rude in the buffet needed to learn some<br />

manners.<br />

(b) The Kids’ Klub had computers<br />

were connected to the<br />

internet.<br />

6. Write ‘who’, ‘that’ or ‘which’ on the first line, then complete the sentence.<br />

(a) The popcorn<br />

(b) The crew members<br />

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VERBS, DESCRIPTIVE AND<br />

OVERUSED VERBS, ADVERBIALS<br />

ASSESSMENT UNIT 3<br />

Name:<br />

Date:<br />

1. Choose the best verb to complete each sentence.<br />

explained accused<br />

(a) The man<br />

Stella of biting him.<br />

(b) Dad<br />

Stella’s sad history to the ranger.<br />

2. Write each descriptive verb in an interesting sentence.<br />

(a) loved<br />

(b) disagreed<br />

3. (a) Write two other descriptive verbs you could use instead of ‘said’.<br />

(b) Write an interesting sentence using one of these verbs.<br />

4. (a) Write a short sentence using the verb ‘took’.<br />

(b) Write the sentence again using a better, more descriptive verb.<br />

5. Think of a descriptive adverbial of time to tell when the verb could happen.<br />

We wash our dog.<br />

6. Think of a descriptive adverbial of place to tell where the verb could happen.<br />

The dog took its bone.<br />

7. Complete the sentences. Each one starts with an adverbial. You will need to think<br />

of a good verb to match it. Underline the verbs you chose.<br />

(a) Luckily, the ranger<br />

(b) At long last, we<br />

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ASSESSMENT UNIT 4<br />

CHOOSING CORRECT VERBS<br />

Name:<br />

1. What is the tense of each verb?<br />

Write ‘past’, ‘present’ or ‘future’ after each sentence.<br />

(a) Evie will carry the babies to the garden.<br />

(b) The crows are attacking the baby ducklings.<br />

(c) Evie herded the duck and ducklings to safety.<br />

Date:<br />

2. Correct the tense of the verb and write it in the space provided.<br />

(a) The day be<strong>for</strong>e, Evie will walk past the lake.<br />

(b) Tomorrow, I watched my favourite TV show.<br />

3. Change the verb group from the present to the past tense.<br />

(a) Evie is shouting at the crows.<br />

(b) The crows are sleeping in the trees.<br />

(c) Those tall trees are losing their leaves.<br />

4. Write a short sentence to show how to use each tense of the verb ‘to fly’ correctly.<br />

(a) present tense<br />

(b) past tense<br />

(c) future tense<br />

5. Choose a suitable subject to match each verb group and use them together in an<br />

interesting sentence.<br />

(a) will be hiding<br />

(b) have been attacked<br />

(c) is going to continue to<br />

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