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A healthy smile starts with healthy teeth

By John Friedman



Studies have shown a connection between oral and overall health. Regular dental cleanings may help

lower your risk for some diseases, like heart disease and stroke. Many medical conditions, some of them

life-threatening, can be detected in their early stages by your dentist during a Routine oral exam. Good

oral hygiene is the best way to prevent persistent bad breath. Even if you brush and floss regularly,

getting a cleaning is a great way to keep your mouth healthy and odor-free. Professional dental

cleanings aren’t just for keeping your smile bright; they can have a significant impact on your general

health. Insufficient oral hygiene has been linked to several serious illnesses. Associated medical and

dental issues include bone loss, cardiovascular disease, strokes, cancers, and many other problems.

Brushing and flossing at home are essential, but to ensure teeth are healthy and thoroughly clean,

1.0 Introduction: -

All our life we spend 1,000s of hour’s expression our thoughts and feelings through our mouth and the

same mouth is also used to feed ourselves to survive. Thus our mouth functions as the outlet to our

thoughts and inlet to food for our survival. We use the same mouth to abuse someone and also abuse

the mouth by not taking good enough care of it. Over one’s entire lifetime, people develop variety of

oral habits like smoking; chewing betel nut, tobacco; relishing sweet products. Each potentially a

harmful habit, when they do not find time to take care of their oral cavity – mouth, gums and teeth. Yes,

‘time’, because during the day time, we all would be talking, eating and drinking something. Thus the

circulation of saliva does not allow formation of patches of starch or sugar on or between teeth. But

during night as we sleep the mouth is immobile and the saliva circulation is negligible. This leads to

formation of debris of starch and sugar between teeth. Over a period of time this forms the tartar and

plague. The mouth can thus me seen as a “gateway” that provides a critical connection to other parts of

our body. Given its vital connections to the digestive tract, the brain, and circulatory system, doctors

across all disciplines of medicine have placed an increased emphasis on oral health in relation to overall

wellness. Now having known this important fact, let us look into what specific things make some people

have healthy teeth even when they do not brush or floss their teeth, while million others have very bad

teeth even when they regularly brush and floss their teeth.

1.1 Taking Care of Your Teeth and Mouth

Healthy teeth and gums make it easy for you to eat well and enjoy good food. Several problems can

affect the health of your mouth, but good care should keep your teeth and gums strong as you age.

Tooth Decay

Toothbrushes and toothpaste for healthy teeth and gums, Teeth are covered in a hard, outer coating

called enamel. Every day, a thin film of bacteria called dental plaque builds up on your teeth. The

bacteria in plaque produce acids that can harm enamel and cause cavities. Brushing and flossing your

teeth can prevent decay, but once a cavity forms, a dentist has to fix it. Use fluoride toothpaste to

protect your teeth from decay. If you are at a higher risk for tooth decay (for example, if you have a dry

mouth because of a condition you have or medicines you take), you might need more fluoride. Your

dentist or dental hygienist may give you a fluoride treatment during an office visit or may tell you to use

a fluoride gel or mouth rinse at home.

Gum Disease

Gum disease begins when plaque builds up along and under your gum line. This plaque causes infections

that hurt the gum and bone that hold your teeth in place. Gum disease may make your gums tender and

more likely to bleed. This problem, called gingivitis, can often be fixed by brushing and flossing every

day. A more severe form of gum disease, called periodontitis, must be treated by a dentist. If not

treated, this infection can ruin the bones, gums, and other tissues that support your teeth. Over time,

your teeth may have to be removed.

To prevent gum disease:

• Brush your teeth twice a day with fluoride toothpaste.

• Floss once a day.

• Visit your dentist regularly for a checkup and cleaning.

• Eat a well-balanced diet.

• Quit smoking. Smoking increases your risk for gum disease.

1.2 How to Clean Your Teeth and Gums

There is a right way to brush and floss your teeth. Every day:






Gently brush your teeth on all sides with a soft-bristle brush and fluoride toothpaste.

Use small circular motions and short back-and-forth strokes.

Brush carefully and gently along your gum line.

Lightly brush your tongue to help keep your mouth clean.

Clean around your teeth with dental floss. Careful flossing removes plaque and leftover food

that a toothbrush can’t reach.

Rinse after you floss.

People with arthritis or other conditions that limit hand motion may find it hard to hold and use a

toothbrush. Some helpful tips are:

• Use an electric or battery-operated toothbrush.

• Slide a bicycle grip or foam tube over the handle of the toothbrush.

• Buy a toothbrush with a larger handle.

• Attach the toothbrush handle to your hand with a wide elastic band.

• See your dentist if brushing or flossing causes your gums to bleed or hurts your mouth. If you

have trouble flossing, a floss holder may help. Ask your dentist to show you the right way to



Sometimes, false teeth (dentures) are needed to replace badly damaged teeth. Partial dentures may be

used to fill in one or more missing teeth. Dentures may feel strange at first. In the beginning, your

dentist may want to see you often to make sure the dentures fit. Over time, your gums will change

shape, and your dentures may need to be adjusted or replaced. Be sure to let your dentist handle these

adjustments. Be careful when wearing dentures, because it may be harder for you to feel hot foods and

drinks or notice bones in your food. When learning to eat with dentures, it may be easier if you:

• Start with soft, non-sticky food.

• Cut your food into small pieces.

• Chew slowly using both sides of your mouth.

Keep your dentures clean and free from food that can cause stains, bad breath, or swollen gums. Brush

them every day with a denture-care product. Take your dentures out of your mouth at night, and soak

them in water or a denture-cleansing liquid.

Dry Mouth

Dry mouth happens when you don’t have enough saliva, or spit, to keep your mouth wet. It can make it

hard to eat, swallow, taste, and even speak. Dry mouth can accelerate tooth decay and other infections

of the mouth. Many common medicines can cause this problem. There are things you can do that may

help. Try sipping water or sugarless drinks. Don’t smoke, and avoid alcohol and caffeine. Sugarless hard

candy or sugarless gum that is a little tart may help. Your dentist or doctor might suggest using artificial

saliva to keep your mouth wet.

Oral Cancer

Cancer of the mouth can grow in any part of the mouth or throat. It is more likely to happen in people

over age 40. A dental checkup is a good time for your dentist to look for signs of oral cancer. Pain is not

usually an early symptom of the disease. Treatment works best before the disease spreads. Even if you

have lost all your natural teeth, you should still see your dentist for regular oral cancer exams.

You can lower your risk of getting oral cancer in a few ways:

• Do not use tobacco products, such as cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, chewing tobacco, snuff,

pipes, or cigars.

• If you drink alcohol, do so only in moderation. Use lip balm with sunscreen.

2.0 Things a dental cleaning can do for you

There are many good reasons for having your teeth cleaned

Prevent cavities

The whitish film that builds up on your teeth is called plaque and is the leading cause of tooth decay.

This acidic substance eats away at the tooth enamel and, if left unattended, can lead to cavities. Plaque

can be removed by brushing, flossing and dental cleanings.

Stop tooth loss

Gum disease, which starts with built-up plaque, is a major cause of tooth loss in adults. As gum disease

advances, plaque moves further down the tooth where it can destroy the supporting bone in your jaw,

causing teeth to loosen and fall out. Luckily, the chance of this happening to you can be greatly reduced

through regular dental cleanings combined with good oral hygiene habits.

Brighten your smile

Drinking coffee, tea and wine or using tobacco can stain your teeth. A dental cleaning can remove builtup

stains and leave you with freshly polished teeth. The result? A whiter, brighter smile!

Freshen your breath

Good oral hygiene is the best way to prevent persistent bad breath. Even if you brush and floss

regularly, getting a cleaning is a great way to keep your mouth healthy and odor-free.

Boost your overall health

Studies have shown a connection between oral and overall health. Regular dental cleanings may help

lower your risk for some diseases, like heart disease and stroke. Many medical conditions, some of them

life-threatening, can be detected in their early stages by your dentist during a routine oral exam.

Save money

Get the most value from your dental benefits. Most Delta Dental plans have low or no

copayments/coinsurance for dental cleanings and oral exams. If you take advantage of your benefits

now, you may be able to save money in the long run by helping to protect your oral health and

potentially avoiding more costly and extensive procedures.

3.0 Tips to look after your teeth

Good oral hygiene and regular visits to the dentist will help you maintain healthy teeth and gums. Here

are some tips to help you look after your teeth.

• Brush at least twice a day.

• Use fluoridated toothpaste.

• Brush thoroughly.

• Floss your teeth daily.

• Limit acidic drinks like soft drinks, cordials and fruit juices.

• Limit sugary foods.

• Protect your teeth from injury.

• Try to save a knocked out tooth.

• Avoid using your teeth for anything other than chewing food.

• See your dentist for regular check-ups

3.1 Preventing Tooth Decay

Tooth decay is the destruction of tooth structure and can affect both the enamel (the outer coating of

the tooth) and the dentin layer of the tooth. Tooth decay occurs when foods containing carbohydrates

(sugars and starches), such as breads, cereals, milk, soda, fruits, cakes, or candy are left on the teeth.

Bacteria that live in the mouth digest these foods, turning them into acids. The bacteria, acid, food

debris, and saliva combine to form plaque, which clings to the teeth. The acids in plaque dissolve the

enamel surface of the teeth, creating holes in the teeth called cavities. Brush your teeth at least twice a

day with fluoride-containing toothpaste. Preferably, brush after each meal and especially before going

to bed. Clean between your teeth daily with dental floss or interdental cleaners, such as the Oral-B

Interdental Brush, Reach Stem-U-Dent, or Sulcabrush. Rinse daily with a fluoride-containing mouthwash.

Some rinses also have antiseptic ingredients to help kill bacteria that cause plaque. Eat nutritious and

balanced meals and limit snacks. Avoid carbohydrates such as candy, pretzels and chips, which can

remain on the tooth surface. If sticky foods are eaten, brush your teeth soon afterwards. Check with

your dentist about use of supplemental fluoride, which strengthens your teeth. Ask your dentist about

dental sealants (a plastic protective coating) applied to the chewing surfaces of your back teeth (molars)

to protect them from decay. Drink fluoridated water. At least a pint of fluoridated water each day is

needed to protect children from tooth decay. Visit your dentist regularly for professional cleanings and

oral exam. Researchers are developing new means to prevent tooth decay. One study found that a

chewing gum that contains the sweetener xylitol temporarily retarded the growth of bacteria that cause

tooth decay. In addition, several materials that slowly release fluoride over time, which will help prevent

further decay, are being explored. These materials would be placed between teeth or in pits and fissures

of teeth. Toothpastes and mouth rinses that can reverse and "heal" early cavities are also being studied.

How to Get Rid of Cavities

What causes cavities?

Getting rid of cavities at home, many home treatments are based off of a study from the 1930s that

suggested that cavities are caused by lack of vitamin D in the diet. In this study, kids who added vitamin

D to their diets showed a reduction in cavities. However, those who added vitamin D while also

removing grain products from their diets had the best results. This is possibly because grains can stick to

the teeth. Not getting enough vitamin D may make teeth more susceptible to cavities, but we now

understand that this is only a part of the puzzle. Other risk factors for cavities include:

• Dry mouth or having a medical condition that reduces the amount of saliva in the mouth

• Eating foods that cling to teeth, like candy and sticky foods

• Frequent snacking on sugary foods or drinks, like soda, cereals, and ice cream

• heartburn (due to acid)

• Inadequate cleaning of teeth

• bedtime infant feeding

Once a cavity has penetrated the dentin, you won’t be able to get rid of it at home. The following home

remedies might help prevent cavities or treat “pre-cavities” by rematerializing weakened areas of your

enamel before a cavity develops:

1. Sugar-free gum

Chewing sugar-free gum after meals has been shown in clinical trials to help remineralize

enamel. Gum containing xylitol has been researched extensively for its ability to stimulate saliva

flow, raise the pH of plaque, and reduces mutants, but long-term studies are needed. Sugar-free

gum containing a compound called casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-

ACP) has been shown to reduce. Mutants even more than Xylitol-containing chewing gum. You

can find this type of gum in stores.

2. Vitamin D

Vitamin D is important to help absorb calcium and phosphate from the food you eat. Studies show an

inverse relationship between eating foods high in vitamin D and calcium, like yogurt, and cavities in

young children. You can get vitamin D from dairy products, like milk and yogurt. You can also get vitamin

D from the sun. More recent research has challenged how vitamin D can affect dental health

3. Brush with fluoride toothpaste

Fluoride plays an important role in preventing cavities and remineralizing enamel. Extensive research

has been done to show that regularly brushing your teeth with fluoride toothpaste prevents cavities.

Most studies have been conducted either in children or adolescents, so more research is needed in

adults and the elderly.

4. Cut out sugary foods

This is the cavity remedy that no one likes to hear stop eating so much sugar. The World Health

Organization says that eating sugar is the most important risk factor for cavities. They recommend

reducing your sugar intake to less than 10 percent of your total caloric intake for the day. If you’re going

to eat sugar, try not to snack on sugary foods throughout the day. Once the sugar is gone, your enamel

has a chance to remineralize. But if you are constantly eating sugar, your teeth don’t get the chance to


5. Oil pulling

Oil pulling is an ancient practice that involves swishing around oil, like sesame or coconut, in your mouth

for about 20 minutes, then spitting it out. Claims that oil pulling “removes toxins” from the body isn’t

backed up by evidence. But a small, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial showed that oil pulling

with sesame oil reduces plaque, gingivitis, and the number of bacteria in the mouth just as effectively as

chlorhexidine mouthwash. Larger studies are needed to confirm these effects.

6. Licorice root

Extracts from the Chinese licorice plant (Glycyrrhizin uralensis) can combat the bacteria responsible for

dental cavities, according to at least one study. One researcher has taken this to the next level and

created a licorice lollipop to help fight tooth decay. Pilot studies using licorice extract in a Lollipop

showed they were effective in significantly reducing mutans in the mouth and preventing cavities.

Larger and more long-term studies are needed.

4.0 Conditions That Make Your Teeth Hurt

You Cope by Clenching Do you clench your jaw in times of anger, tension, or intense concentration?

Your teeth bear some of the brunt of that stress. They can ache or wiggle loose over time.

Your Daily Grind Sometimes even when you don’t feel stressed, you might clench and grind your teeth

while you sleep. It can happen when you have a sleep disorder, your bite doesn’t line up correctly, or

you’re missing teeth. Ask your dentist if a night guard can help you prevent damage while you dream.

You Overdo Oral Rinses Swishing with mouthwash multiple times a day may give you a deep clean. But

it can come with a downside: sensitive teeth. Some rinses have acids that can damage your dentin, the

middle layer of your teeth.

You Push Your Body Studies on triathlete’s show that endurance training can wear down your tooth

enamel more. The more intense their workout schedule, the more likely they were to have cavities.

Scientists aren’t exactly sure why, but may think it has to do with how exercise changes the amount of

saliva in your mouth.

Your Sinuses Are Stuffed Pain in your upper back teeth might be a sign of a sinus infection. It’s pretty

common, since your teeth are close neighbors of your nasal passages.

You’ve Got a Bun in the Oven Pregnancy may have you seeing more “pink in the sink,” or blood when

you brush. You’re more likely to deal with gingivitis when you’ve got a baby on the way. You also have a

higher chance of cavities, so schedule some extra checkups with your dentist while you wait for delivery


Your Jaw Is Jammed Your temporomandibular joint (TMJ) connects your lower jaw to your skull. When

any part of your TMJ isn’t working because of injury, arthritis, or something else, it can cause a whole

host of symptoms, including pain when you chew and in your jaw.

Nerve Damage It’s not common, but a condition called trigeminal neuralgia could be at the root of your

tooth problem. It causes chronic nerve pain in one of the nerves in your head. The pain is often brought

on by brushing your teeth, eating, and drinking.

Heart Problems Upper body pain can be a symptom of a heart attack. You might feel the discomfort in

your shoulders, neck, jaw, or teeth. Take note if you’re dealing with other things along with your mouth,

like sweating, heart palpitations, nausea, chest pain, or shortness of breath.

You’ve Brightened Your Smile Dealing with dingy teeth by bleaching? Your whitener may be to blame

for throbbing teeth. Sensitivity can start 2-3 days into treatment but can go away after a few more. Your

gums can feel irritated as you whiten, too.

Your Gums Are Starting to Give When gums recede, they pull back the protective layer over your

teeth’s nerves and leave them aching. It can be a sign of gum disease, so be sure your dentist knows if

your pain comes with teeth that look longer, or if you have pus, mouth sores, bad breath, or bleeding

when you brush.

You need a Cancer Check Oral cancer commonly shows up with mouth or tooth pain that doesn’t go

away. Trigeminal neuralgia can also come from a tumor pressing on your facial nerves, but it’s rare.

Your Diet Is Too Acidic Foods high in acid wear away enamel and leave teeth less protected. The top

culprits include hard sugar candies, coffee, citrus fruits like lemons, oranges, and grapefruits and soda.

You Throw Up a Lot Speaking of acid, your stomach is full of it. When you vomit, that can get on your

teeth. If you vomit a lot, it can start to damage them. GERD (gastro esophageal reflux disease),

pregnancy, chronic alcoholism, and bulimia are conditions that can lead to tooth trouble from throwing

up too much.

You Don’t Drink Enough Water Not only does water wash away the bits and pieces of food left behind

after you eat, depending on where you get your water, it can also be full of fluoride, which keeps teeth

strong and healthy. If you don’t drink enough water, your teeth could be in trouble.

5.0 Gum Problem Basics: Sore, Swollen, and Bleeding Gums

When you think about dental health, the focus is likely to be on preventing cavities in your teeth. But it's

important to pay attention to your gums, too. Gums play a major role not only in your dental health, but

in your overall well-being. In many instances, swollen and bleeding gums are a sign of gum disease.

However, there are a number of other things that could be causing your gum problems. Whatever the

cause of sore, painful gums, there are steps you can take to minimize gum damage and discomfort. In

the quest to keep teeth clean, you might be tempted to brush teeth as vigorously as you can. Gums are

made of delicate tissue, though, so brushing the wrong way could damage them. Whether you opt for a

manual or electric toothbrush, choose one with soft nylon bristles that have blunted ends. Even though

you can find brushes with medium or hard bristles, they may damage the enamel on your teeth or cause

red and swollen gums. When you brush, make sure you use gentle, circular motions to massage and

clean the teeth and gums. While many people use a back-and-forth motion, this motion can irritate and

damage your gums, making them more and more likely to bleed or recede.

Gums and Flossing Technique

We all know the importance of flossing every day to help remove plaque from places where your tooth

brush can't reach. To make sure that your healthy habit isn't causing swollen or bleeding gums, be

gentle when you floss. Rather than forcing the floss between your teeth, carefully slide it up and down,

following the curve of each tooth.

Gum Disease More than three-quarters of adults over age 35 get periodontal (gum) disease. While most

people with gum disease have the less severe form, called gingivitis, between 5% and 15% have a much

more serious type of gum disease known as periodontitis when people don't practice proper dental

hygiene, bacteria in the mouth forms plaque on the teeth. These bacteria may cause your gums to

become inflamed, which results in red, swollen, or bleeding gums. For many people with gingivitis, this

inflammation is not painful. If you catch gingivitis early, it can be reversed and healed with proper oral

hygiene. But left untreated, gingivitis can worsen and ultimately lead to tooth loss. Be sure to seek

medical attention if you have the following symptoms, even if you don't have any discomfort: changes in

the way teeth fit together on biting, or in the fit of partial dentures formation of deep pockets between

teeth and gums, gums that bleed during and after tooth brushing ,loose or shifting teeth ,persistent bad

breath or bad taste in the mouth ,receding gums ,red, swollen, or tender gums When gingivitis

progresses, it develops into periodontitis, a condition in which the gums and bone that hold the teeth in

place can be severely weakened. The bacteria on the teeth release toxic substances that harm your

gums and cause them to become infected. The infection and the inflammation that result when your

body attacks the bacteria can degrade your gums and the bone in your jaw even further. You may have

exceptionally swollen, painful gums that are likely to bleed. If left untreated, periodontitis can lead to

tooth loss.

Gums and Canker Sores Common culprits behind painful gums are canker sores, or mouth ulcers. These

painful sores can develop anywhere inside the mouth, including on the gums, and often have a whitish

center with red edges. You may have one canker sore at a time, making only one area on your gums

sore, or you may have multiple sores at the same time throughout your mouth. While researchers don't

know what causes canker sores, there may be bacterial or viral involvement. People with certain

autoimmune diseases may also be more likely to have gum problems caused by canker sores. Canker

sores often come back over time and are not contagious.

Gums and Chemotherapy can have a number of unpleasant side effects, including painful, swollen, and

bleeding gums. Many people undergoing treatment for cancer contend with stomatitis, which causes

the development of painful sores and ulcers on the gums and throughout the mouth.

Gums and Tobacco Products Using cigarettes and other tobacco products can be extremely damaging to

your gums. People who smoke are far more likely to develop gum disease. You may find that your

smoking habit gives you a number of gum problems, from sensitive gums that bleed to painful sores.

Gums and Hormones Some women find they have gum problems during puberty, menstruation,

pregnancy, and menopause. The rise in hormones during puberty can heighten blood flow to the gums,

making them red, swollen, and sensitive. For women with menstrual gingivitis, the gums become red,

swollen, and more likely to bleed shortly before each menstrual period. These problems typically

subside after the period begins. Pregnancy gingivitis typically starts in the second or third month of

pregnancy and Continues through the eighth month, causing sore, swollen, and bleeding gums. The use

of oral birth control products may cause similar gum problems. Though uncommon, some women going

through menopause may find that their gums become extremely dry and therefore sore and likely to


6.0 Ways to Keep Your Teeth Healthy

1. Don’t go to bed without brushing your teeth

2. Brush properly

3. Don’t neglect your tongue

4. Use fluoride toothpaste

5. Treat flossing as important as brushing

6. Don’t let flossing difficulties stop you

7. Consider mouthwash

8. Drink more water

9. Eat crunchy fruits and vegetables

10. Limit sugary and acidic foods

11. See your dentist at least twice a year

6.1 Green tea may boost dental health

Looking for a caffeine boost? Consider swapping out your daily coffee for a cup of green tea. The

brewed drink may improve your oral health. Regularly drinking green tea can protect against cavities,

gum disease and bad breath, according to a 2016 study that compiled research on the beverage’s oral

health effects. The study indicated that green tea may reduce oral bacteria which, in turn, can promote

the health of teeth and gums. What’s more, drinking green tea may lower your chance of developing

oral cancer. Researchers also noted a significantly lower risk of oral cancer among individuals who drank

green tea. But before you load up on green tea, don’t forget to skip the sweeteners. Sugar and honey

still promote cavities, even when you drink them with green tea.

7.0 When Should I See a Dentist About a Toothache?

See your dentist as soon as possible about your toothache if:

‣ You have a toothache that lasts longer than 1 or 2 days

‣ Your toothache is severe

‣ You have a fever, earache, or pain upon opening your mouth wide.

Proper identification and treatment of dental infections is important to prevent its spread to other parts

of the face and skull and possibly even to the bloodstream.

7.1 What Happens When I Go to the Dentist for a Toothache?

To treat your toothache, your dentist will first obtain your medical history and conduct a physical exam.

He or she will ask you question about the pain, such as when the pain started, how severe it is, where

the pain is located, what makes the pain worse, and what makes it better. Your dentist will examine

your mouth, teeth, gums, jaws, tongue, throat, sinuses, ears, nose, and neck. X-rays may be taken as

well as other tests, depending on what your dentist suspects is causing your toothache.

7.2 What Treatments Are Available for a Toothache?

Treatment for a toothache depends on the cause. If a cavity is causing the toothache, your dentist will

fill the cavity or possibly extract the tooth, if necessary. A root canal might be needed if the cause of the

toothache is determined to be an infection of the tooth's nerve. Bacteria that have worked their way

into the inner aspects of the tooth cause such an infection. An antibiotic may be prescribed if there is

fever or swelling of the jaw.

8.0 How Can Toothaches Be Prevented?

Since most toothaches are the result of tooth decay, following good oral hygiene practices can prevent

toothaches. Good oral hygiene practices consist of brushing regularly with fluoride-containing

toothpaste, flossing once daily, rinsing once or twice a day with an antiseptic mouthwash, and seeing

your dentist twice a year for professional cleaning. In addition to these practices, eat foods low in sugar

and ask your dentist about sealants and fluoride applications.

8.1 Most Common Dental Problems

‣ Bad Breath

‣ Tooth Decay

‣ Gum (Periodontal) Disease

‣ Oral Cancer

‣ Mouth Sores

‣ Tooth Erosion

‣ Tooth Sensitivity

‣ Toothaches and Dental Emergencies

‣ Unattractive Smile



|September 2012| Tips for cavity prevention|

Dental Implant Treatment | Retrieved 18 sep 2018

Michael Friedman 2017 | oral Care | 25 Jan, 2017 | Retrieved 18 Sep 2018

Khurshid 2016| Green tea (Camellia Sinensis) Chemistry and oral health.| 7 Jan 2016| Retrieved 18 Sep


September 2012 |10 tips to look after your Teeth| Retrieved 18 Sep 2018

John Donovan 2016 | oral care |16 Dec, 2017 | Retrieved 18 Sep 2018

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