#5: It's a Hemp Thing

Mary's Cannabis Primer is published as a resource for national and international education about the benefits of Cannabis. This issue is dedicated to Hemp.

Mary's Cannabis Primer is published as a resource for national and international education about the benefits of Cannabis. This issue is dedicated to Hemp.


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PRIMER<br />

issue <strong>#5</strong><br />


PRIMER<br />

issue <strong>#5</strong><br />


Mary’s Primer is published as an educational resource.<br />

Mistakes, though regrettable, are inevitable.<br />

Copyright 2018<br />

Editor-in-Chief: Alice O’Leary Randall<br />

Design: Jesica Clark<br />

Contributors: David Bonvillain, Realm of Caring<br />

Special Thanks: Project CBD and Cannabis.info<br />

Published by: Mary’s Medicinals and Mary’s Nutritionals<br />

This publication was produced by Mary’s Medicinals and Mary’s Nutritionals<br />

in consultation with medical professionals and scientists. However, our<br />

understanding of cannabis medicine is constantly evolving and so we can<br />

only share what we have learned from patients and the research that is<br />

currently available. Every patient will have individual reactions to different<br />

treatments. Use of this information is not intended to be a substitute for<br />

professional medical judgment and you should promptly contact your own<br />

health care provider regarding any medical conditions or medical questions<br />

that you have or before beginning any treatment.<br />

Mary’s Medicinals Denver, CO MarysPubs.com


<strong>Hemp</strong> has exploded onto the scene in recent years. Once scorned by<br />

marijuana users as “ditch-weed,” the lowly hemp plant has undergone<br />

a renaissance due in large part to the expanding knowledge of the<br />

cannabinoid known as CBD (cannabidiol).<br />

The distinguishing feature between hemp and marijuana is hemp’s<br />

minimal delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content. THC is, of course,<br />

the cannabinoid that makes people “high,” but in hemp the THC content<br />

is 0.3% or less. This lack of psychoactivity means hemp is legal in all<br />

50 states (although some state regulations prohibit its growth) and its<br />

products can be shipped nationwide. As a result CBD derived from hemp<br />

is available in nearly every state and can often be bought in your local<br />

health food store or online.<br />

But is hemp medicine?<br />

Technically no…but maybe yes. CBD derived from hemp does have<br />

properties that can be helpful for many conditions but some argue that<br />

it may be more realistic to view hemp-derived-CBD as a nutritional<br />

supplement. CBD derived from cannabis, as opposed to hemp, has many<br />

cannabinoids (most notably THC) and terpenes. These molecules work<br />

together in a synergistic process known as “the entourage effect” and,<br />

while we still have a lot to learn about the whole plant cannabis and its<br />

components, the general consensus among medical professionals is that<br />

THC is a critical component of therapeutic cannabis. The Project CBD<br />

interview with Dr. Ethan Russo explains more of this concept. (page 13)<br />

The cannabis issue is already quite complex and “the hemp thing” just<br />

adds to the complexity. But understanding what hemp is, its legal stature<br />

and its limitations helps you become a better consumer. The best patient<br />

is an educated patient. This issue of the Primer features articles by two<br />

of the finest cannabis education resources in the U.S. --- Project CBD and<br />

Realm of Caring.<br />

David Bonvillain grows hundreds of acres of hemp in Colorado and is<br />

the founder of Elite Botanicals. He puts the importance of hemp into<br />

perspective (see page 9) Finally, the Resources Guide on page 22 will lead<br />

you to more information.<br />

Keep learning!<br />

Alice O’Leary Randall<br />


Table of Contents<br />

The <strong>Hemp</strong> Renaissance . . . . . . . . . . . 1<br />

What is this <strong>Hemp</strong> <strong>Thing</strong>? . . . . . . . . . 4<br />

RoC Facts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8<br />

<strong>Hemp</strong> & Cannabis – The Debate, Misconceptions<br />

and Misinformation. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9<br />

About Elite Botanicals. . . . . . . . . . . 12<br />

Dr. Ethan Russo: CBD & Clinical<br />

Endocannabinoid Deficiency. . . . . . . . . 13<br />

<strong>Hemp</strong> & the Human Body. . . . . . . . . . . 15<br />

Healthy! Nutritional Value of <strong>Hemp</strong> Seeds. . 19<br />

Resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22


by Alice O’Leary Randall<br />

Marijuana, Mary Jane, pot,<br />

ganja, dank, weed … cannabis<br />

has more names than you can count.<br />

Indeed, according to Wikipedia,<br />

cannabis has “more than 1,200 slang<br />

terms.” And many of those terms<br />

have entered the modern network of<br />

medical cannabis dispensaries thus<br />

presenting a bewildering array of<br />

product to the thousands of medical<br />

cannabis users who are flocking to<br />

this ancient and venerable plant.<br />

But there is one term for cannabis<br />

that is not just slang, it describes<br />

a variant of the plant that has reemerged<br />

on the cannabis stage and<br />

given us a new and exciting array of<br />

products: that term is “<strong>Hemp</strong>.”<br />

Predominantly used in industry,<br />

hemp has also found its way into<br />

the medical cannabis debate and<br />

this has caused confusion in recent<br />

years. In the U.S., hemp is defined<br />

as cannabis having less than 0.3%<br />

delta-9 THC, the cannabinoid that<br />

causes people to “get high.” This low<br />

THC content was codified into law<br />

in the 2014 U.S. Farm Bill and this<br />

has allowed the hemp movement to<br />

make great strides with respect to<br />

re-introducing legal hemp into the<br />

U.S. market. Concurrently, scientific<br />

research with cannabidiol (CBD),<br />

revealed numerous therapeutic<br />

applications. <strong>Hemp</strong> farmers began<br />

experimenting with their plants,<br />

boosting the CBD content and<br />

developing CBD products in<br />

many forms. Today, CBD specific<br />

products made from hemp can be<br />

found in trendy grocery stores and,<br />

most significantly, online at specific<br />

websites and even Amazon.com.<br />

These developments, while exciting,<br />

have also created massive confusion<br />

among consumers since all hemp<br />

is cannabis but not all cannabis is<br />

hemp. Therein lies the difference.<br />

<strong>Hemp</strong> is legal and currently grown in<br />

34 states, according to the National<br />

Conference of State Legislatures.<br />

(The NCSL website has an excellent<br />

explanation of the history of hemp<br />

laws in the U.S.)<br />

In this issue of Mary’s Primer the<br />

focus is on hemp grown specifically<br />

for its CBD content and converted<br />

into tinctures, salves, patches,<br />

compounds, pills and other<br />

formulations which allow individuals<br />

to use the CBD as a supplement<br />

or remedy for health and medical<br />

conditions.<br />

When it comes to CBD the most<br />

frequent question becomes: is<br />

CBD from hemp different from<br />

CBD derived from the more<br />

traditional cannabis plant? The<br />

simple answer is: no. A molecule<br />

is a molecule regardless of which<br />

plant the molecule is taken from.<br />


But traditional hemp grown for<br />

fiber is not a good candidate for<br />

CBD extraction. Project CBD, a<br />

California-based nonprofit dedicated<br />

to promoting and publicizing<br />

research into medical uses of CBD,<br />

provides a helpful explanation why:<br />

“Compared to whole plant CBDrich<br />

cannabis, industrial hemp<br />

grown for fiber or seed is typically<br />

low in cannabinoid content. A huge<br />

amount of fiber hemp is required to<br />

extract a small amount of CBD.…”<br />

<strong>Hemp</strong> farmers and scientists,<br />

high-percentage and high-quality<br />

CBD. (See Elite Botanicals on page<br />

12).<br />

Forbes Magazine in August 2017<br />

reported that “<strong>Hemp</strong>-derived<br />

cannabidiol (CBD) is projected to be<br />

a billion-dollar market in just three<br />

years.” (The Forbes article, “<strong>Hemp</strong><br />

Cannabis Product Sales Projected<br />

to Hit $1 Billion in 3 Years” is<br />

informative about the history of this<br />

industry growth, as well as current<br />

markets and uses.) The magazine<br />

report also noted that nearly 65%<br />

<strong>Hemp</strong> harvesting on Rhine bank<br />

however, began to breed a new form<br />

of hemp with much higher CBD<br />

content. Just as cannabis plants<br />

have been developed with extremely<br />

high content of delta-9 THC, so too<br />

the hemp farmers have genetically<br />

manipulated their hemp plants for<br />

high CBD content. The result is<br />

of hemp-derived-CBD is distributed<br />

via online sales!<br />

With so much money to be made it<br />

is not surprising that problems arise.<br />

The hemp plant has a remarkable<br />

facility for absorbing heavy metals<br />

and other contaminants from the<br />

soil. (Indeed, hemp is recommended<br />


for environmental cleaning of<br />

industrial sites.) Obviously<br />

hemp that is exposed to these<br />

environments, or treated with<br />

fertilizers, is not the best product for<br />

human consumption. Additionally,<br />

some manufacturers import their<br />

hemp from China and other markets<br />

where environmental regulations are<br />

not particularly stringent.<br />

So the maxim “Buyer beware”<br />

is pertinent in today’s hempderived-CBD<br />

market. <strong>Hemp</strong> and<br />

cannabis are regaining their place<br />

in our society after more than eight<br />

decades of prohibition but there are<br />

still many problems with respect<br />

to supply. The resource list in this<br />

issue of Mary’s Primer provides<br />

websites with additional information<br />

on CBD producers. Project CBD<br />

has a good starting point in their<br />

“What to Look for in Your Cannabis<br />

Medicine.” This issue of Mary’s<br />

Primer will hopefully educate you in<br />

finding and using the best product.<br />

Note:<br />

Visit www.maryspubs.com for the<br />

digitized version of Mary’s<br />

Primers and find all website<br />

links in an easy click-on format.<br />

<strong>Hemp</strong> workers<br />



Prepared by the staff at Realm<br />

of Caring in Colorado Springs,<br />

Colorado. Visit realmofcaring.org<br />

for more information.<br />



First, let’s start with the legal<br />

definition of hemp from National<br />

Conference of State Legislatures:<br />

A wide range of products,<br />

including fibers, textiles, paper,<br />

construction and insulation<br />

materials, cosmetic products,<br />

animal feed, food, and beverages<br />

all may use hemp. The plant<br />

is estimated to be used in more<br />

than 25,000 products spanning<br />

nine markets: agriculture, textiles,<br />

recycling, automotive, furniture,<br />

food/nutrition/beverages, paper,<br />

construction materials and<br />

personal care.<br />

While hemp and marijuana products<br />

both come from the cannabis plant,<br />

hemp is typically distinguished by<br />

its use, physical appearance and<br />

lower concentration (less than 0.3%)<br />

of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol<br />

(THC). <strong>Hemp</strong> producers often grow<br />

the plant for one or more parts —<br />

seeds, flowers and stalk. The plant is<br />

cultivated to grow taller, denser and<br />

with a single stalk.<br />


‘WHAT IS CBD?’<br />

The cannabis plant can produce<br />

over 100 unique natural compounds<br />

called cannabinoids, one of which<br />

is cannabidiol, or CBD. Unlike<br />

THC, CBD causes no intoxicating<br />

or euphoric effects. Research is also<br />

showing CBD to be the cannabinoid<br />

with the longest list of potential<br />

therapeutic benefits.<br />



Some think that THC only comes<br />

from marijuana and CBD only<br />

comes from hemp. This isn’t quite<br />

right. The only legal difference<br />

between marijuana and hemp is<br />

that hemp contains no more than<br />

0.3% THC in the US, and up to<br />

1% internationally. A plant<br />

that produces large quantities of<br />

THC is also capable of producing<br />

lots of CBD (strains like AC/DC,<br />

Cannatonic, Harlequin). And a<br />

plant variety bred for industrial<br />

hemp will still contain trace levels<br />

of THC, and could contain virtually<br />

no CBD. In general though, CBD<br />

is being derived from proprietary<br />

hemp strains naturally high in this<br />

cannabinoid.<br />



ONLINE?<br />

CBD and hemp products can be<br />


CBD derived from cannabis<br />

See answer page 20<br />

CBD derived from hemp<br />

What’s the difference<br />

between these CBD<br />

molecules?<br />

ordered online and shipped to all 50<br />

states. Some health food stores carry<br />

these products and you do not need<br />

a prescription or recommendation<br />

from a doctor to purchase. If you<br />

are accessing hemp-derived high-<br />

CBD products from companies<br />

that are growing under a research<br />

and development license with their<br />

state agricultural department, or an<br />

institution of higher learning, you<br />

are protected by the Agricultural<br />

Act of 2014. You should be aware<br />

that not all products are equal, and<br />

some companies are not “legally”<br />

producing hemp products.<br />



Researchers have called CBD the<br />

“boy scout molecule,” meaning<br />

it does the right thing, in the<br />

right place, at the right time.<br />

5<br />

Naturopaths would use the term<br />

regulator, modulator or adaptogen<br />

to describe the actions of CBD. In<br />

the same light, some researchers call<br />

CBD a “promiscuous” molecule,<br />

which means it interacts with many<br />

different receptors and systems.<br />

CBD builds up in the fatty tissue, is<br />

re-circulated in the blood plasma and<br />

is excreted slowly out of the body.<br />

This is why you can stop CBD cold<br />

turkey and it will not shock the body<br />

into withdrawal. Furthermore, CBD<br />

does not generally bind to receptors<br />

in the body like a traditional<br />

drug. Opioids, for example, like<br />

oxycodone, bind to opioid receptors<br />

in the brain, killing pain, but the<br />

body adapts to the binding, creating<br />

a tolerance and a need to increase<br />

the dose to receive the same benefits.<br />

It has a low affinity for binding to

eceptors, instead it works in most<br />

situations in a “hands-off manner”<br />

communicating with other systems<br />

to promote balance. CBD does not<br />

produce addiction, habituation or<br />

tolerance.<br />

Cannabis use is associated with a<br />

feeling of being “high,” but that<br />

effect can be solely attributed to<br />

THC. CBD does not cause any type<br />

of euphoria or mind-altering effects.<br />


Unlike a targeted therapy, medicine,<br />

or chemical that acts on one<br />

system or even one receptor like<br />

antidepressants in the SSRI family<br />

(selective serotonin reuptake<br />

inhibitors, which target the serotonin<br />

receptor 5HT1A), CBD works with<br />

many receptors and electrochemical<br />

signaling systems to exert its effects.<br />

To date, research has discovered<br />

over 50+ mechanisms of actions of<br />

CBD. It is a veritable “jack of all<br />

trades” for the brain and body.<br />

To describe it in a nutshell,<br />

CBD mainly works via the<br />

endocannabinoid system CB2<br />

receptors to promote and maintain<br />

homeostasis or balance in the body.<br />

Although it does act on other<br />

receptors, including 5HT1A.<br />




CBD can help restore balance<br />

and proper function to virtually<br />

any cell, tissue, or organ in<br />

the body. Due to this, the list<br />

of symptoms and conditions<br />

that CBD can help alleviate is<br />

extensive. Preclinical research and<br />

anecdotal evidence suggest that<br />

CBD can be anti-inflammatory,<br />

neuroprotective, neuro-regenerative,<br />

antioxidant, anti-convulsant,<br />

anti-spasmodic, antiemetic, antitumoral,<br />

anti-pathogenic, antianxiety,<br />

antidepressant, and<br />

antipsychotic, to name a few.<br />




The U.S. has made it EXTREMELY<br />

difficult to conduct human studies<br />

using cannabis or the compounds<br />

produced by the plant. So while there<br />

are tens of thousands of research<br />

articles pertaining to cannabis, there<br />

is a lack of the “gold standard” type<br />

of study, which is called a doubleblind<br />

placebo controlled study.<br />

Internationally, especially in Israel<br />

where they have been researching<br />

cannabis since the 1960’s, there have<br />

been some double-blind placebo<br />

controlled studies. For example, in<br />

the 1980’s, Dr. Raphael Mechoulam<br />

and a group of Brazilian researchers<br />

conducted a small double-blind<br />

placebo controlled study testing<br />

CBD administration in a small group<br />

of people (10 patients) with epilepsy<br />

and the results did show promising<br />

outcomes for the epileptic subjects<br />

who were administered CBD.<br />

However, one study of ten people is<br />

not enough evidence to constitute<br />

scientific canon. The study itself<br />

(and many more diverse studies)<br />

must be repeated with larger and<br />

more diverse groups, with the same<br />


esults.<br />

Although clinical research isn’t<br />

practically possible on humans in the<br />

U.S. at this point in time, the next<br />

best type of research that can be<br />

conducted is observational in nature.<br />

This is where the Realm of Caring<br />

Foundation is filling a research void.<br />

In partnership with researchers<br />

at Johns Hopkins University and<br />

University of Pennsylvania, we are<br />

operating an online Observational<br />

Research Registry (ORR), which is<br />

the largest of its kind in the country.<br />

There are cannabis and non-cannabis<br />

users with a plethora of diagnoses<br />

who are participating, allowing us to<br />

gather a wide and deep longitudinal<br />

data set with which we can make<br />

internal and external comparisons.<br />

(See RoC Facts, page 8)<br />


Reported side effects of CBD are<br />

extremely mild when compared with<br />

those of most pharmaceutical drugs.<br />

The most frequently reported side<br />

effects are better mood, increased<br />

alertness, better sleep, drowsiness,<br />

decreased self-stimulation, fatigue,<br />

and decreased appetite. CBD is<br />

non-toxic and high doses of up to<br />

1.5 grams per day are reportedly<br />

well tolerated in humans.<br />



No matter where you fall on the<br />

spectrum from healthy to sick, and<br />

no matter your age, CBD may be<br />

beneficial for you. Those who have<br />

seizures or take pharmaceutical<br />

medications, especially blood<br />

pressure medications and antiepileptic<br />

drugs, should be cautious<br />

when adding CBD to their regimen<br />

as these drugs can interact with<br />

CBD. As long as you consult the<br />

use of CBD with your doctor and<br />

research how to acquire and use it<br />

responsibly, then almost anyone<br />

can try it. Assessing the quality<br />

of available products is critical<br />

to making a selection when you<br />

purchase CBD products.<br />

It is suggested that pregnant and<br />

nursing mothers refrain from using<br />

CBD due to a lack of research on<br />

potential outcomes. Also anyone<br />

who is subject to drug testing needs<br />

to be aware that CBD products<br />

contain trace amounts of THC that<br />

can build up in the system after<br />

prolonged use and thus trigger a<br />

“positive” on a drug test.<br />



Everyone is different, and according<br />

to the tone and sensitivity of your<br />

own endocannabinoid system, some<br />

users will see results quicker than<br />

others. Some have seen results after<br />

one dose; however, this is not the<br />

majority. Especially when following<br />

a “slow and steady” responsible<br />

administration regimen, it can<br />

take anywhere from a few weeks to<br />

months to see the full benefits.<br />


ROC<br />

FACTS<br />

www.theroc.us<br />

...because quality of life matters<br />

• The Realm of Caring Foundation is a nonprofit organization<br />

based in Colorado Springs, Colorado. RoC has 15 full and<br />

part time staff members supporting over 45,000 clients<br />

worldwide.<br />

• RoC is designated by the IRS as a 501(c)(3) non-profit entity.<br />

Contributions are tax-deductible.<br />

• RoC Research Library - a free, online repository of published<br />

cannabinoid research studies compiled by disease category. A<br />

must read for anyone seeking factual information on the use<br />

of cannabinoid therapies.<br />

• RoC’s Observational Research Registry is one way you can<br />

be part of an ongoing, observational research project. The<br />

RoC has partnered with Johns Hopkins University School<br />

of Medicine to compile a database of patients. Whether you<br />

are currently using cannabinoid therapies or not, your input<br />

will be invaluable to other families, doctors, and researchers.<br />

• Webinar Orientation Series - a biweekly event where<br />

participants can ask questions in real time.<br />

• Physician Education - provided quarterly to catch you up on<br />

the most recent research articles.<br />

One-on-one consultations are also available from RoC Care<br />

Specialists. Call 719-347-5400 or email info@theroc.us<br />




By David Bonvillain<br />

Owner and Chief Science Officer<br />

Elite Botanicals<br />

Regardless of whether you<br />

research online, attend a<br />

conference, or just talk to ‘those<br />

in the know,’ there is a wealth of<br />

misinformation regarding CBD and<br />

<strong>Hemp</strong>. We want to clear up some<br />

misinformation and provide some<br />

basics in the hopes of allowing the<br />

reader to properly differentiate<br />

between the sources of products<br />

that are available on the market.<br />

Let’s address the “CBD from hemp<br />

vs. cannabis” debate first.<br />

Historically speaking—as in 4+<br />

years ago—this would have been a<br />

fairly straightforward discussion.<br />

The differentiation was the source<br />

of the CBD. On one hand you had<br />

industrial hemp crops (oilseed and<br />

fiber varieties) farmed in other<br />

countries that contain almost<br />

no cannabinoids at all and were<br />

processed by the hundreds of<br />

thousands of pounds to produce<br />

isolated CBD. The counterpoint to<br />

that was cannabinoid rich (type-<br />

3 drug, see “Cannabis Botanical<br />

Classifications” page 10) varieties<br />

that are very high in CBD in addition<br />

to having a full spectrum of other<br />

naturally occurring cannabinoids,<br />

terpenoids and flavonoids that<br />

all play a synergistic effect with<br />

9<br />

each other. This is thought to be<br />

significantly more therapeutic as<br />

a whole than any one component<br />

alone. Hence the sentiment – CBD<br />

from hemp = bad, CBD from<br />

cannabis = good.<br />

I prefaced that paragraph with<br />

‘historically speaking’ because such<br />

a clean distinction no longer exists<br />

outside of botanical and science<br />

circles. The United States originally<br />

had no real definition of ‘hemp’<br />

outside of the exclusionary sentence<br />

in the U.S drug code removing<br />

seeds and stalks from the definition<br />

‘Marijuana’ in the Controlled<br />

Substances Act. That definition<br />

changed with the introduction of a<br />

clause in the 2014 Farm Bill (also<br />

known as the 2014 Agricultural<br />

Act) that defined Industrial <strong>Hemp</strong><br />

as “the plant Cannabis sativa L.<br />

and any part of such plant, whether<br />

growing or not, with a delta-9<br />

tetrahydrocannabinol concentration<br />

of not more than 0.3 percent on a<br />

dry weight basis.”<br />

Well…now we have a U.S. definition<br />

for hemp that has nothing to<br />

do with its industrial purpose,<br />

botanical lineage of the plant, or the<br />

scientific category it may be placed<br />

in. This “new” definition of hemp is<br />

purely based on the cannabis plant’s<br />

cannabinoid percentage and, even<br />

then, of one specific cannabinoid.

That changed things.<br />

As it turns out there were many of<br />

us that were active in the CBD rich<br />

cannabis space for years prior to the<br />

evolution of the hemp definitions<br />

and regulatory structures. This was<br />

a challenging space to be in as it<br />

was fraught with desperate families,<br />

minimal supply, and incredibly<br />

limited research. Licensed cannabis<br />

businesses traditionally avoided<br />

3 cannabis drug varieties that<br />

only maximize their delta-9 THC<br />

concentration at under 1% AND you<br />

understand the fact that the THC<br />

increases over 0.3% only in the final<br />

stages of maturity when the CBD<br />

is already over 9%, suddenly there<br />

seems to be a clear path to solving<br />

a shortage of a life-saving plant by<br />

simply calling it ‘hemp’, harvesting<br />

it early, and cultivating it by the<br />

Cannabis Botanical<br />

Classifications:<br />

»Cultivars »<br />

»Oil » Seed Cultivars<br />

»Drug » Cultivars (chemotype<br />

classifications below)<br />

* Type 1 – THC dominant<br />

* Type 2 – Balanced THC/CBD<br />

concentrations<br />

* Type 3 – CBD dominant<br />

* Type 4 – Propyl cannabinoid<br />

content (CBDV, THCV, etc.)<br />

products that weren’t intoxicating<br />

in some way (possibly because of the<br />

exorbitant investments necessary<br />

for them to operate), genetics/<br />

cultivars were in very short supply,<br />

and caregivers were (and still are)<br />

limited by plant count restrictions<br />

that were ongoing impediments<br />

to any foreseeable ‘surplus’. BUT,<br />

when you are dealing with type-<br />

acre instead of the thousand watt<br />

lamp.<br />

As of the 2014 season, farmers<br />

in Colorado (and subsequently<br />

Kentucky, Vermont, and Oregon)<br />

have all been producing licensed<br />

crops using cannabinoid rich type-3<br />

drug varieties under industrial hemp<br />

regulations. While there are still U.S.<br />


farmers that are working with fiber<br />

and oilseed varieties, it is important<br />

to recognize that there is now more<br />

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Editor’s Note: This is a partial<br />

transcript from the Project<br />

CBD video series “Cannabis<br />

Conversations.” The interview<br />

was conducted by Martin A. Lee,<br />

director of Project CBD and author<br />

of the best selling Smoke Signals:<br />

A Social History of Marijuana —<br />

Medical, Recreational and Scientific.<br />

To see the complete video and/or<br />

transcript visit www.projectcbd.org<br />

and click on “Videos.”<br />

Mary’s extends its thanks to Project<br />

CBD for allowing reproduction of this<br />

transcript and encourages readers to<br />

support this pre-eminent source of<br />

information on CBD.<br />

Transcript<br />

Project CBD: Today we’re talking<br />

with Dr. Ethan Russo. Dr. Russo,<br />

a board certified neurologist, is<br />

the medical research director at<br />

Phytecs*, a biotechnology company<br />

that specializes in developing<br />

different ways of targeting the<br />

endocannabinoid system for therapeutic<br />

benefit. Dr. Russo was<br />

formerly the senior medical advisor<br />

to GW Pharmaceuticals and a widely<br />

published author in many scientific<br />

journals, as well as a contributor<br />

and editor of several books. He has<br />

also been a faculty member at the<br />

University of Washington, a guest<br />

teacher at Harvard Medical School,<br />

and other academic institutions.<br />

Welcome to Cannabis Conversations.<br />

13<br />

Russo: Thank you for having me.<br />

Project CBD: Ethan, you’ve been<br />

way ahead of the curve with<br />

respect to cannabidiol (CBD), years<br />

before most people in the medical<br />

marijuana community had ever<br />

heard of it, you were emphasizing<br />

its significance. Tell us briefly, what<br />

is the significance of CBD?<br />

Russo: Well I think we need a little<br />

background first to indicate that<br />

cannabidiol has always been part<br />

of the capabilities of cannabis.<br />

Its just that it’s been pushed into<br />

the background through selective<br />

breeding, basically another<br />

byproduct of prohibition where the<br />

emphasis has been on maximum<br />

psychoactivity to the exclusion, for<br />

the most part, of medicinal benefits<br />

that might go beyond that. But,<br />

clearly, this is a substance that has<br />

a lot to offer on many levels.<br />

Firstly, it synergizes with THC,<br />

so it complements the ability of<br />

THC to treat pain while in its<br />

own right it’s an excellent antiinflammatory<br />

without the liabilities<br />

that we say get from non-steroidal<br />

anti-inflammatory drugs with their<br />

tendencies to produce serious side<br />

effects like ulcers, heart attacks, and<br />

strokes, these just aren’t a liability<br />

with cannabidiol.<br />

So cannabidiol, on the one hand,<br />

can counteract some of the less<br />

desirable effects of THC such as this<br />

tendency to produce anxiety and

apid heart rate. But at the same<br />

time, cannabidiol on its own has<br />

many properties that THC doesn’t<br />

– as an anti-anxiety agent, as an<br />

anti-psychotic, and doing all this<br />

without producing intoxication, if<br />

you will, that can happen with too<br />

much THC. So this is just a few of<br />

the things.<br />

Project CBD: You mentioned CBD<br />

in the context of it being combined<br />

with THC; you also mention it as an<br />

isolate. And GW Pharmaceuticals,<br />

when you were involved with<br />

the company, has done extensive<br />

clinical trials focusing on CBD in<br />

combination with THC for Sativex.<br />

It’s been approved in a couple of<br />

dozen countries as a sublingual spray.<br />

But also GW has been focusing<br />

more recently on Epidiolex, which is<br />

more like a single molecule formula.<br />

I realize there are some other things<br />

in there, but it’s mainly CBD.<br />

Russo: That’s true.<br />

Project CBD: So what are the<br />

advantages and disadvantages of<br />

both ways of looking at it, both<br />

as an isolate or as a whole plant<br />

mixture?<br />

Russo: So in Sativex, basically<br />

it’s a 1:1 mixture of THC and<br />

CBD, plus some other terpenoid<br />

components. That turned out to<br />

be the best approach for treating<br />

a large variety of symptoms such<br />

as spasticity in MS, some pain<br />

conditions, particularly neuropathic<br />

pain, and worked out quite well. In<br />

the early days, the company looked<br />

at different ratios and different<br />

modes of administration and the<br />

oral mucosa spray with Sativex with<br />

this 1:1 mixture turned out to be a<br />

good balance of efficacy and safety,<br />

meaning fewer side effects.<br />

On the other hand, cannabidiol<br />

alone, again, would be very good<br />

in treating a variety of other<br />

conditions. One is epilepsy. CBD<br />

as an anticonvulsant has a broad<br />

spectrum of activity. In other words,<br />

it works on many different kinds<br />

of seizures and has the possibility,<br />

again, of doing this without any<br />

of the liability that THC might<br />

produce, both in terms of side<br />

effects but also legal constraints. So<br />

that’s a big advantage. Additionally,<br />

as an anti-psychotic, say to treat<br />

schizophrenia, there’s already<br />

been a Phase 2 clinical trial with<br />

Epidiolex, in essence, with good<br />

success apparently. That hasn’t been<br />

published yet. But the preliminary<br />

results were announced online.<br />

Project CBD: So I’ve heard it<br />

described that CBD is like THC<br />

without the psychoactivity. Is that<br />

accurate? Or is that sort of a blunt<br />

description that really doesn’t get<br />

at what’s going on here? Are there<br />

other conditions that really CBD<br />

seems more suitable than THC?<br />

Russo: More the latter. It is really<br />

distinct. Something I haven’t<br />

mentioned is that in its own right<br />

cannabidiol is an endocannabinoid<br />

modulator, in other words, when<br />

given chronically it actually increases<br />

the gain of system, which is, at<br />

its core, a homeostatic regulator.<br />

To explain that: homeostasis is a<br />

state of balance. Many diseases<br />




interfere with a balance in a given<br />

system and if we can bring that<br />

balance back to where it should<br />

be there’ll be improvement in the<br />

overall condition. This is one reason<br />

that cannabidiol is such a versatile<br />

medicine because so many disorders<br />

operate on that kind of level. So,<br />

if there’s too much activity in a<br />

system homeostasis requires that<br />

it be brought back down. If there’s<br />

too little, it’s got to come up. And<br />

that’s what cannabidiol can do as a<br />

promoter of endocannabinoid tone,<br />

we call it.<br />

Project CBD: Well usually when<br />

we think of a drug, it goes in one<br />

direction or the other. But you’re<br />

suggesting that CBD really has a<br />

bi-directional effect. It can balance<br />

either excess or deficiency. Can you<br />

explain how that works? Or would<br />

that require a kind of in-depth<br />

scientific …<br />

Russo: It would but, looking at the<br />

endocannabinoid system, it is sort<br />

of a buffer. So CBD can be thought<br />

of as a buffer as well – a buffer is<br />

something that will work both<br />

ways as need be. So, for example,<br />

in the endocannabinoid system one<br />

of its main roles in the brain is to<br />

regulate neurotransmitter function<br />

and again, if there’s too much of<br />

one kind of neurotransmitter it will<br />

bring it down, if there’s too little it<br />

will bring it up. Without diagrams,<br />

that’s probably as well as we’re<br />

going to do this evening.<br />

Project CBD: Now does THC do<br />

something similar, but in a different<br />

way?<br />

17<br />

Russo: Yes. Okay, we can think<br />

of THC as acting directly on the<br />

cannabinoid receptors. In contrast,<br />

CBD is quite distinct. It doesn’t<br />

tend to bind directly, what’s called<br />

the orthosteric site where THC<br />

binds. Rather, it binds on what’s<br />

called an allosteric site, another<br />

site on the receptor, and so it alters<br />

the binding of both THC and the<br />

endogenous cannabinoids, the<br />

endocannabinoids. So, cannabidiol is<br />

what’s called the negative allosteric<br />

modulator, which is a fancy way of<br />

saying that when THC is present it<br />

interferes with its activity – which<br />

is a good thing in terms of wanting<br />

too much psychoactivity and again<br />

limiting side effects like anxiety<br />

or rapid heart rate that can be a<br />

problem if someone has too much<br />

THC.<br />

Project CBD: So the idea that CBD<br />

is a negative allosteric modulator<br />

of the cannabinoid receptor, that<br />

would suggest – if it’s impeding or<br />

reducing the signaling of a particular<br />

receptor – that it might be helpful<br />

for diseases that are an expression<br />

of an excess, because you want then<br />

a limit, and the opposite would be<br />

if you had some kind of allosteric<br />

modulator, unlike CBD, that<br />

would have a enhancing effect on a<br />

receptor that would then perhaps be<br />

helpful for disease of deficiency of<br />

the endocannabinoid system. Now<br />

you’ve written a very important<br />

paper, I think it was published back<br />

in 2001, on clinical endocannabinoid<br />

deficiency, maybe you can explain<br />

the thesis of that?<br />

Russo: It was a concept I introduced<br />

then, I had a larger review paper

in 2004, and just this year 2016,<br />

I submitted further review that’s<br />

currently under consideration for<br />

publication. Basically it occurred<br />

to me that many diseases affect<br />

neurotransmitter levels. A couple<br />

of examples: We know one of the<br />

primary problems in Alzheimer’s<br />

disease or other dementias is a<br />

lack of Acetylcholine, the memory<br />

molecule in the brain; similarly<br />

in Parkinson’s disease there’s not<br />

enough dopamine and you try to<br />

replace that with a medicine with a<br />

medicine call L-Dopa. So what would<br />

a deficiency of endocannabinoid<br />

function look like? Well, we already<br />

knew that. If you don’t have enough<br />

endocannabinoids you have pain<br />

where there shouldn’t be pain. You<br />

would be sick, meaning nauseated.<br />

You would have a lowered seizure<br />

threshold. And just a whole litany of<br />

other problems. It occurred to me that<br />

a number of very common diseases<br />

seem to fit a pattern that would be<br />

consistent with an endocannabinoid<br />

deficiency, specifically these are<br />

migraine, irritable bowel syndrome,<br />

and fibromyalgia. They have some<br />

things in common. They’re all<br />

hyperalgesic syndromes, meaning<br />

that there’s seems to be pain out<br />

of proportion to what should be<br />

going on, in other words you can<br />

look at the tissues they look okay,<br />

but there’s biochemically something<br />

that’s driving the pain.<br />

Additionally, they occur in the same<br />

individuals. If someone has a chronic<br />

problem with migraine there’s a<br />

high likelihood they’re going to have<br />

fibromyalgia at some point in their<br />

life; similarly, with the irritable bowel<br />

syndrome. Previously there wasn’t<br />

a lot of genetic linkage, but we’re<br />

still looking for evidence of that and<br />

there seems to be a possibility that<br />

there’s some linkages there. But<br />

again, the theory as it started out<br />

was that they would have in common<br />

an endocannabinoid deficiency.<br />

Subsequently to the review paper<br />

in 2004, there’s been a great deal<br />

of work done both clinically and<br />

experimentally that supports the<br />

concept.<br />

The complete transcript and<br />

video is available at the<br />

Project CBD website. Note:<br />

Visit www.maryspubs.com for<br />

the digitized version of Mary’s<br />

Cannabis Primers and find all<br />

website links in an easy clickon<br />

format.<br />

*As of the date of this publication<br />

Dr. Russo, is Director of<br />

Research and Development for<br />

International Cannabis and<br />

Cannabinoids Institute.<br />




By Cannabis.info<br />

Used With Permission<br />

aBring up the topic of hemp seeds<br />

at your next social gathering<br />

and you’re likely to turn a few<br />

heads. The sheer mention of<br />

anything related to cannabis is<br />

a lot for some people to handle,<br />

immediately conjuring up a mental<br />

image of getting high. In actuality,<br />

consuming hemp seeds does not<br />

result in any psychotropic effects.<br />

However, they do provide a myriad<br />

of nutritional benefits like no other<br />

seed on earth.<br />

The verdict? <strong>Hemp</strong> is healthy!<br />

Nutritional value of hemp seeds<br />

cannot be overstated, as they feature<br />

a complex profile of proteins, fats,<br />

vitamins and minerals, that reduce<br />

and prevent life threatening diseases,<br />

such as cancer and heart disease.<br />


<strong>Hemp</strong> seeds are an excellent source<br />

of protein. Containing all 9 essential<br />

amino acids (EAA’s), that the<br />

human body does not produce, hemp<br />

seeds are second only to soybeans<br />

in protein content. In total, hemp<br />

seeds contain all 20 amino acids<br />

known to man, helping to stimulate<br />

muscle growth and strengthen the<br />

body’s natural defense system.<br />

For vegetarians and vegans, hemp<br />

19<br />

seeds are a perfectly valid meat<br />

substitute at around 10g of protein<br />

per three tablespoons. Seeds are<br />

relatively high in calories as well,<br />

making them a perfect dietary<br />

addition for athletes and other<br />

highly active individuals.<br />


Some of the most important<br />

nutritional implications of<br />

hemp seeds originate in its rich<br />

concentration of fats. Indeed, over<br />

30% of hemp seeds are made up<br />

of fats, with an uneven split of 75-<br />

80% polyunsaturated fats and 9-11%<br />

saturated fats. As such, hemp seeds<br />

are “perfectly balanced” with a 3:1<br />

ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty<br />

acids. Humans need both types of<br />

these fats to be healthy. Contrary<br />

to popular belief, some types of fats<br />

are good for you!<br />

<strong>Hemp</strong> contains a naturally occurring<br />

compound known as gamma linolenic<br />

acid or GLA. GLA is categorized as<br />

an omega-6 fatty acid, that shows<br />

particular promise in the realm of<br />

cancer treatments and promotes<br />

many other health benefits as well.<br />


GLA is also essential in maintaining<br />

proper cardiovascular and hormonal<br />

health. The omega-3 fatty acids help<br />

to reduce inflammation and ease

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pain. <strong>Hemp</strong> seeds contain arginine,<br />

an amino acid, that produces<br />

nitric acid, which ultimately<br />

helps to reduce your risk of heart<br />

disease. <strong>Hemp</strong> seeds are quickly<br />

being recognized as beneficial for<br />

premenstrual syndrome (PMS).<br />

GLA produces prostaglandin E1<br />

to reduce the adverse effects of<br />

the hormone prolactin, which is<br />

responsible for causing symptoms<br />

of pain. GLA can help to ease the<br />

physical and emotional symptoms<br />

digestive health. By cultivating<br />

a healthy digestive system, these<br />

fibers help manage symptoms of<br />

high cholesterol and strengthen<br />

probiotics for total immune health.<br />



A wealth of phytonutrients<br />

are contained in hemp seeds,<br />

making these the ideal avenue for<br />

receiving your necessary vitamins<br />

and minerals. Among some of<br />

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<strong>Hemp</strong> seeds contain all nine essential amino acids<br />

in<br />

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that many women experience.<br />


<strong>Hemp</strong> seeds contain both soluble<br />

and insoluble fibers, that encourage<br />

healthy bowel movements and overall<br />

the most occurring minerals are<br />

calcium, iron, phosphorus and zinc.<br />

Vitamins run the gamut with at<br />

least seven appearing in different<br />

concentrations, including vitamin<br />

A and vitamin B12. This strong<br />

phytocomplex allows for consumers<br />

From page 5<br />

The answer is: None. There is no difference between the CBD in hemp or the CBD in<br />

cannabis. <strong>Hemp</strong> is cannabis.<br />


to ingest a well-rounded course<br />

of nutrients, without having to<br />

purchase many different supplements<br />

contained in capsules and tinctures.<br />


<strong>Hemp</strong> seeds contain antioxidants,<br />

that penetrate deep into the skin<br />

to relieve inflammation, dryness<br />

and redness. <strong>Hemp</strong> seed oil can be<br />

found in many popular skincare and<br />

haircare products, that spur healthy<br />

cell growth. <strong>Hemp</strong> oils frequently<br />

appear as ingredients in eczema<br />

treatments, moisturizers and can<br />

be applied to help prevent acne.<br />

<strong>Hemp</strong> seeds encourage a quicker<br />

recovery from superficial wounds<br />

as the superfood does its best to<br />

supplement natural skin and cell<br />

regeneration.<br />


Before moving any further, it’s<br />

necessary to squash the rumor, that<br />

ingesting hemp seeds will make you<br />

feel high. You can rest assured this<br />

is not the case. While it’s true, that<br />

hemp is a genetic of the cannabis<br />

sativa plant, it contains negligible<br />

levels of THC. You will never have<br />

to worry about getting hit with<br />

a major stone half an hour after<br />

sprinkling some hemp seeds on your<br />

lunch. Years of stringent regulations<br />

have made consumers feel, that<br />

anything associated with cannabis is<br />

bad and unhealthy when in reality,<br />

the opposite is true!<br />


Surprisingly, hemp seeds aren’t<br />

actually seeds at all – they’re nuts.<br />

21<br />

Once you taste them, it will all make<br />

sense. The beauty of this product is,<br />

that it can be infused into so many<br />

different types of food and beverage.<br />

If you’re short on time, you can<br />

easily sprinkle hemp seeds over hot<br />

dishes and salads. At the same time,<br />

you can blend them into smoothies<br />

and shakes to add an all-natural<br />

protein supplement to your regular<br />

routine.<br />

Anywhere you’d put chia seeds, you<br />

can easily sub in hemp.<br />

Since hemp seeds are hunger<br />

suppressants, they naturally<br />

facilitate weight loss. Eating them<br />

as a snack in the form of a energy<br />

bar is a great way to get good fats<br />

and protein on the go, without<br />

having to craft an entire meal. This<br />

is especially useful for those with<br />

busy jobs who eat their lunch with<br />

one hand and type with the other.<br />


It isn’t outrageous to deem hemp<br />

a miracle plant. In addition<br />

to containing game-changing<br />

cannabinoids like THC and CBD,<br />

as well as aromatic terpenes, hemp<br />

also provides a well rounded course<br />

of nutritional benefits, that inspires<br />

real impacts on human emotional<br />

and physical health.<br />

<strong>Hemp</strong> is healthy! Nutritional value<br />

of hemp seeds cannot be overstated,<br />

as they feature a complex profile<br />

of proteins, fats, vitamins and<br />

minerals, that reduce and prevent<br />

life threatening diseases.


Want to know more? There are plenty of articles on the web. Here<br />

are just a few. You can find live links to these articles at the Mary’s<br />

Publications website. Just go to www.maryspubs.com and click on Issue<br />

<strong>#5</strong>.<br />


This site has so many useful articles for the hemp/CBD consumer<br />

from beginner to expert. Here are just a few. And be certain<br />

to read the Project CBD interview with Dr. Ethan Russo in this<br />

issue.<br />

CBD User’s Manual<br />

A “beginner’s’ guide addressing key questions of CBD users.<br />

The Re-Emergence of CBD: A Brief History<br />

A quick discussion of CBD’s emergence as a therapeutic<br />

cannabinoid.<br />

8 <strong>Thing</strong>s You Didn’t Know About <strong>Hemp</strong> - PBS News Hour<br />

What do Woody Harrelson and Mitch McConnell have in common? This<br />

site will tell you.<br />

Industry Snapshot: <strong>Hemp</strong>-Based CBD Companies<br />

Marijuana Business Magazine looks at the “players” in hemp-based<br />

CBD.<br />

Realm of Caring has numerous articles about CBD on its website.<br />

Here is just one.<br />

New Report Highlights The Importance of Selecting A High Quality<br />

<strong>Hemp</strong>-Based CBD Product<br />

Summary of article from Journal of the American Medical<br />

Association prepared by Realm of Caring.<br />

<strong>Hemp</strong> vs. Marijuana<br />

An easy to read article about the never ending question: are<br />

marijuana and hemp the same?<br />



Forbes Magazine is a good source for information on the business<br />

side of the hemp/CBD market.<br />

<strong>Hemp</strong> Cannabis Product Sales Projected to Hit $1 Billion in 3<br />

Years<br />

The Cannabis Market That Could Grow 700% by 2020<br />

Not All CBD-Oil Companies are Created Equal<br />

An independent review of CBD producers and distributors<br />

CBD is Cannabis That Won’t Get You High. So Why Are So Many<br />

People Using It?<br />

A recent article from The Washington Post.<br />



Notes:<br />


Notes:<br />


Envisioning a world<br />

without pain<br />

MarysMedicinals.com • MarysPubs.com • MarysNutritionals.com

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