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How Pinhole Camera Works

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• Simplest and oldest type of camera, light-proof box

• Uses film or paper and a pinhole that forms the aperture

• Light passes through a tiny hole, projects the image

inverted and in reverse on the back of the box


• Variety of air-tight containers

• Paint cans

• Juice boxes

• Shoe boxes

• Cardboard construction

• Operated by exposing the hole

and covering it later with paper,

cardboard, index card, etc.


• Inside of the camera should be matte black

• Prevents stray light

• Aperture (pinhole) is pierced through thin material

• Foil

• Tin

• Light sensitive material must be placed in camera in

complete darkness

• Shutter is created to expose image, securely closed

afterwards

• Picture is taken by placing camera on steady surface

and lifting the shutter


• What is it???

• Allows light to pass through opening

• Begins and ends exposure paper or film

• Factors

• Aperture, exposure time determined first

• Allows correct amount of time & light to

reach film or paper

• Shutter is closed when image is recorded

Pinhole Cameras

• Operated manually

• Flap of light-proof material to cover and

uncover pinhole


• Depends on a few variables:

• Focal distance

Pinhole (aperture) size

• Lighting conditions


• Distance from pinhole to

the imaging plane at the

back of the camera.

• Short focal distance:

• Wide angle of view

• Shorter exposure times

• Long focal distance:

• Telephoto view

• Longer exposure times


• No focusing apparatus is used

• Size, shape, and distance of hole

from the light sensitive material

are important

• Smaller pinhole:

• Sharper images

• Light exposure is longer

• Larger pinhole:

• Fuzzier, less clear images

• Light exposure is shorter


• Hole or opening through which light travels

• Aperture of a lens:

• Adjusted to control the amount of light

• Measured in f-stops

• Size regulates the degree of exposure to light:

LOW LIGHTING CONDITIONS

Larger aperture opening

Lets in more light

BRIGHT LIGHTING CONDITIONS

Smaller aperture opening

Less light is necessary for proper

exposure


• Exposure:

• Amount of light allowed to strike

film or paper

• Records an image

• Measured in seconds

• Long exposure time occurs:

• Small pinhole size = crisp, detailed

images

• Lower lighting conditions

• Longer focal distance

• Short exposure time occurs:

• Larger pinhole size = blurry, less

clear images

• Adequate lighting conditions

• Shorter focal distance


• Table gives recommended exposure times for a box

pinhole camera

• Approximate times and not every camera is the same

• Final outcome affected by:

• Aperture size of the pinhole

• Lighting conditions

• The

Negative

OUTSIDE:

Bright Sun

OUTSIDE:

Cloudy

INSIDE:

Sunny

Window

INSIDE:

Sunny

Room

INSIDE:

Dim Light

RC

Photo

Paper

10 seconds

to

1 minute

3 to 5

minutes

6 to 8

minutes

8 to 12

minutes

15 to 20

minutes


• Overexposed:

• Loss of highlight detail

• Bright parts of image are

washed out

• Underexposed:

• Loss of shadow detail

• Dark areas are muddy,

very black


• Create TWO images

• 1 st Image:

• Outdoor scene

• Distant view

• 2 nd Image:

• Indoor scene

• Close-up view

• Mounting work:

• Neg. & pos. next to

each other

• Line up neatly

• Double mount!!!

Your Name

Photography

Ms. Appel / Ms. Behr


• Do not write your name on the back of the

photo paper in Sharpie or very large.

• Instead label, with pen or pencil on the back

using:

• Your initials

• Class period number

• In the corner

• Very, very small.

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