NOTA News Newsletter July 2018 1

ABrad11

NEWS

NO.85 JULY/AUGUST 2018

Supporting Professionals to

Prevent Sexual Abuse

Supporting Professionals to

Prevent Sexual Abuse

Supporting Professionals to Prevent Sexual Abuse

Stay informed by visiting the NOTA website: www.nota.co.uk

For regular updates, News, Policies and Good Practices, NOTA

Training Committee and Branch Events together with information

on Publications and Resources

Supporting Professionals to

Prevent Sexual Abuse


Amberleigh Care

Applying Evidence

Based Approaches

in Residential

Intervention with

Adolescents aged

11 to 18 Years

Established in 2005, Amberleigh Care operates two

formal therapeutic communities (Shropshire and

Mid-Wales) each provides 12 residential placements

together with separately registered schools.

Our settings are supported by an over-arching,

multi-disciplinary clinical team, led by a Forensic

Psychologist supported by both CBT and Integrative

Psychotherapy practitioners.

We provide placements for local authorities right across the UK

and are approved and preferred providers on a wide range of local

authority supplier frameworks. We are also openly involved in the

assessment and placement planning for young people involved in

court proceedings, working closely with Youth Offending Teams and

Social Care agencies.

2018 Royal College

of Psychiatrists

fully accredited therapeutic community

Golfa Hall (Welshpool)

The Oaks (Telford)

Our Model of Practice:

At Amberleigh Care we apply two key evidence based

frameworks to inform our practice:

1. Our approach to understand and response to harmful

sexual behaviour is the Good Lives Model (Ward, Mann,

and Gannon, 2007).

2. Our group living, therapeutic community approach is

quality audited against Therapeutic Services Standards

(Royal College of Psychiatry quality improvement

network Community of Communities).

These two frameworks are ideally suited in that they are relationship

based, build strengths and resilience, challenge young people through

clear boundaries and structures, whilst encouraging young people to

learn social and life skills and interpersonal skills in a way which is

developmentally appropriate. The key features of the model of delivery

are:

• Individual trauma work and offence specific work is undertaken in

weekly 1:1 sessions with an allocated therapist.

• Young people attend a group work programme developing social skills,

emotional regulation, communication skills and addressing areas

identified by GLM that are consistent with the PSHE curriculum in

school.

• Young people play an active part in day to day life in our communities.

They have formal roles and responsibilities and engage in regular

decision making discussions.

• Therapists provide formal consultation to care and education staff

teams and also deliver a range of specific training to staff.

• The staff are also provided with “staff dynamics” groups each month,

facilitated by an external consultant clinical psychologist.

• Intervention plans are formally reviewed every 3 months to maintain

and evidence progress.

Assessment:

Assessment is an essential part of our work and we are involved in undertaking stand-alone assessments

on behalf of statutory agencies as well as using formal assessment as part of our placement intervention

approach. As a residential setting, assessment not only informs intervention priorities and allows these to be

coordinated across care, education and therapy staff, but it also allows the measurement of progress and the

refinement of intervention approaches as young people develop or presenting needs change over time.

As such our assessment tools, selected for the suitability to our client population,

address broad, profile and specific areas of focus.

THE KEY TOOLS used in our initial 12 week assessment include:

AIM 2

Resiliency scales for adolescents

SDQ: Strengths and difficulties questionnaire

BYI-2: Becks youth Inventory

SAVRY: Structured assessment of violence

risk in youth

Outcomes:

We provide stability and security for young peple to give them the space to address underlying trauma and

abuse which has contributed to their inappropriate and risky behaviour. Young people are often referred to

us following multiple placement breakdowns in residential and foster care. The average length of placement

with us is two and a half years. In over 10 years of operation, we are not aware of any young person who has

been through our service subsequently being convicted of sexual offending.

Average school attendance is well over 90% with young people achieving formal

qualifications including entry level, BTEC, ASDAN and GCSE and are supported in transitions to college and

work experience.

Referral Enquiries:

HoNosca

TSCC: Trauma symptom checklist for children

Assessment checklist for adolescents (ACA)

Locus of control

WISC-IV: Wechsler Intelligence scale for

Children fourth edition

Our work is fully planned and commissioned on an individual basis. If you would like

to discuss a specific case either for assessment, to support pre-sentence report and

future planning, or to make a direct referral for a residential placement please contact:

referrals@amberleighcare.co.uk (Quote Ref: NOTA)

Speak to us on: 01952 619144 or 01938 554111

www.amberleighcare.co.uk

Approved & supported by:

Specialist Therapeutic Care & Education

2 | www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents


Contents

3 Editorial

4 Chair’s Welcome

5 From the NOTA

General Manager

6 Prevention Committee

– Jon Brown

7 NOTA Policy & Practice

Subcommittee

– Stuart Allardyce

8 Moving Beyond the “sex

offender” Label

– Dr Gwenda M. Willis

10 The Safer Living Foundation

– Lynn Saunders, OBE

13 Life at HMP Whatton

– Peter

15 NOTA Blog

– Kieran McCartan

16 What’s behind the screen?

– Maggie Brennan

18 “TARGET”

– Hayley Brown

20 Restorative Justice or

Dangerous Liaisons?

– Nadia Wager and Chris Wilson

22 Conceptualising adolescent

exhibitionism

– Dr Celia Sadie and

Dr Sarah Allen

26 Reflections from the Front Line

– Josephine Lay

28 NOTA Creative Arts Corner

– Anna Hutchings

30 Book Review

– Anna Hutchings

31 Branch News

35 Recent Press Releases

– Helen Masson

Editorial - Anna Glinski

Alongside our regular updates from members of the NOTA

committee, news from NOTA branches across the UK and

our overview of recent reports relevant to our field, issue

85 of NOTA News presents a broad selection of articles

relating to both research and practice, across the field of

sexual abuse and offending.

The NOTA Committee has been engaging in a discussion

for some time about changing the name of the charity,

considering whether it continues to reflect the activities

and professionals it seeks to support. Our Chair, Simon

Hackett, and General Manager, Malcolm Muskett, introduce the membership to these

discussions in their updates, while Gwenda Willis, Clinical psychologist & Rutherford

Discovery Fellow, presents the ethical considerations around our use of language when

referring to those who commit sexual offences.

Lynn Saunders (OBE), Governor of HMP Whatton Prison and co-founder of the Safer

Living Foundation, explains the important, innovative and hopeful work of this charity by

giving an overview of the services they deliver to support people who have committed

sexual offences as part of their reintegration back into the community. Following this

we hear from Peter, an inmate at HMP Whatton, who demonstrates the value of serviceuser

involvement in shaping services within the prison.

Kieran McCartan, who has taken on the role of ‘media and engagement’ for NOTA,

calls for articles from the membership for the NOTA blog, introducing an example of a

recent blog written by Maggie Brennan on her research into the nature of child sexual

abuse and exploitation images currently being identified online. Remaining on a

similar theme, Hayley Brown presents the work of Service Six in Northampton, who are

working to support and educate children and young people, and the professionals who

support them, on being safe online.

We go on to hear from Nadia Wager and Chris Wilson who summarise their interesting

research into those who volunteer with Circles of Support and Accountability, exploring

perceptions of, and by, volunteers who are themselves survivors of sexual abuse.

NOTA News is keen to encourage articles from practitioners on issues that arise

in practice. This edition hosts two such reflections; Celia Sadie and Clare Hall, on

exhibitionism in a young offender’s setting, and Josephine Lay, on working with

children and young people with learning disabilities who have been sexually abused,

both providing thought-provoking and helpful reflections on their practice with these

two groups.

In the last edition we introduced a new feature, NOTA Creative Arts Corner; this edition

Anna Hutchings interviews the authors of a graphic novel for young people on consent,

who talk about the journey from their initial idea to publication. Anna goes on to review

a new text ‘Working with Children and Young People Who Have Displayed Harmful

Sexual Behaviour’ by Stuart Allardyce and Peter Yates, which is likely to leave no doubt

in the minds of anyone working in this field about investing in this book.

Any feedback or suggestions for future copy are, as always, gratefully received.

Anna Glinski, Editor, NOTA News

notanews@nota.co.uk

www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents

| 3


Chair’s Welcome to NOTA News

I write this

Chair’s

welcome

after a

recent

NOTA

Board

meeting

held in

London

on 24th May and I would like to

update members on a couple of

key points and actions arising

from this meeting.

One small, but nonetheless very

significant item arising from the

Board is that we are going to

recommend a change to NOTA’s

name in a formal resolution

to the AGM this September. If

successful, this will see NOTA’s

name change from the National

Organisation for the Treatment

of Abusers to the Treatment of

Abuse. This looks to be a very

small change and it requires a

significant amount of work with

both the Charities’ Commission

and Companies House to lose

only two letters from our title. Why

are we proposing this and is it

worth it?

As I am sure members will

recognise, NOTA’s development

over the years has seen it

move away from a professional

association founded to support

professionals working directly

with ‘sexual offenders’, to an

organisation that is committed

to preventing sexual abuse in

all its forms and across multiple

contexts. Our focus has rightly

broadened as our understanding

of the nature and diversity of

sexual abuse has developed. Our

interests as an organisation still

include direct interventions with

those who offend (at the level

of tertiary prevention), but now

extend to more systemic and

early interventions (secondary

prevention measures) and public

awareness raising (i.e. work at the

level of primary prevention). We

are still committed to preventing

victimisation through interventions

with those who offend, but our

interests extend, for example, to

improving responses to victims,

survivors and families. So, we find

ourselves in a position of having

a name which is a product of our

thinking some twenty years ago,

rather than a descriptor of our

current focus or range of activities.

The Board therefore unanimously

felt that this small change to our

name, whilst not being a perfect

descriptor of the organisation

(we could equally debate the

terms ‘National’ and ‘Treatment’

for instance) would be one way

of signalling our broader focus,

whilst at the same time, retaining

our core and historical identity.

NOTA would remain NOTA, just a

slightly more rounded and holistic

version. I shall look forward to

debating this with members at

the September conference and to

proposing this change formally at

the AGM.

Finally, the Board is looking for

two new members. Our call for

expressions of interest in the last

NOTA News for a new Board

member to take on the role

of Convenor of the Members’

Services Committee wasn’t

successful. This is a critical

position for the organisation,

one which is all about ensuring

that NOTA is responsive to the

needs of its members. Second,

we would like to create a new

position on the Board for a

student member to extend

student representation across the

organisation. So if you would like

to get involved and have some

additional time to give to the

organisation for either of these

positions, I’d be delighted to

hear from you at simon.hackett@

dur.ac.uk.

Simon Hackett

NOTA Chair

Be updated about Conference.

Follow us @NOTAevents

4 | www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents


From the General Manager

The NOTA International Conference this year is in Glasgow. The Conference,

19th – 21st September, has again attracted international speakers who will

be presenting both keynotes and workshops. Delegates will have a choice

of more than 30 in-depth workshops. Our NOTA Scotland branch is planning

a Scottish themed social event, which will be unmissable and an opportunity

to network with other delegates. www.nota.co.uk/conference.

Membership numbers continue to grow, giving NOTA an ever stronger voice to promote the work we do and enable us to

continue to provide support to professionals working in the field.

The NOTA Board have discussed and agreed, in principle, that NOTA should consider making a minor change to

its name in order to better reflect the work undertaken by the charity. This change will be proposed to the full NOTA

membership at the September AGM. If agreed, the National Organisation for the Treatment of Abusers will become the

National Organisation for the Treatment of Abuse.

Many of you will have had contact with the new NOTA administrator, Gill Riley. Gill is based in my

office in Nottingham and is contactable at notaoffice@nota.co.uk.

Full details of all events are available on the website at www.nota.co.uk

As always, do get in contact with any questions or comments.

Malcolm Muskett

General Manager

generalmananger@nota.co.uk

The annual subscription rates for NOTA

membership from June 2018

Annual Membership for Individual Members

UK and Republic of Ireland £80 / 95 euros

Rest of Europe £89

Rest of the world £105

The full range of group, team and student rates are available on the NOTA

website and from notaoffice@nota.co.uk

www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents

| 5


Update from the Prevention Committee

– Jon Brown

The Prevention Committee continues to meet by phone once a month,

working through our workplan objectives which we agreed at a face

to face meeting in January. Here is a recap of the workplan headlines

and if you would like to join us on working on any of this, or if you have

ideas and suggestions for other prevention activity we could be working

on, please get in contact and let us know.

Workplan headlines:

1. Define and formulate a

dissemination plan for key

prevention messaging, including

a range of audiences;

2. Agree prevention slots for NOTA

annual conference and generate

workshop submissions;

3. Scope a range of targeted

engagement events, specifying

audience, venue and topic;

4. Target a wider range of

conferences for prevention

keynotes and seminars and

generate a recommended list to

the prevention committee;

5. Develop a dissemination and

testing plan for the engagement

and training slides;

6. Monthly blogs for NOTA and

ATSA websites.

The engagement session at the

NOTA conference in Glasgow this

year will be targeted at professionals

and will focus on the prevention

of harmful sexual behaviour by

children and young people. Further

information about the timing of the

session and speakers will follow

nearer to the conference.

Yorkshire and Humberside Circles

of Support and Accountability have

a new name – re:shape and they

have launched a new national

campaign #PreventSexualHarm

which aims to mobilise individuals to

help recognise, report and reduce

sexual harm in their communities.

The #PreventSexualHarm

campaign challenges common

misconceptions around the

perpetrators of sexual harassment

and abuse, and encourages

people and organisations at every

level to pledge to take action to

#PreventSexualHarm. Everyone

who takes the pledge or visits the

campaign website can access

resources that will help them

recognise the signs of sexual harm

and take steps to address it and

protect those around them.

The campaign is based around

re:shape’s four key principles

of awareness, recognition,

rehabilitation and zero tolerance,

and has the backing of police and

crime commissioners, religious

organisations, charities and the

business community. Thanks to

Tammy Banks, CEO of re:shape

and NOTA North East and

Humberside Chair, for her great

work developing this.

At the end of April Jon Brown

and Kieran McCartan spoke at a

Westminster Education Forum

event examining the role of multiagency

working in child protection.

The event as a whole had an

interesting mix of attendees and

presenters from across the board

including policy makers, members of

parliament, police, social work, child

protection, academics, survivors/

victim charities, schools and

research/policy organisations talking

about how we can: Protect children

better; learn from good and bad

practice; and, work better together to

prevent sexual abuse. The outcome

was that we need to reframe child

sexual abuse as preventable and

then work collectively towards

making that a reality. For a further

discussion of the event and the role

of prevention in the event please

see the blog on the NOTA blog site

(http://www.notaprevention.co.uk/

the-importance-of-multiagencyworking-to-prevent-sexual-abuse/).

Sexual abuse in university colleges

and campuses is a major issue for

Higher Education establishments

6 | www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents


and a lot of universities

across the country are

therefore becoming involved

in responding to and

preventing sexual abuse.

At the University of the

West of England we are

developing a social norms

campaign with HEFCE

funding, including video

clips and posters relating to

anti-social and problematic

sexual behaviour, that is due

to be rolled out in Fresher’s

week 2018. More on this as

it occurs.

Finally, another exciting

prevention initiative being

led by the NSPCC is

Together for Childhood,

a place based prevention

initiative being developed

in Plymouth and Stoke on

Trent. Over a period of ten

years this approach aims to

evaluate which prevention

approaches are successful

and have measurable

impact. Here are the key

outcomes for Together for

Childhood:

Children and families

Children and families know

about healthy relationships

and what sexual abuse is.

Children and families

know where to access

support/services if they are

concerned about sexual

abuse. Children and families

take action if they are

concerned about sexual

abuse.

Community

Community members know

what sexual abuse is and

recognise that sexual abuse

can be prevented.

Community members

respond appropriately if

they have concerns relating

to sexual abuse about a

child/family.

Professionals

Professionals who work with

children are more confident

in identifying, addressing

and preventing sexual

abuse.

System

More sexual abuse services

that are evidence based

are available for families,

children with harmful

sexual behaviour and

adult offenders (to prevent

reoffending).

Health, public services

and voluntary sector work

together in a co-ordinated,

evidenced based way to

help prevent sexual abuse.

Long term outcome – The

prevention of sexual abuse.

Jon Brown

Chair, Prevention

Committee

Tammy Banks

CEO re:shape

Dr Kieran McCartan

University of West of

England

Update from the

Policy/ Practice

Committee

– Stuart Allardyce

Some you win, some you lose.

We’ve tried running two separate

workstreams under the banner of

this group for the last few months;

the first dedicated broadly to policy

issues and the second focusing

on practice issues. However,

attendance at teleconferences has

led us to conclude that this should

be one committee covering both of

these inter-related themes. As we

all know, you can’t have any good

practice without supportive policy

and vice versa. Let the two streams

join and become one…!

It’s a busy time at the

moment. We’re reviewing

the policy principles that

inform the work of this

group and we’re also in

the process of looking

again at the policy papers

we’ve commissioned over

the last few years. We’re

finishing off a work plan for

this group and working on

the launch of a new series of practice papers for

members, which we also want to be accessible

in a number of formats. Watch this space for an

announcement about this in the next NOTA News.

Thanks again to the work of everyone involved

with this committee – it is a genuine honour to

chair a group of such knowledgeable and skilled

researchers, practitioners and policy folk. Anyone

who wants to join our merry crew, feel free to drop

me a line at stuartallardyce@stopitnow.org.uk.

Stuart Allardyce

Chair of Policy/Practice Committee

www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents

| 7


Moving Beyond the “sex offender” Label

– Dr Gwenda M. Willis

Introduction

Over the past decade there has been growing recognition that

individuals convicted of sex offences can and do desist from sexual

offending (Hanson, Harris, Helmus, & Thornton, 2014; Hanson,

Harris, Letourneau, Helmus, & Thornton, 2018).

Many sexual offence treatment

programmes have shifted from

a dominant focus on relapse

prevention and risk management to

strengths-based approaches and

promoting “good” or “better lives”

(e.g., Yates & Prescott, 2011; Yates,

Prescott, & Ward, 2010). The

Good Lives Model (GLM) (Laws

& Ward, 2011; Ward & Stewart,

2003) epitomises strengths-based

approaches, which at its core

acknowledges that correctional

clients are not simply bearers of

risk, but fellow human beings with

similar goals and aspirations to

the rest of us. However, despite

the popularity of strengths-based

approaches, many professionals,

organisations and scholarly

publications continue to label and

define the people at the centre of

their work based on their offending

e.g., “sex offender” 1 .

NOTA, like its partner

organisations, is no exception.

For example, NOTA and other

professional organisations to

which clinicians, academics

and other professionals working

with persons who have abused

belong, use labels in their titles:

The National Organisation for the

Treatment of Abusers (NOTA), The

1 Labels will not be used by the author

unless referring to current usage, which will

be indicated by quotation marks or italics.

Association for the Treatment of

Sexual Abusers (ATSA), and the

International Association for the

Treatment of Sexual Offenders

(IATSO). Similarly, labels appear

in the titles and content of several

books currently in circulation for

treatment providers (e.g., Carich

& Musack, 2015; Prescott, 2009;

Sawyer & Jennings, 2016; Yates

et al., 2010). More than half of

all articles published in Sexual

Abuse and the Journal of Sexual

Aggression in 2016 contained a

label(s) in their title (51.72% and

55% respectively). The frequent

use of offence-based labels

by subject matter experts risks

ostracising clients and reinforcing

the erroneous public belief of

“once a sex offender, always a sex

offender.”

Recently, I posed the question

“Why call someone by what we

don’t want them to be?” and

explored the ethics of labelling in

forensic/correctional psychology

(Willis, in press). In this article,

I summarise problems with the

term “sex offender” and other

commonly used labels, and

encourage readers to consider

adopting person-first language

to refer to persons who have

(sexually) abused.

Problems with the “sex offender”

and similar labels

Labels promote misperceptions.

The “sex offender” label suggests

that is who someone is. Inherent

in the label is the assumption

that reoffending is highly likely,

contradicting what we know

about desistance from sexual

offending. It is well established

that sexual recidivism base rates

are low and, moreover, that rates

reduce with time spent offencefree

in the community (Hanson et

al., 2014). Offence-based labels

further suggest that individuals

with a history of sexual offending

represent a homogenous group,

all with a similarly (high) likelihood

of reoffending. However, across

all individuals assigned the

“sex offender” label there exist

diverse groups with different risk

profiles. Some individuals might

display enduring deviant sexual

interests and a history of repetitive

offending (and an above average

risk of reoffending), whereas other

individuals assigned the same

label may have one conviction for

a sex offence that was committed

many years in the past (and their

relative risk of sexual reoffending

might be indistinguishable from

individuals convicted for nonsexual

offences. (See Hanson et al., 2014).

Offence-based labels like “sex

offender,” “child molester”

and “rapist” lack clinical and

scientific validity; they convey

8 | www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents


little about the aetiology of

past offending nor someone’s

treatment needs. By contrast,

other labels commonly assigned

to persons who have sexually

offended are based on valid

constructs (e.g., “psychopath”,

“paedophile”). Does that make

these labels acceptable for use

by professionals in our field? I

argue not, given that these

labels are laden with negative

connotations and risk stigmatizing

the individuals to whom they are

assigned (Imhoff, 2015).

Labels risk stigmatizing

individuals and groups. It is well

documented in academia and in

the media that individuals labelled

“sex offender” struggle integrating

into society; for example, they

struggle finding stable housing

and securing employment (for a

review of literature on attitudes

towards persons who have

sexually abused see Harper,

Hogue, & Bartels, 2017). It is

clear that many labels commonly

used by professionals might be

perceived as stigmatizing and

pejorative, and not self-selected

by the research participants or

clients to whom they’re assigned.

As Stevenson (2014) articulated:

“Each of us is more than the

worst thing we’ve ever done”

(p. 17). Respect for the dignity

of all persons is at the heart of

ethical codes across the helping

professions (e.g., American

Psychological Association, 2010a;

Code of Ethics Review Group,

2012; The Australian Psychological

Society, 2007; The British

Psychological Society, 2009),

and it is also addressed explicitly

in the American Psychological

Association (APA) Publication

Manual (APA; 2010b) – the leading

style guide in the social and

behavioural sciences. The APA

manual states clearly that “A label

should not be used in any form

that is perceived as pejorative; if

such a perception is possible you

need to find more neutral terms”

(p. 72).

Of course, some labels might

be perceived as pejorative

to some individuals but are

acceptable to others. Such a

contradiction is evident amongst

the population of individuals with

paedophilic sexual interests.

Some individuals choose to use

labels that acknowledge their

sexual interest in children – for

example, they might refer to

themselves as “minor-attracted

persons” or “virtuous paedophiles”

(see also Malone, 2014). The

APA guidelines for reducing bias

in written language encourage

authors to “respect people’s

preferences; call people what

they prefer to be called” (p. 72).

When working with individuals

or reporting on a specific case,

it is straightforward to follow this

recommendation. However,

how might professionals respect

different labelling preferences

when referring to groups of

people presenting with similar

psychological phenomena

(e.g., paedophilia)? Person-first

language, which I have used

throughout this article, offers a

neutral solution.

Person-first language

As its name suggests, person-first

language separates a person from

a behaviour, condition or disorder

(e.g., “persons with sexual offence

histories,” “individual who has

been convicted of …”, “child/

adolescent with sexual behaviour

problems”). Person-first language

forces us to describe individuals

and groups more accurately than

offence-based labels and reduces

the likelihood of offending an

individual or group by assigning a

label that they might not self-select

(for further guidance see Willis, in

press).

In the broader educational and

psychology literature, person-first

language is now commonplace.

For example, we no longer refer

to individuals with intellectual

disabilities as “mental retards” and

persons with schizophrenia are

rarely called “schizophrenics.” I

believe that with time and effort,

similar change is achievable in

our field. It might be argued that

individuals who have sexually

abused cannot be compared to

individuals with mental health

problems and are deserving of the

labels they have been assigned.

It is important to highlight that the

argument to replace labels with

person-first language is not to

dismiss the harm some individuals

have inflicted on others – rather,

it is to promote better lives and

desistance from sexual offending.

Dr Gwenda M Willis

Clinical Psychologist & Rutherford

Discovery Fellow

References

American Psychological Association.

(2010a). Ethical Principles of Psychologists

and Code of Conduct (With the 2010

Amendments). Retrieved from

www.apa.org/ethics/code/principles.pdf

American Psychological Association.

(2010b). Publication Manual of the American

Psychological Association (6th ed.).

Washington, D.C.: American Psychological

Association.

Carich, M. E., & Musack, S. (Eds.). (2015).

The Safer Society Handbook of Sexual

Abuser Assessment and Treatment.

Brandon, VT: Safer Society Press.

Code of Ethics Review Group. (2012).

Code of Ethics for Psychologists Working in

Aotearoa New Zealand. Retrieved July 6,

2016, from www.psychologistsboard.org.

nz/cms_show_download.php?id=237

Hanson, R. K., Harris, A. J. R., Helmus,

L., & Thornton, D. (2014). High-Risk Sex

Offenders May Not Be High Risk Forever.

Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29, 2792-

2813. doi: 10.1177/0886260514526062

Hanson, R. K., Harris, A. J. R., Letourneau,

E., Helmus, L. M., & Thornton, D. (2018).

Reductions in risk based on time offensefree

in the community: Once a sexual

offender, not always a sexual offender.

www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents

| 9


Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 24, 48-

63. doi: 10.1037/law0000135

Harper, C. A., Hogue, T. E., & Bartels, R. M.

(2017). Attitudes towards sexual offenders:

What do we know, and why are they

important? Aggression and Violent Behavior

doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.011

Imhoff, R. (2015). Punitive attitudes against

pedophiles or persons with sexual interest

in children: Does the label matter? Archives

of Sexual Behavior, 44, 35-44. doi: 10.1007/

s10508-014-0439-3

Laws, D. R., & Ward, T. (2011). Desistance

from sex offending: Alternatives to throwing

away the keys. New York, NY: Guilford

Press.

Malone, L. (2014). You’re 16. You’re a

Pedophile. You don’t want to hurt anyone.

What do you do now? Retrieved from

https://medium.com/matter/youre-

16-youre-a-pedophile-you-dont-want-

to-hurt-anyone-what-do-you-do-now-

e11ce4b88bdb#.uj2ff35j6

Prescott, D. S. (2009). Building motivation

for change in sexual offenders. Brandon, VT:

Safer Society Press.

Sawyer, S. P., & Jennings, J. L. (2016).

Group Therapy with Sexual Abusers:

Engaging the Full Potential of the Group

Experience. Brandon, VT: Safer Society

Press.

Stevenson, B. (2014). Just mercy: A story of

justice and redemption. New York: Spiegel

& Grau.

The Australian Psychological Society.

(2007). Code of ethics. Melbourne,

Australia: The Australian Psychological

Society.

The British Psychological Society. (2009).

Code of Ethics and Conduct. Retrieved

from www.bps.org.uk/system/files/

Public%20files/aa%20Standard%20Docs/

inf94_code_web_ethics_conduct.pdf

Ward, T., & Stewart, C. A. (2003).

The treatment of sex offenders: Risk

management and good lives. Professional

Psychology: Research and Practice, 34,

353-360. 10.1037/0735-7028.34.4.353

Willis, G. M. (in press). Why call someone

by what we don’t want them to be? The

ethics of labelling in forensic/correctional

psychology. Psychology, Crime & Law doi:

10.1080/1068316X.2017.1421640

Yates, P. M., & Prescott, D. S. (2011).

Building a better life: A good lives and selfregulation

workbook. Brandon, VT: Safer

Society Press.

Yates, P. M., Prescott, D. S., & Ward, T.

(2010). Applying the Good Lives and

Self Regulation Models to sex offender

treatment: a practical guide for clinicians.

Brandon, VT: Safer Society Press.

The Safer Living Foundation

– Lynn Saunders, OBE

The Safer Living Foundation (SLF) is registered with the Charity

Commission with the following objectives:

- To promote the protection of people from, and the prevention of,

sexual crime.

- To promote the rehabilitation of prisoners who have committed or

are likely to commit sexual offences against others.

The SLF is based in Whatton

Prison, a large (841 place)

medium secure treatment site for

people with convictions for sexual

offences. I am the Governor of the

Prison and both the Chair and Cofounder

of the SLF.

So how did we get there and

why a charity?

Whatton has worked with people

with sexual convictions, providing

treatment programmes since

the early 1990’s. The Prison

expanded substantially (440

additional places) in 2006 and so

did the provision of accredited

treatment programmes (the Prison

currently provides almost 40% of

all the programmes for people

convicted of sexual offences in

Prisons in England and Wales,

for Her Majesty’s Prison and

Probation Service).

We know that many of the people

we imprison are socially isolated

- sometimes before they come

to prison, but especially when

they return to the community.

This could be for a number of

reasons, for example that they

committed offences against family

members or that they have been

ostracised by family and friends

as a result of their offences. A

chance conversation that I had

in the Prison with a prisoner due

for discharge was the catalyst

for the establishment of the SLF

and its first project: A prisonbased

‘Circle of Support and

Accountability’. When asked if

he was looking forward to getting

out of prison that week, he

commented “not really, someone

cares whether I am alive or dead

10 | www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents


in here”. This was a powerful

driver to “do something” to help

people who were leaving a safe,

supportive environment and

returning to a community where

they felt they had little support.

Circles projects have existed in

England and Wales for over 10

years and in Canada for over

20 but none had been started

in prison, using volunteers to

provide consistent support to help

the ‘core member’ successfully

negotiate the transition from

prison to the community. The most

vulnerable period for a prisoner

to breach their licence restrictions

is in the first 90 days of leaving

prison and so the intention was for

volunteers to develop relationships

with the prisoners before they

left prison and then support

them when they returned to the

community.

The initial project steering group

consisted of representatives

from the Prison, Nottinghamshire

Probation Trust, Nottinghamshire

Police, Nottingham Trent University

and members of the business

community and these evolved into

a board of trustees in preparation

for approval as a charitable

organisation limited by guarantee.

Statutory funding for a prisonbased

circles project was not

available so funds were raised

to employ a Circles co-ordinator.

The Prison Circles Project was

established in 2013 and was the

first of its kind.

Initially, we provided a circle of

support for older prisoners, over

the age of 55, and those with

intellectual disabilities. These

particular client groups were

selected as it was acknowledged

they were the two most isolated

and vulnerable groups at Whatton.

Out of the 841 men at Whatton,

20% are over the age of 60 and

around 30% have some form of

intellectual disability.

The SLF gained charitable status

on the 13th February 2014. This

enabled the trustees to seek

different sources of funding,

mainly from charitable trusts.

Other Circles Projects

The Community Circles project,

also run by the SLF outside the

prison, was established in 2014,

serving Nottinghamshire and

Derbyshire, and is funded by the

Big Lottery. Nottinghamshire and

Derbyshire had not previously had

any Circles projects so this was an

important opportunity to provide

support for high risk, isolated

people with sexual convictions in

the community whether or not they

had previously been resident at

Whatton.

During the promotion of the

community circles project at a

MAPPA Senior Management

Board meeting in Derbyshire,

the Youth Offending Team

asked if the SLF worked with

young people exhibiting sexually

harmful behaviour as there was

a significant need for socially

isolated young people to be

supported. The SLF had not

previously worked with young

people and at that point there

were no fully operational Circles

projects for young people across

England and Wales. So the SLF

began a fund raising campaign to

set up a young people’s project.

This was successful, and we were

fortunate to appoint a former

YOT Manager who was able to

establish a firm footing for the

project. She ensured that all the

data sharing agreements and

safeguarding procedures were

drawn up. She also ensured that

the necessary adaptations were

made to the standard Circles

project protocols and to the

volunteer training. The YP project

commenced in November 2016.

Currently, there are 4 Circles in

operation and there has been

one successful completion. Other

Circles projects across the country

are also looking at working with

this group.

The table below outlines the

number of people supported

through the Prison-based,

Community-based and Young

People’s Circles Projects.

SLF Circles Projects

PRISON CIRCLES COMMUNITY CIRCLES Y. P. CIRCLES

12 successful completions 12 successful completions 1 successful completion

4 currently in operation 4 currently in operation 4 currently in operation

56 volunteers since the

beginning

56 volunteers since the

beginning

12 volunteers since the beginning

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| 11


The Prevention Project

Since its beginning, the SLF had

been considering setting up a

prevention project along the lines of

the Dunkenfeld Project in Germany.

(The Dunkelfeld project was

established 12 years ago to help

people with an attraction to children

access counselling and groupwork

support to help manage their

thoughts and behaviours. The

project has gained support from

the Government and now operates

in 12 sites across Germany.) Our

thinking mainly stemmed from the

fact that prisoners at Whatton often

commented that if they had had

the opportunity to participate in the

programmes they had undertaken

in Prison before they had

committed the offence, they would

not have committed the offence

in the first place. The significant

challenge with this idea was how to

raise funds for it.

The SLF had been particularly

successful in obtaining funding

for people with convictions for

sexual offences but less successful

when charitable trusts were

approached to fund a project that

helped people before they had

been convicted of an offence.

However, in 2016 The Henry Smith

Foundation Supporting agreed Professionals to fund 50% of

Prevent Sexual Abuse

the costs of the project, providing

a funder could be found to match

the amount of money they were

providing. While this was positive,

bearing in mind the difficulties we

Supporting Professionals to

Prevent Sexual Abuse

had had in getting this initial 50%

agreed, we felt the likelihood of

being able to secure a further 50%

was slim. However by chance,

the Nottinghamshire Police and

Crime Commissioner attended

a charitable event which I also

attended and he agreed to look

positively on an application for the

prevention project. So with grateful

thanks to the Nottinghamshire

Police and Crime Commissioner,

the Prevention Project began in

September 2017.

The Prevention Project takes

referrals from people who have

concerns about their sexual

thoughts and behaviours and

organises groups facilitated by

trained therapists to help people

better manage these.

The SLF already had premises

provided by Nottingham Trent

University in the centre of

Nottingham and the project

operates from there. As with all our

projects, research and evaluation

is built-in from the outset and we

hope to demonstrate the project’s

effectiveness so that new funding

streams can be accessed to widen

its remit.

Future Plans

The SLF currently has two projects

in the planning stages: The “Drop

in Centre” to be based in the

centre of Nottingham for people

released from prison who are

socially isolated and need ongoing

support, and the Accommodation

Project. The intention is to

provide benefits advice and

teach employability skills and,

as we know that when people

are out of work or have no stable

accommodation they often have

nowhere to go during the day, we

also want to offer social activities

and a hot meal. A funding

application is underway to provide

for the necessary staff and building

adaptations.

The rationale for our second

planned project, the

Accommodation Project, is the

recognition that people leaving

Approved Premises often have

difficulty in finding suitable, safe

and stable accommodation. The

SLF Accommodation Project hopes

to set up a “three-quarter-way

house” to support people who

are released from prison or from

Approved Premises to help them

resettle into the community more

successfully.

In summary, it has been a busy

(and rewarding) few years. We

now have 6 staff and 68(!)

volunteers, as well as a dedicated

and committed team of trustees

and an exciting future ahead.

Lynn Saunders OBE

Governor HMP Whatton & Chair

and Co-Founder Safer Living

Foundation

http://saferlivingfoundation.org

Supporting Professionals to

Prevent Sexual Abuse

International

Conference 2018

19th - 21st September 2018

Grand Central Hotel - Glasgow

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Life at HMP Whatton

– Peter

Peter is currently serving time at HMP Whatton. Whatton is a large medium

secure treatment site for people with convictions for sexual offences. In this

article, Peter tells us about life at the prison and some of the projects that have

developed there as a result of the involvement of service-users.

Here at HMP Whatton we enjoy a

number of interesting and innovative

approaches in our daily lives and

through special events. As part of

our Rehabilitative Culture, there

is an open conversation between

staff and inmates when it comes

to ideas to improve both the

prison experience and its eventual

outcomes. I am very fortunate to

be a resident here and have found

the ethos to be both supportive and

educational. I’d like to share some

examples of events and initiatives

that are in place and which I’ve

experienced personally or seen in

action.

Clothing Sales

Clothing Sales are fast becoming

a popular and much talked about

event. Clothing gives us a sense

of identity and in many cases is

an expression of who we are and

what or where we come from.

HMP Whatton has a clothing policy

that allows residents to wear their

own clothing as long as they have

enough to change and wash it

regularly. However, those inmates

who had come into prison at short

notice (and with little or no outside

support), or those who had been

in for some considerable length of

time, and perhaps only ever used

prison-issue clothing, were suddenly

at a disadvantage – the clothing

available through catalogues can

be expensive and is perhaps not

appropriate in size or style to fit

everyone. Therefore, the introduction

of a charity clothing sale has been a

godsend to some and simply a relief

to others.

The clothing is provided by two

charitable organisations: HIS Church

and Age UK. The first acquires

clothing from Trading Standards

and UK Customs & Excise and the

second from public donations. Both

receive all proceeds from sales of

their clothing.

The inaugural sale was open to 60

Lifers/IPPs (indeterminate sentence

for public protection); the second

to those who were not accepted

for the first due to limited stock. For

the next sale, priority will be given

to those residents with an imminent

release date, followed by those who

had less stock to choose from at the

second sale. Any other spaces will

be offered to new customers who do

not fit the preceding criteria and then

to IPP/Lifers again. 171 residents

attended the most recent sale in

November 2017 and it proved to be

both popular and successful, raising

approximately £1600.

In order to attend a clothing sale,

and in the interests of fairness and

parity, a resident must fill out an

application and receive approval.

If they are accepted, they receive

notification and a time slot to attend.

The sale is held in the Visits Hall and

admits a limited number at a time.

Inmate orderlies assist with the setup

and management of the clothing

as well as measuring those who

ask for sizing. Buyers are limited

in their purchases e.g. one jacket,

one sweatshirt, one pair of trousers

etc. in order to ensure that there

is enough clothing for everyone to

choose from. Here is some of the

feedback from inmates:

“Good concept, affordable, more

choice for next time, I hope.”

“Good prices. Service with a smile –

I was looking for a jumper, couldn’t

find one and walked away from the

table. An orderly called me back and

showed me one that was a perfect

fit. Good system.”

“[At the sale] I could buy clothing

at a much lower price than the

catalogues, I could check it and try

it on before I paid for it, and then I

could take it with me without having

to wait for it to be sent in the post

or wait to pick it up from Reception.

The whole idea was brilliant and I

hope to do it again in the future!”

Social Care Advocates

Social Care advocates (SCAs) are

trained inmates who assist those

residents who are finding it hard to

cope with everyday life – perhaps

due to disability, illness, age or

having recently had an operation.

SCAs aren’t limited to assisting with

physical tasks such as cleaning

people’s cells, collecting their meals,

collecting/delivering their laundry or

making their beds, but are also on

hand as a companion or advocate

– a voice for those who might need

this. SCAs encourage the people

they work with to try and do things

for themselves in order to keep them

as active as possible – it is very easy

to offer assistance, but to support

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| 13


and encourage someone to do

something under their own steam is

equally effective and more likely to

increase feelings of accomplishment

and self-worth.

Importantly, SCAs also support each

other as a team. They get to know all

of the people who need assistance

and are not limited in who they

help, so they are able to assist each

other and cover when necessary.

Flexibility is a key attribute to being

an SCA.

Some SCA comments include:

“I for one believe in the SCAs and

all they stand for. Prison is not easy

for anyone, and to have an illness

or disability makes things a little

more difficult, which is why we have

SCAs here. I feel it runs so well

that it should be rolled out to all the

prisons that don’t already have a

similar scheme.”

“I’ve found the job very rewarding in

lots of ways. As a team we work well

together and are always on hand for

the people we assist, even if it’s for

something as simple as a listening

ear. But when I’m asked about

what I like about being an SCA, the

answer is simple—it’s the feeling

I get when I’ve empowered others

and the fact it can be done in many

different ways.”

“We had a new person move onto

the wing where I work as an SCA,

and one morning, after a bit of a

chat, I asked him if he felt up to

giving his cell a bit of a clean. I told

him that if he needed me to I would

stand in the doorway, just in case

...He was more than happy to have

a try and, once he had finished, I

told him that he had done a better

job than I could have. The look on

his face spoke volumes and I could

see how proud he was of himself.”

Parallel Visits Day

Parallel Visits Day at HMP Whatton

is a day for those residents who

may not have had a visit for some

time – perhaps because they are

estranged from, or are no longer

in contact with, their family and/

or friends, or may be visits are out

of the question because of age,

infirmity, finances or distance from

the establishment. There are plenty

of possible reasons for the lack of a

visit but the consequence is always

essentially the same – a sense of

loneliness and separation for the

individual here.

Parallel Visits Days seek to offer

something of the visiting day

experience – including different

food, a change of scenery,

something else to do or just a

change of conversation – to those

who do not normally receive

visits. The criteria for applying to

attend one of these special days

is that a person must not have

had a domestic visit for at least

the previous 12 months (through

no fault of their own). Spaces are

limited. Although many of the staff

faces in attendance may be familiar,

their function at such an event

is different, as they take a much

more informal role and join in with

various activities. It is also likely that

residents will come across other

inmates they have not previously

met or spoken with in any depth,

so this becomes an opportunity for

those in similar situations (regarding

visits) to chat and socialise. Maybe

attendees will offer empathetic

support or perhaps they’ll find that

they are not the only one in their

given circumstance; whatever

happens, they will certainly benefit

from the interaction.

A recent Parallel Visits Day

began with a welcome and brief

introduction to attendees, which

was followed by an icebreaker

exercise involving participants being

paired at tables for two minutes to

introduce themselves and ‘speed

chat’ (without mentioning prison

life), before moving on to another

table. This eventually introduced

everyone to each other. Lunch

was pre-ordered and paid for by

inmates from their own money (to

a maximum of £6). It was a change

from normal prison fare – more in

keeping with the variety of food

available during the regular prison

visiting system. Afternoon activities

included a quiz, a couple of bingo

games and informal talks by various

department heads, before the whole

thing was wound up with tea or

coffee and general conversations.

One attendee commented, “I

would like to thank all of the staff

and inmates who took the time

and made the effort to make it an

enjoyable afternoon for people who

don’t normally get visits ... looking

forward to the next one in the near

future.”

It is very easy to “write off” a

prisoner in response to their

crimes and this is an ethos

prisoners have perceived in other

establishments. HMP Whatton

does not, however, condone or

support such a philosophy. Instead,

a new and positive sense of self

and one’s place within a community

is encouraged, and achievable

goals for the future are set for both

within, and beyond, the prison

environment. As an inmate who

has been here for nearly two years,

and as the prison magazine editor, I

have been able to see and report on

successes and works-in-progress,

whether it’s for one-off or day-to-day

activities. The thread that connects

all of them is that they have been

suggested, designed and instituted

through a careful process – involving

staff and inmates – to ensure they

are beneficial not only to residents

but also to the officers, civilians

and visitors. All the activities or

events are then followed up with

evaluations from all quarters, which

ensure there is continual growth

and improvement, in line with HMP

Whatton’s culture of rehabilitation.

Peter, inmate at HMP Whatton

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Changes to the NOTA Blog

– Kieran McCartan

The Prevention blog (www.notaprevention.co.uk) has been running

since June 2016, almost 2 years, with approximately one blog per

month. The original aim of the blog was to highlight sexual abuse

prevention work and facilitate discussions around the prevention

of sexual abuse; however, over the last couple of months we have

decided to broaden the remit of the blog beyond prevention to

encompass the wide range of work that NOTA members partake in.

A broadening in the remit of the

blog means that we can look at

treatment, policy, policing, criminal

justice issues, preparation and

victimology as well as prevention.

In line with this content shift it has

also been decided that the blog will

move towards weekly publishing

over the next couple of months.

In order to support this we have

formed an alliance with both NOTA

News (to reproduce some of the

content from the publication) and

The Journal of Sexual Aggression

(to enable us to highlight content

from the journal). Examples of how

we do this will include reproduction

of editorials, think pieces based

on articles, summaries of

articles, author Q & A, etc. The

collaboration between the blog,

Journal and NOTA news will allow

non-NOTA members to see the

work, research and policy that NOTA

members are involved in; hopefully

enabling greater engagement with

the organisation from other external

professionals, practitioners, policy

makers, members of the press and

the public. Thus making NOTA

more visible!

If you would like to contribute ideas

or written pieces (usually 800 words)

to the blog please contact me. Thank

you for engaging with the blog over

the last couple of years and we look

forward to hearing from you about

the content and future direction of

the blog!

The piece below, by

Supporting

Maggie

Professionals to

Prevent Sexual Abuse

Brennan, is an example of a blog

published online on 10th April 2018.

Professor Kieran McCartan

University of West of England

Supporting Professionals to

Prevent Sexual Abuse

Maree Crabbe

Making Violence Sexy?

Pornography, young people and sexual abuse prevention

NOTA and NSPCC:

Monday 17th September, (9:30 registration) 10am – 4pm

Barnardo’s 1 Long Lane, London SE1 4PG (Holloway Tube)

Cost: Members: £100 | Non-NOTA Members: £120

Book online at: www.nota.co.uk/training/list-of-events

or contact Gill Riley notaoffice@nota.co.uk

www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents

| 15


What’s behind the screen? New insights

on offending and victimisation in images

of child sexual exploitation and abuse

– Maggie Brennan

There is a dearth of comprehensive and consistent data on the

characteristics of Child Sexual Abuse Material (CSAM), Child

Sexual Exploitation Material (CSEM) 1 , and the children and

offenders depicted in this content.

This situation is due, in part,

to the criminal nature of these

materials, related methodological,

ethical and legal challenges in

researching CSAM/CSEM, and

highly limited resourcing in relation

to the significance of the issue.

Until recently, no representative

international baselines of empirical

data had been produced on these

phenomena.

The study

In an effort to address this problem,

I was commissioned by ECPAT

International and INTERPOL

to lead an analysis of a multicountry

data set of CSAM/CSEM

cases, seized by law enforcement

around the world, and housed

in the International Child Sexual

Exploitation (ICSE) Database at

INTERPOL. This CSAM/CSEM data

set is broader in country coverage

than any other previously analysed

and made public. Funded by the

European Commission, the study

presents the results of a two-part

analysis of CSAM/CSEM case

data in the ICSE Database, and of

consultations with law enforcement

involved in the identification of

victims and offenders pictured in

CSAM/CSEM. It highlights the multifaceted

challenges presented to

international law enforcement, child

protection and other stakeholders

by rapid evolutions in online child

exploitation and abuse, and the

increasingly complex role played by

’youth-produced’ sexual content in

this context.

A major element of the report was

the analysis of CSAM/CSEM images

and videos, undertaken to develop

a descriptive profile of unidentified

child victims and their abusers, with

attention to variables such as age

category, gender, ethnicity, type and

severity of depicted sexual activity,

and paraphilic theme. This involved

a visual analysis of a random

sample of 800 CSAM/CSEM series

drawn from unidentified cases in

the ICSE Database. Data collection

from the CSAM/CSEM series was

guided by a bespoke, 22-category

coding framework, which in turn,

was subjected to an interrater

reliability assessment 3 .

Evidently, analysing recordings of

child sexual victimisation raised

many complex ethical challenges for

the research partners, particularly

from the perspective of child rights.

Therefore, the study was subject to

a wide range of legal, institutional

and ethical conditions, duly and

carefully considered, and rigorously

implemented, in order to respond

to the ethical issues the project

raised. These are described in the

full report.

Key Findings

Very young children

The analysis suggested that, in

comparative terms, the situation

of very young CSAM/CSEM

victims was particularly acute. The

relationship between the severity

of depicted sexual activity and

victim age was significant, with

infants and toddlers more likely to

feature in imagery depicting severe

sexual abuse involving an adult

(COPINE 4 level 8-10). Furthermore,

very young children were more

likely than children of other ages

to be subjected to victimisation

1 The Interagency Working Group on Sexual Exploitation of Children (2016) defines CSAM as a subset of CSEM, ‘where there is actual abuse or a concentration on the anal

or genital region of the child’ (p.39). According to its guidelines, CSEM can be used in a broader sense to encompass all other sexualised material depicting children (p. 40).

2 A series is a group of images and/or videos that are related to each other in some way that is meaningful to an investigator, e.g. if the images and videos depict the same

victim or the same crime scene.

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featuring an additional problematic

paraphilic theme (i.e. additional to

the more obvious paedohebephilic

themes depicted in the imagery).

Overall, these additional problematic

paraphilias were depicted in almost

one third of the analysed CSAM/

CSEM series.

Boys as victims

31% of series depicted the

victimisation of boys exclusively.

This figure is substantially higher

than those reported in other studies,

where boy victims accounted for

approximately 20% of analysed

cases (e.g. Canadian Center for

Child Protection on the Internet,

2016; Quayle & Jones, 2011).

Moreover, there was a significant

relationship between the severity of

depicted sexual activity and victim

gender, with boys more likely to

feature in material depicting severe

sexual abuse (COPINE level 7-10),

and girls more likely in imagery

depicting moderate victimisation

(COPINE level 4-6).

Children in ‘low-level’, sexualized

imagery

Over 61% of analysed series were

identified as being both ‘abusive’

and ‘exploitative in character’,

meaning that universally illegal

sexual abuse images and potentially

legal exploitation images of the

same victim were found together.

This finding speaks to the possibility

that many child subjects of ‘low

level’ exploitation imagery have also

been implicated in the production of

illegal CSAM.

Female offenders

Where depicted, females offended

more frequently alongside a male,

assuming an ‘active’ role in the

abuse. Moreover, offending pairs

comprising male and female

offenders were more likely to engage

in extreme forms of abuse. There

was significant relationship between

offender gender and sexual activity

level, with series where males and

females depicted together more

likely to feature the highest level of

abuse (COPINE level 10).

‘Youth-produced’ sexual imagery

A wide range of sexual activities were

depicted in these materials, from

more innocuous, nude or semi-nude

‘selfies’ of children, through to ‘selfgenerated’

depictions of extreme

sexual activity involving bestiality

and sadomasochistic themes. While

many recordings were produced

in domestic settings, others were

apparently produced in school

environments. The levels of CSAM/

CSEM production depicted in these

cases were quite complex, and

challenged the simplistic distinction

that has been drawn between

content that is ‘youth-produced’ and

offender-generated. In some cases,

offender involvement was clear,

whether recording the children while

they ‘self-generated’ the imagery, or

otherwise coercing the child into the

production of the content.

Conclusion

Given the scope of the analysis,

the findings presented here are

limited to a high-level selection of

report highlights which may be of

interest to those concerned with

the treatment and management of

online child sex offenders and their

victims.

More broadly, the study highlighted

how our knowledge of the

characteristics of CSAM/CSEM

victims and offenders is limited,

both by a lack of standardised or

comparable data categorisation

approaches, and by differences in

the sampling and case recording

approaches across existing

studies. Resolving this situation

will require extensive engagement

between the research community

and gatekeepers of international

repositories of CSAM/CSEM in

order to develop standardised

and comparable datasets.

Notwithstanding, the study offers

a framework and categorisation

approach towards this goal, that

may be further used to support

the development of descriptive

profiles of CSAM/CSEM victims and

offenders in future studies.

The technical report, containing

full findings and discussion, can

be downloaded from: http://

www.ecpat.org/wp-content/

uploads/2018/02/Technical-Report-

TOWARDS-A-GLOBAL-INDICATOR-

ON-UNIDENTIFIED-VICTIMS-IN-

CHILD-SEXUAL-EXPLOITATION-

MATERIAL.pdf

Margaret (Maggie) Brennan

Lecturer at University College

Cork; research lead on the ECPAT-

INTERPOL study, ‘Towards a

Global Indicator on Unidentified

Victims in Child Sexual

Exploitation Material’.

References

Canadian Center for Child Protection

(2016). Child Sexual Abuse Images on the

Internet: A Cybertip.ca Analysis. Retrieved

from https://www.cybertip.ca/pdfs/CTIP_

CSAResearchReport_2016_en.pdf

Interagency Working Group on Sexual

Exploitation of Children (2016).

Terminology Guidelines for the Protection

of Children from Sexual Exploitation and

Sexual Abuse. Retrieved from http://

cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/

terminologyguidelines.pdf

Quayle, E., & Jones, T. (2011). “Sexualised

Images of Children on the Internet”.

Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and

Treatment, 23(1), 7-21.

Taylor, M., Holland, G., & Quayle, E.

(2001). “Typology of paedophile picture

collections”. The Police Journal, 74(2),

97-107.

3 Levels of agreement between the raters for the framework categories (reliabilities) were measured by means of an assessment of inter-rater reliability using Kendall’s tau (τ).

Where it was possible to produce reliability estimates, scores indicative of good to perfect agreement were observed between the 4 raters in the application of the framework.

4 Severity of depicted sexual victimisation was assessed in accordance with the 10-point COPINE scale (Taylor, Holland & Quayle, 2001)

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| 17


Targeting And Reducing Grooming,

Exploitation and Trading of Children and

Young People Online (TARGET)

– Hayley Brown

The TARGET (Targeting And Reducing Grooming,

Exploitation and Trading of Children and Young People

Online) is a three year Big Lottery funded project at Service

Six, a Midlands based charity.

In 2015 Service Six recognised

that there was an increase in

demand by young people needing

support after experiencing

Online Sexual Exploitation and

Abuse (OSEA). On exploring

the wider scale and impact of

this emerging trend the TARGET

Project undertook initial research

in October 2015 to August

2016 in both Leicestershire

and Northamptonshire. This

research was undertaken with the

additional support of an ex-CEOP

operative, DS Carole Walton from

Northamptonshire Police, and

Dr Lee Haddlington, De Montfort

University’s Senior Lecturer

and Chartered Psychologist,

the Founder Member of the

Psychology and Technology

Research Group, East Midlands

Police Academic Collaboration

(EMPAC) and Network Lead

for Serious Organised Crime

(Cybercrime).

The research displayed the

trends and concerns of the

many dangers our children and

young people face in the online

world. This research and the

consultation saw the organisation

engaging with over 1000 children

and young people aged five years

plus. The research findings clearly

depict a disturbing reflection of

the children and young people’s

online experiences.

Over half of the children and

young people told us that they

are regularly contacted online by

strangers, with over 19% of them

having been asked to meet with

a stranger. Most shockingly was

that only 0.5% of the children and

young people ever reported any

of their concerns or experiences

to anyone. A comparison

evaluation was also conducted

between disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged

young people,

with only a 1% difference in

terms of stranger contact. This

clearly showed that the threats

in the online world cuts across

all demographics and affect

all children. However, it must

be noted that these were only

anonymous findings based upon

what the children and young

people were willing to tell us - the

true extent could be far worse.

Every day the development of

technology and the impact that

this places upon our children

and young people and future

generations to come, becomes

more and more obvious. Recent

Ofcom statistics in 2017 showed

that at least 83% of all 12-15 year

olds own their own smartphone,

with 74% of them also having

their own social media accounts.

Through the work that TARGET

is currently undertaking, these

statistics are already changing.

During delivery sessions with

TARGET, it has been recorded

that many 7 year olds already

have social media accounts and

children as young as 6 are playing

games online such as Grand Theft

Auto and Call of Duty. These

children are already exposed

to a world where people who

perpetrate abuse are awaiting an

opportunity.

Technology is now embedded

in everyday lifestyles as a social

norm connecting us all with

a wide range of individuals,

including those, of any age, who

may perpetrate abuse across

the world. Since 2015 the UK

government and other national

organisations have reported

the increase in technology

and its connection with Child

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Sexual Exploitation (CSE). The

Minister for Crime, Safety and

Vulnerability launched the 2018

Global Threat Assessment into

CSE; highlighting the growing

dangers posed to children and

young people and the expanding

community of technological

offenders. We currently live in

a generation where children

and young people use all forms

of social media and platforms

across the internet to display

everything about their lives -

providing the whole world with

an ‘open window’ to their lives.

Many of these children and young

people want to be the next new

celebrity that has found fame

through social media, displaying

what they deem to be ‘the best

possible version’ of themselves.

The world of technology changes

on a daily basis; with new

apps and ways to connect, live

streaming, talking with strangers

across the world, playing

online games and facilitating

various other aspects of online

connectivity. These new methods

of communication often come

with higher levels of encryption,

with more secretive, dangerous

and adventurous ways to

connect. This in itself creates

the perfect opportunity for those

who want to abuse children to

learn everything about them. Our

children and young people are

constantly exposed to indecent

sexual images and videos - often

containing children themselves,

abuse, exploitation, grooming,

sextortion and blackmail.

Alongside these dangers, children

and young people also have a

fear of disclosing OSEA, due

to messages that are perhaps

unintentionally portrayed by

parents, peers, their communities,

the media and many others. In

addition, sadly, it seems that

OSEA is seen to be less serious

or harmful; however, the impact of

trauma upon the victim can be just

as serious as any other form

of abuse.

The TARGET Project has, and

will continue to, assist in the

education and support of the

children and young people in

this unknown technologically

advancing world. Professionals

working with children and

young people need to gain an

understanding of the world they

live in and provide appropriate

interventions at appropriate

stages, while recognising that

even though young people may

possess knowledge on OSEA

it does not always prevent

problems arising. While there

must, of course, also be a focus

on disrupting abusive behaviour,

raising awareness and increasing

insight into online dangers and

providing young people with

the opportunity to critically think

about situations, and encouraging

insight to the dangers posed,

which may potentially assist in the

prevention and recovery of online

sexual exploitation and abuse.

I am currently conducting further

research into the impact and

ever-growing concerns of OSEA.

As a project we welcome other

professionals with knowledge and

expertise in the field to contact us

to assist in developing a better

understanding of OSEA and the

trauma impact it places upon

children and young people.

Hayley Brown

Manager, Service Six

TARGET Helpline:

Mondays and Fridays 4.30-8pm

Helpline Number (contactable

via text, phone and WhatsApp):

07718 003219

Email: target@servicesix.

co.uk

Facebook: Ollie Target

Website: www.servicesix.co.uk

TARGET App:

Now available for FREE in all

App Stores

Search for ‘TARGET Online Ollie’

Twitter:

@ServiceSix1

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| 19


Restorative Justice or Dangerous Liaisons?

– Nadia Wager and Chris Wilson

This article is based upon research conducted over

a three-year period resulting in a book chapter

published in 2017 (Wager & Wilson 2017). The

publication of the chapter and its contents also

formed the basis of a workshop at last year’s NOTA

Conference held in Cardiff.

It has been a commonly held belief

that restorative justice has no place

in the field of interpersonal and

gender-based violence. However,

recently, this widely held orthodoxy

has been challenged with the

development of a number of small

projects that seek to facilitate

victim-initiated restorative justice.

The positive outcomes for those

who have engaged with these

projects (Koss, 2014) have led to

some practitioners re-evaluating

their previously held beliefs on

the subject. Evidence of this sea

change was seen at the 2015 NOTA

National Conference in Dublin,

where delegates heard the powerful

testimony of both the survivor and

practitioner’s experience as to the

benefit of such a process. The

growing evidence of a positive

therapeutic impact relating to

victim-initiated restorative justice

requires serious consideration for

both policy and practice.

In 2002, the UK government

funded three Circles of Support

and Accountability (CoSA) pilot

sites, introducing the Canadian

scheme into the British Criminal

Justice System. CoSA is based

upon the three restorative principles

of repair, stakeholder participation

and transformation (Newell, 2007)

and seeks to safely reintegrate

known sex offenders being

released from prison back into

the community. It achieves this by

recruiting volunteers to represent

the local community and support

an offender in their acquisition of

social capital and realization of

the Good Lives Model (Ward and

Stewart, 2003). The success of the

scheme in the UK was due to its

adaptation to work in partnership

with the statutory agencies, through

the Multi Agency Public Protection

Arrangements (McCartan, 2018)

and that success can be measured,

in part by CoSA’s growth across

the UK and Europe. By 2016 there

were 16 projects delivering CoSA

in England and Wales with projects

established in Scotland and 8 other

European countries.

Evaluation of the government

funded pilot projects highlighted

that significant numbers (25%) of

its volunteers were survivors of

sexual violence (Bates et al., 2007)

and that this percentage appeared

to be replicated as new projects

became operational both in the UK

and across Europe. In 2012, Circles

UK commissioned work to explore

restorative practice that contributed

to the wellbeing of the survivorvolunteer.

This initially concerned

itself with the examination of the

attitudes and beliefs of CoSA

Coordinators towards this group of

volunteers. The methodology used

for this was a web-based survey

followed by a workshop.

There is no national policy relating

to CoSA Coordinators asking

volunteers about their potential

survivor status, therefore practice is

inconsistent. Both the survey and

workshop evidenced a collection

of strong emotional reactions and

opinions from all Coordinators,

those in favour and those opposed

to asking such a question. Those

who did ask the question appeared

to have found sensitive ways

of doing so, recognising that

disclosure may not only be difficult

but will come if and when the

person is ready. However, those

that asked the question perceived

it as important to know and saw

benefits relating to their duty of

care towards the volunteer. Those

Coordinators reluctant to ask the

question, perceived doing so

as too intrusive and insensitive.

More concerning however, was

that among some existed a belief

that to ask such questions could

potentially result in opening

‘Pandora’s box.’

What was of interest, whether

for or against, was the degree

to which some Coordinators

pathologised victims of sexual

crimes. Such a perspective

should not come as a surprise,

the majority having previously

worked in an environment where

pathologising victims of sexual

crimes was institutionalised (i.e. it

20 | www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents


is only relatively recently that it has

been argued that such experiences

would preclude a person form

working on Sex Offender Treatment

Programmes for fear of the Prison

Service being sued (Brampton,

2010)). It was therefore evident that

any further work on this subject

needed to promote a Salutogenic

(focusing on strengths, coping and

resilience) approach (Antonovsky,

1987) challenging this pathological

perspective of survivorship.

The next stage of this work was

facilitated by the Circles South

East project and consisted of a

study interviewing 13 volunteers,

5 of whom were survivors, about

their motivations and experiences

of volunteering for CoSA. The

accounts of the survivor-volunteers

suggest that they do not enter

into their volunteering role as a

means to make sense of their own

experience, neither is it about a

process of self-healing. Rather,

they volunteer for CoSA once they

have transitioned from victim to

survivor or have found a renewed

sense of strength or purpose

arising from a new life transition or

overcoming adversity.

The study’s core theme of

‘resilience and recovery’ highlighted

the differing ways in which all

volunteers perceived survivorship.

Pathologising survivorship was

not just restricted to some of the

Coordinators but was also evident

in the 8 volunteers without first-hand

experience of sexual victimisation.

They felt that survivorship

would have an impact upon

the volunteering role and would

serve as an intrinsic motivation

for volunteering with CoSA. They

believed that survivors, unlike

themselves, had the potential to be

less resilient and more shockable,

therefore should be assessed to

ensure they have recovered from

their experiences. Conversely, the

5 survivor-volunteers did not see

their survivor status as defining

their identity. For some, the abuse

was not deemed to have had a

detrimental effect on their wellbeing

and others discussed how

they had transitioned from victim

to survivor before coming to CoSA.

Their expressed motivations for

choosing CoSA were similar to

all volunteers and, in contrast to

seeing themselves as inherently

shockable, the survivor-volunteers

discussed strategies that they used

to maintain their resilience.

The fact that the study was able

to evidence the three restorative

principles identified by Newell (2007)

is testimony to the professionalism

and quality of volunteer

management and supervision

provided by Coordinators and

other professionals. Survivors who

volunteer with CoSA are afforded

the opportunity to objectify aspects

of post-traumatic growth, such

as compassion and altruism

consistent with the principle of

repair. Stakeholder participation is

realised through the openness to

the notion of survivors volunteering

for CoSA and the commitment

that CoSA has to ensuring that the

survivors (as with all volunteers)

are appropriately trained and

supported. The facilitation of

stakeholder participation should

lead to a positive change in the way

survivors are conceptualised by

others, transforming the concept of

survivorship into images of strong,

resilient, compassionate and

self-managing individuals who are

fully functioning members of their

communities.

The 2017 NOTA Conference

workshop provided an opportunity

not only to share the findings

of this study but also to ask the

practical questions of its delegates

‘when does a victim become a

survivor?’ And ‘when does the label

of survivor no longer apply’? This

study highlights the importance

of CoSA delivering a fair and

balanced service. It cannot be

acceptable to state that an offender

is more than the sum of his or her

offending behaviour and yet to

continue to pathologise those who

have been victimised. The survivorvolunteer

occupies a unique

space in CoSA, the dynamic and

restorative nature of which we are

still yet to fully understand.

Dr Nadia Wager

(C.Psychol., AFBPsS, FHEA)

Reader in Forensic Psychology

University of Huddersfield

Dr Chris Wilson

ESRC PhD Researcher

Cardiff University

References

Antonovsky A. (1987). Unravelling the

mystery of health. How people manage

stress and stay well. San Francisco:

Jossey- Bass

Bates, A., Saunders, R., & Wilson, C.

(2007). Doing something about it: A followup

study of sex offenders participating

in Thames Valley Circles of Support

and Accountability. British Journal of

Community Justice, 5, 19-42.

Brampton, L.L. (2010). Working with sexual

offenders: The training and support needs of

SOTP facilitators. PhD Thesis, University of

Birmingham.

Koss, M (2014) The RESTORE program

of restorative justice for sex crimes:

vision, process and outcomes, Journal of

Interpersonal Violence Vol 29(9) 1623 – 1660.

McCartan, K (2018). The importance of multiagency

and partnership working in the field

of sexual abuse. Confederation European

Probation (CEP) Newsletter April 2018 http://

www.cep-probation/the-importance-ofmulti-agency-and-partnership-working-inthe-field-of-sexual-abuse/

Newell, T. (2007). Forgiving Justice:

A Quaker vision for criminal justice.

Swarthmore Lecture 2000. London:

Quaker Books

Wager, N. & Wilson, C. (2017) Circles of

Support and Accountability: Survivors as

Volunteers and the Restorative Potential. In

M. Keenan, E. Zinsstag and I. Aertsen (eds).

Sexual Violence and Restorative Justice.

London: Routledge

Ward, T. & Stewart, C. (2003). Criminogenic

needs and human needs: A theoretical

model. Psychology, Crime and Law, 9, 125

– 143

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| 21


Conceptualising adolescent

exhibitionism in the context of a YOI:

what does it mean to be ‘seen’?

– Dr Celia Sadie and Dr Sarah Allen

A common response from professionals (and lay

people), when we talk about our work with teenage

boys in custody, is an expectation of extreme sexual

frustration and arousal in the relational environment.

Adolescent boys are seen as manifesting a kind of

uncontrollable and intense sexuality (Ott, 2010).

The strictures of being locked up

and denied the opportunity to

work through this developmental

phase in a ‘normal’ environment

might well be seen as intensifying

or distorting these feelings. The

effects of these kinds of dynamics

on staff groups have been

described incisively by Adshead

(2012) and others, and it is an

ongoing process for those of us

who work with these dynamics to

make sense of them in ourselves

and in our teams.

In our work in youth custody

settings (predominantly with boys

aged between 15 and 18), we are

often asked to work with young

people whose sexualised behaviour

is troubling to prison staff. Typically,

our referrals are for incidents

of exposure, where boys show

their penises to (usually female)

prison staff, masturbate in front

of them, or ask what are felt to be

‘inappropriate’ questions about sex.

Appreciating each boy’s unique

developmental stage and

understanding of sexuality is, of

course, key. Our research mapping

the variance in experiences

and understandings of sexual

relationships in this specific

custodial population is in its infancy,

so much of our understanding is

impression-based and anecdotal. I

present this understanding here as

an exploration of current thinking

which guides our approach.

Adolescent boys are working

through developmental tasks which

include, among many others,

coming to terms with physical

change; experiencing and reflecting

on themselves and others as whole

people with complex feelings,

intentions and beliefs; and, moving

from an experience of their own

sexual feelings to recognising

the relational dimension of these

and the complexities of intimacy.

This developmental process

would ideally be facilitated by

opportunities for experience,

guidance, and a secure, responsive

and loving environment through

which to make sense of change.

The boys with whom we work

are a heterogeneous group

in most senses, but there are

distinct commonalities in terms

of chronic relational insecurity

and high levels of stress in their

home environments. Most have

witnessed violence at home and

beyond and many have absent

fathers and experiences of abusive,

neglectful and violent caregivers.

Often, they tell us that their main

source of information about

sex has come through viewing

pornography, which we can

reasonably assume has presented

unrealistic, ritualised, extreme

and emotionally disconnected

images of sexual relationships.

Having missed much of their

schooling, usually for reasons of

exclusion or neglect, many of the

boys have had very little statutory

sex education. Furthermore, very

few remember real or trusting

conversations with adults in their

lives about sex and relationships.

Fonagy and others have

described the ‘epistemic trust’

that arises in the experience of

secure attachment relationships

(defined as ‘trust in the authenticity

and personal relevance of

interpersonally transmitted

information’ by Fonagy and Allison,

2014). Epistemic trust, between

a caregiver and a child, enables

information to be assimilated and

held as personally meaningful.

We can speculate that this quality

has been intermittent, at best, in

the attachment relationships of

many of our patients. Relational

understanding, on a deep and

intimate level, is an area of

absence or great difficulty and

confusion for them.

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The particular conditions of custody

do little to foster positive sexual or

relational development. The boys

are locked in single cells and have

limited opportunities to socialise.

Officers often open their cell doors,

or the viewing flaps in them, without

warning, and boys comment that

despite being confined alone,

they have lost the right to privacy.

They can telephone approved

numbers, but calls are expensive,

time-limited and monitored. They

attend education classes (including

PSHE) in groups, but can rarely

talk about sexual matters without

creating discomfort for education or

prison staff and eliciting restrictive

responses.

Sexual banter is common between

the boys (shouting between the

windows of their cells), and is

typically of an aggressive and

necessarily public nature. Partners

and friends over the age of 16 are

able to visit, if approved by the

prison and the Youth Offending

Team (YOT), but interaction takes

place in a busy public room and

family members are often also

present. As a recent Howard

League briefing paper (2016)

pointed out, being in custody

precludes healthy adolescent

sexual expression or development.

The referrals we receive for

problematic sexual behaviour,

then, must be conceptualised in

the context of this abnormal and

dysfunctional environment.

Exhibitionism is thought to have a

prevalence rate of around 3% in the

general population (Långström and

Seto, 2006), which is not markedly

different from the rate seen in the

YOI at any given time. Researchers

have struggled to pinpoint any

specific aetiological factors beyond

those found more widely in sexual

offending, although Lee et al.

(2002) found that exhibitionists

endorsed a measure of childhood

emotional abuse/family dysfunction

significantly more often than

others who had committed sexual

offences. They were also more likely

to have shown signs of childhood

externalising problems such as

conduct disorder and ADHD.

Exhibitionism has been

conceptualised as a distortion

of an early phase of sexual

courtship (Freund and Watson,

1990), and, related to this, as a

misguided or profoundly clumsy

invitation to sex. It has also been

understood to act, for some, as

a substitute for ‘normal’ sexual

intercourse, as a direct means

of sexual relief, and as a sign of

a more general ‘hypersexuality’.

A number of studies, such as

Kafka and Hennen (2003), have

suggested that exhibitionists

are more likely to show other

compulsive, unconventional and

excessive sexual behaviour, and

that exhibitionism is often found

alongside, or preceding, other more

serious sexual offending.

A dynamic among exhibitionists

that seems particularly relevant in

our setting is a wish to be ‘seen’,

both perhaps in the existential

sense, and more explicitly, as

a sexual being, alongside the

awareness of the likelihood of

discovery and punishment. This

is clearly the case in a custodial

setting, where all individuals are

known and easily identifiable to

all staff. The behaviour therefore

carries with it a high risk of shame.

This seems to be both a perverse

driver for the behaviour and a

feature that inhibits the individual

from seeking help or admitting

difficulty, as is evident in the case

described below.

Case Example

NB: This case is a composite

of a series of those we

have worked with and all

identifying details have been

removed or altered.

Alex was a 17-year-old boy

serving a long sentence for

a serious non-sexual violent

offence. He had strained

relationships with family

members and had been

behaving violently in the home

and stealing his mother’s

property over several years.

He had not been in touch

with his father since the age

of eight, and had become

involved in a gang from about

the age of eleven.

A female prison officer

reported that Alex had called

her to his cell door to ask

for an application form, and

when she returned with it,

she opened his cell door

to find him naked from the

waist down, with an erection.

She left the form and did not

comment. After reviewing the

records and interviewing the

female officer, a member of

our service met with Alex, with

a senior male prison officer.

Alex stated that there had

been a ‘misunderstanding’

and declined further sessions.

Two weeks later, another

female officer reported that

Alex had asked her if his

penis was a normal size and

whether he could show it to

her. She had told him this was

not an appropriate question

and to talk to healthcare staff

if he was concerned. On a

third occasion, approximately

a week later, another female

prison officer reported that

Alex had asked her to bring

him his weekly newspaper

and when she had brought

it, she found him naked and

exposing his erect penis.

Our team member returned to

speak to Alex, who was angry

when the issues were raised,

refused to discuss them and

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| 23


threatened to assault one of

the female officers in question.

Over the following month, a

further incident of exposure

and another incident of asking

“inappropriate questions about

his penis”, were reported.

Responses to Alex from prison

officers varied from indulgent

normalising (“it’s just fun and

games, nothing we haven’t all

done as teenagers”) to fear

and disgust (“you watch, he’ll

rape someone one day”) to

concern and curiosity (“what’s

going on there? He’s not ok”).

Without Alex’s involvement,

it was difficult to construct

a meaningful formulation of

his behaviour. A functional

analysis of the incidents

suggested that they were

likely to take place at quiet

times when Alex was locked

in his room with little to do,

and were aimed at fairly

inexperienced, new, female

prison officers. The various

responses he received did not

seem to stop the behaviour

recurring. The prison decided

to ensure that only male

officers were sent to his door

when he called.

Our service continued to

attempt to engage Alex in

therapeutic work, with the aim

of gaining a clearer sense of

the meaning of his behaviour,

offering him the space to

be ‘seen’, and for his sexual

curiosity to be recognised.

We also worked closely with

officers to help them make

sense of their responses to

his behaviour.

In this case, as in many, it was

extremely difficult to establish

a therapeutic relationship. It is

surmised that, given the power

and sexual charge of the shame

associated with the incidents

of exposure, and the complex

attachment history evident in his

case, Alex’s motivation to engage

was low. Epistemic trust must

develop between us as therapists

and our patients, in order for the

work to have real salience. This is a

particular challenge when working

with young people who are

chronically traumatised and who

tend to respond to new information

in a suspicious and mistrustful way

(‘epistemic hypervigilance’). As in

this case, there is often a sense of

urgency from the prison around

starting a piece of therapeutic

work with a young person who is

presenting in this manner, which

is in conflict with the reality of the

length of time and the depth of

mutual perseverance it takes to

develop a trusting relationship.

There is limited guidance in the

literature regarding this kind of

work, particularly with adolescents.

Morin and Levenson (2008) offer a

useful overview of various methods

and suggest that addressing

unmet emotional needs and

helping the individual develop a

deeper understanding of relational

intimacy and interpersonal

boundaries are valuable

therapeutic targets, whatever the

treatment modality.

In our experience, there is great

value in developing a full and

nuanced formulation, ideally

in collaboration with the young

person themselves and the

immediate team around them,

and ensuring that those working

with them do not respond in

ways that amplify the problem or

shame them for it. A reciprocal role

(Ryle, 1990) around shaming and

being shamed is often played out

between the young person and the

staff member who witnesses the

exposure. While it needs careful

preparation, and may be hard

to tolerate, bringing the officers

into the frame, in sessions, and

working with both to reach an

awareness of the dynamics of their

actions and reciprocal responses,

is particularly meaningful. Working

with staff teams to formulate

and reflect on their experience in

cases like this, and sharing and

discussing literature and research

in the area, can form a key part of

creating a more therapeutic and

thoughtful environment in such

institutions. In addition, our team is

involved in developing a piece of

research exploring the language

and experiences of sexual

relationships among teenage boys

in custody, in order to broaden our

understanding and inform how we

talk and work with them.

Zechnich (1971; p75) describes

some of the implicit messages

of exhibitionism as being what

are in one sense normal and

healthy affirmations: ‘I exist; I

have life-space’, and ‘It does

make a difference that I have a

penis’. The aim of treatment is to

facilitate a shift from the patient’s

‘non-legitimate showing off’ to

‘legitimate showing-off’; in this

context, perhaps, allowing him to

move from the position of being

intolerable to becoming tolerable

(and even, valued).

Among adolescents, the

process of individuation and

self-definition is a pre-eminent

concern. In a custodial setting,

where the de-individualisation and

disempowering of the self (where

each boy is divested of personal

possessions, dressed in uniform,

subject to undifferentiated rules,

and given a ‘prisoner number’)

is so powerfully enacted, that the

wish to be ‘seen’ is perhaps all the

more understandable.

Dr Celia K. Sadie, Lead Clinical

Psychologist, HMYOI Cookham

Wood and Medway STC

Dr Sarah Allen, Lead Consultant

24 | www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents


Supporting Professionals to

Prevent Sexual Abuse

Clinical Psychologist for Offender

Care, Central and North London

Foundation Trust

References

Adshead, G. (2012). ‘Mirror Mirror’: Parallel

Processes in Forensic Institutions. In The

Therapeutic Milieu Under Fire: Security and

Insecurity in Forensic Mental Health, Adlam,

J., Aiyegbusi, A., Kleinot, P., Motz, A. and

Scanlon, C. (Eds.). London: Jessica Kingsley

Howard League (2016). Briefing Paper 4:

Health Sexual Development of Children

in Prison. https://howardleague.org/wpcontent/uploads/2016/03/Healthy-sexualdevelopment-of-children-in-prison.pdf

Fonagy, P. and Allison, E. (2014). The Role

of Mentalizing and Epistemic Trust in the

Therapeutic Relationship. Psychotherapy

(Chicago, III) 53 (3), 372-380).

Freund, K. and Watson, R. (1990). Mapping

the boundaries of Courtship Disorder.

Journal of Sex Research 27 (589-606).

Kafka, M. P. and Hennen, J. (2003).

Hypersexual desire in males: Are males

with paraphilia different from males with

paraphilia-related disorders? Sexual Abuse:

a journal of research and treatment 4 (307-

321).

International

Conference 2018

SUPPORTING PROFESSIONALS TO PREVENT SEXUAL ABUSE

19th - 21st September 2018

Grand Central Hotel - Glasgow

Kar, S. K, Choudhury, A. and Singh, A. P

(2015). Understanding normal development

of adolescent sexuality: a bumpy ride.

Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences 8

(2), 70-74.

Långström, N. and Seto, M. C. (2006).

Exhbitionistic and voyeuristic behaviour in a

Swedish national population survey. Archives

of Sexual Behaviour 35 (427-435).

Lee, J. K. P., Jackson, H. J., Pattison, P.

and Ward, T. (2002). Developmental risk

factors for sexual offending. Child Abuse and

Neglect 26 (73-92).

Morin, J. W. and Levenson, J. S. (2008).

Exhibitionism: Assessment and Treatment.

In Laws, R. D. and Donohue, W. T. (Eds)

Sexual Deviance: Theory, Assessment and

Treatment, 2nd Edition. New York: Guildford

Press.

Ott, M. A. (2010). Examining the

Development and Sexual Behavior of

Adolescent Males. Journal of Adolescent

Health 46 (4), 3-11.

Ryle, A. (1990). Cognitive Analytic Therapy:

Active participation in change. A new

integration in brief psychotherapy. Chichester

& New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Zechnich, R. (1971). Exhibtionism: Genesis,

dynamics and treatment. Psychiatric

Quarterly 45 (1), 70-75.

Find full details on our website

www.nota.co.uk

or email conference@nota.co.uk

www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents

| 25


Reflections from the Front Line

“It hurts me too.” Reflections on therapy provision for children and young

people who have experienced sexual abuse and have learning disabilities

– Josephine Lay

I am a dramatherapist at The Green House charity in Bristol. I provide

therapy to children and young people (CYP) who have experienced

sexual abuse and have disclosed it to statutory services. The

work involves building a robust therapeutic relationship with those

receiving individual dramatherapy as well as with the parents, carers

and professionals around them.

I have been working with the

service for over a year and have

been reflecting on my work with

CYP who have additional learning

or social-emotional and mental

health (SEMH) needs. I have been

supported to explore this area

further through a professional

development scholarship with

the Centre of Expertise on Child

Sexual Abuse. The scholarship has

enabled me to undertake a series

of consultation and supervision

sessions with the charity, Respond,

to reflect on my practice at a clinical

and organisational level. Respond

provides psychotherapy and support

for people with learning disabilities

who have experienced trauma and

abuse. The charity also has a strong

emphasis on training and support

for carers, families and professionals

and through research and advocacy,

highlights the need for making

generic services more accessible.

Through my work with Respond,

I quickly came to realise that the

number of referrals received by

The Green House for children

with learning disabilities does

not reflect the high numbers

likely affected by sexual abuse.

For example, Sullivan’s (2000)

research highlighted that CYP with

learning disabilities and behavioural

issues are 5.5 times more likely

to experience child sexual abuse.

Their research also commented on

the lack of specialist post-trauma

support for CYP with disabilities,

especially when the disability is more

profound.

This article will focus on my

reflections on the absence and

presence of specialist support (both

therapeutic and non-therapeutic)

for CYP with learning disabilities

post-disclosure of sexual abuse. I will

look at emerging themes from my

own clinical work and explore this in

terms of current research and theory.

An Absence

Rose (2015), “… the core concept

of sexual abuse and people

with learning disabilities does

not seem to permeate society’s

consciousness; nor does it

receive the attention it is owed by

statutory services.”

Rose’s quote sums up for me the

idea that through an ongoing (albeit

unconscious) fantasy within society,

a learning disability might mean a

person is less able to understand

what has been done to them in the

abuse, thereby running the risk of

perpetuating the lack of specialist

support provided.

Corbett (2014) challenges us to

consider who we are really trying to

protect with this fantasy. Perhaps

we are in fact trying to protect

ourselves from the discomfort of

acknowledging the pain and trauma

a person experiences from the abuse

as well as from their disability. That is,

perhaps we are protecting ourselves

from, “the guilt we feel about being

unable to do anything to reduce the

agony imposed upon the patient

by the weight of their disability.”

(Corbett, p 86.)

This has led me to reflect on the

things CYP and their families with

learning disabilities have shared with

me about their experiences of feeling,

and being, ignored by services.

They have felt ignored, for example,

because the way that information is

given to them excludes them. Clients

have sat bewildered wondering

what a police officer or social worker

was trying to tell them about an

investigation or a Crown Prosecution

Service decision.

It has struck me that, although

it is the child or young person’s

information, it may be presented

back to them in a way that is

meaningless for them. Outcomes

are also sometimes full of

confusions such as being told

26 | www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents


that they are believed (by statutory

services) yet those same services

fearing a person’s communication

difficulties will interfere with taking

a case further. Having reflected

on some of these stories during

my supervision with Respond,

the overriding feeling has been

that a child/young person can be

(unwittingly) “framed” by the network

around them as “unreliable” and is

therefore not given the opportunity to

be listened to from the outset.

In therapy, some of the CYP I see are

able to use the space to express their

anger and resentment at this and of

being given the label, “vulnerable.”

For example, they may have been

given the news that their case will not

go to trial as the Crown Prosecution

Service deem the child too vulnerable

to be put through it. I have imagined

that instead of a child seeing this as

a sign of society protecting them,

they might experience it as a sign of

not being listened to. In the therapy

room, their pain is either palpable or

totally buried under layers of defence

and numbness.

A Presence

I am keen to emphasise that there

are many professionals and services

that do seek to provide specialist

post-trauma support to these CYP

and I am encouraged that referrals to

our service are evidence of this.

I can see the valuable space that

therapy sessions offer children,

where their feelings and experiences

are listened to. I am learning through

my further training to find a balance

between holding in mind the impact

of societal issues on a client and

staying with the symbolic work of

drama therapy and the therapeutic

relationship I make with the person.

This includes how CYP with learning

disabilities have used their sessions

to perhaps represent some of their

experiences of their difference or

disability, for example, stories of

a person who dreams of being a

teacher or a mother but fear they

cannot get past all the obstacles

in the way or, in play, the child who

always gets left out.

I am learning to listen to what

Corbett (2009, 2014) described as

the “disability transference” in which

the therapist receives an aspect or

feeling from the client’s disability

through an (unconscious) projection

of it, making both parties potentially

feel stuck and unable to process

thought. I have been thinking about

how this may be manifested in my

responses (countertransference) to

my clinical work. For example, my

experiencing the feeling of not quite

being able to “keep up” or suddenly

having difficulty holding onto all

my thoughts. However, I am also

learning to pay further attention to my

thoughts, for example: do I need to

act (in order to safeguard a client)?

Or is my desire to “act” an attempt

to over-protect a client and protect

us both from acknowledging their

learning disability as another part of

their trauma?

The process of writing this article has

highlighted to me the complexity of

the trauma experienced by CYP with

learning disabilities who have also

experienced sexual abuse. They

are experiencing multiple losses:

the loss of the non-disabled self

and the loss of childhood through

being forced prematurely into sexual

exposure. Both, in time, need to be

acknowledged within therapy often

represented by the child symbolically

within story or play.

Conclusion

Although much work is needed

to ensure greater access to

specialist support for CYP with

learning disabilities in this area, my

scholarship has supported me to

research and become aware of the

presence of other specialist services

both nationally (like Respond) and

locally (SARSAS in South West

England).

The consultation from Respond

and my subsequent reflections

throughout this period are teaching

me the importance of being aware

of the ‘bigger picture’ in order to

advocate for the needs of CYP with

learning needs in this area. For

example, the need to help services

further with their understanding

and use of accessible forms of

communication and the need for

more time whether in therapy, in

Police interviews, in processing

information and/or in responding

to it. I would be very interested in

hearing from other organisations

who are working in this field, or are

developing this specialist area within

their service and welcome contact

through: Josephine.lay@the-greenhouse.org.uk

Most importantly, I feel I am also

being reminded of the need to keep

the therapeutic relationship at the

centre of the work in order to deeply

hear and respond to the whole

person and what they are bringing

to therapy.

Josephine Lay

HCPC Dramatherapist

The Green House

www.the-green-house.org.uk

References

Corbett, A. (2014), Disabling Perversions:

Forensic Psychotherapy with People with

Intellectual Disabilities, Karnac Book Ltd.

Jackson, R (2016), Community Care and

Inclusion for People with an Intellectual

Disability. Floris Books.

Mearns, D. & Cooper, M (2005), Working

at Relational Depth in Counselling and

Psychotherapy, Sage Publications.

Rose, A. (2015) Sexual abuse of people with

learning disabilities is too often overlooked,

The Guardian Newspaper, (Fri 21 Aug 2015).

Sullivan, P. & Knutson (2000), Maltreatment

and disabilities: a population-based

epidemiological study, Child abuse & neglect,

(Vol 24, 10).

www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents

| 27


NOTA Creative Arts Corner

- Interview by Anna Hutchings

In “What does consent really mean?”

the authors, Pete Wallis and Thalia

Wallis explore the serious issue of

sexual consent in a graphic novel format

illustrated by Joseph Wilkins.

The text depicts the conversation

of teenagers aged 13-18 and their

personal feelings on the subject. This

comic book story is accompanied by

sexual health resources for students

and staff (including, teachers, volunteers

PSHE practitioners and international

equivalents).

As a practitioner working with children

and young people who have displayed

harmful sexual behaviour I was struck

by the usefulness of this text for my

casework. Given this, I was curious to

explore how Pete and Thalia came up

with this idea and how their individual

professional experiences informed the

development of this text. Pete Wallis is

the Senior Practitioner in Restorative

Justice for Oxfordshire Youth Justice

Service UK and a founding member

of the charity, “SAFE!” which provides

support for young people affected

by crime. Thalia Wallis is a relational

psychotherapist who supports young

victims of crime, as well as delivering

psycho-educational workshops in

schools. I would like to thank both Pete

and Thalia for kindly agreeing to satiate

my curiosity by answering the following

questions.

What motivated you both to

produce this book and how did

you come up with the idea of a

graphic novel?

Pete: The inspiration for “What

Does Consent Really Mean?” was

the cartoon ‘Consent is as Simple

as Tea’ (www.youtube.com/

watch?v=oQbei5JGiT8), which uses

the analogy of drinking tea to explore

consent. The tea cartoon is clear and

powerful, and well worth watching if

you haven’t already seen it. We felt that

it has a vital message that needs to

be conveyed in many different forms,

and wondered whether there might be

a market for a graphic novel for young

teenagers on the issue. I could certainly

have done with more guidance when

I was a teenager, and the book feels

very timely, coinciding with the #MeToo

movement and the rise in young people

disclosing an experience of sexual

abuse. I had recently published a

graphic novel on restorative justice in

schools called ‘What Are You Staring

At?’ which features wonderful drawings

by the gifted artist Joseph Wilkins, and

we submitted a proposal to the same

publishers, who were interested in

taking it forward.

Thalia: The need for more resources

on consent became apparent through

my work with young victims of crime

and delivering sessions in schools on

consent, healthy relationships, risky

behaviours and pornography. Many

young people find the topic of consent

confusing and many adults don’t feel

equipped to tackle this issue with them

or feel concerned about ‘exposing’

young people too early. In reality many

young people are already exposed to

issues surrounding consent through

schools, their communities and online.

Some young people had some quite

harmful views of sex and relationships

without awareness that their attitudes

could be problematic. We wanted

the book to really acknowledge the

pressures that young people face,

while also giving adults a tool to open

up explorative conversations with

young people so that they are not left

with problematic beliefs about sex

and relationships and are given the

opportunity to challenge and expel

some of the common myths and

misconceptions around consent. The

idea of the graphic novel came from

Pete and I was very happy to use

this format due to the wonderful and

engaging illustrations of Joseph Wilkins

and the accessibility of the layout.

How did you research and

develop your characters so

that they were representative

of young people in

contemporary society?

Thalia: Conversations around

consent are relevant to everyone,

so we really wanted the characters

to have a diverse range of stories,

experiences and backgrounds to

relate to. We wanted to represent male

and female genders equally, as well

as to include reference to different

sexual orientations to really make the

point clear that everyone is invited to

engage in this dialogue. We could

have gone further with diversity and

inclusivity but ended up feeling it was

beyond the scope of this resource. We

both engaged the young people we

work with as well as schools, sexual

health clinics, other local projects and

parents to comment and advise on our

character development and language.

Through this process the content of

the book changed dramatically and

became more and more informed

by the experiences and stories of

young people navigating these issues

themselves. One of the big challenges

was making the language realistic as a

lot of young people fed back that they

28 | www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents


wouldn’t have conversations about

consent with their peers. This feedback

made the importance of resources that

tackles consent even more apparent.

Pete: Thalia and I were keen to make

the book inclusive, with a range of

characters that teenagers could

hopefully relate to. The diversity of the

Cowley area of Oxford where we were

all living is a good start, and once

Joseph had created some characters,

we shared his initial sketches with

groups of young people. They were very

willing to comment on everything from

trainers to hairstyles. Although we made

up the storyline ourselves, throughout

the process of writing the book we

consulted with teenagers in schools, at

a local music project and through the

charity SAFE!, getting help on language,

checking relevance and noting which

bits they felt worked less well - almost

all of them suggested that there should

be more swearing... The end product

is by no means perfect. However, I was

touched to hear from a friend that she

had spotted her teenage son reading it

on the stairs.

How do you manage your

time as a senior practitioner

and a therapist with writing

and publishing texts and what

advice would you give to other

practitioners who might have

ambitions to write?

Pete: It is hard sometimes to find time

to write, and it tends to get squeezed

round the edges of the day - early

morning or late in the evening. Train

journeys are a really good time to write.

I would really encourage anyone to

have a go at writing, and also to try

approaching a publisher like Jessica

Kingsley with ideas. Initially I felt

much too green and inexperienced to

believe that I had anything to offer, but

discovered that if you have worked

in a particular field for even just a few

years, you quickly gain experience and

expertise which is worth sharing. I have

collaborated with other practitioners

on several books, and always ask for

feedback and advice from colleagues

and friends, whose generosity makes

the end product much improved on

what I could achieve on my own.

Thalia: We engaged in the process

of writing this book over a long period

time. Sometimes our time was spent

jigging and re-jigging ideas about the

storyline, characters and dialogue,

and other times we were engaging in

focus groups or waiting on feedback

from colleagues - so the intensity of

the writing process was constantly

changing. Pete is my Dad so we were

able to be flexible with each other

around when we met up, and our

writing process often spilled into family

time and involved bouncing ideas off

family members and friends. My work

involves a lot of conversations, writing

resources and delivering training

around the issues explored in the book

so I found the process of working

and writing in parallel very satisfying

as I could continuously relate each

aspect of my life to the other. My advice

to anyone else hoping to write is to

choose a topic that you’re passionate

about so that making the time doesn’t

feel like such a chore!

Finally, in your practice what

tools, techniques or approaches

do you find to be particularly

effective when working with

young people in relation to sex

and relationships?

Thalia: It depends on the context

of my work! When I work 1:1 I am

often engaging with young people

who have been affected and harmed

by crime, including sexual violence.

Every young person is different so I

use a client-centred approach and

use lots of Protective Behaviours tools

and resources which allow young

people to use storytelling and crafts to

explore their unmet needs, internal and

external sense of safety and foster an

adventurous outlook on life after crime.

When working with groups of young

people in a school or community

setting, I adopt a psycho-educational

approach to explore what informs our

attitudes, beliefs and behaviour, unpick

the ‘freedom and capacity’ aspects

of the definition of consent (Sexual

Offences Act; 2003) and explore what

healthy relationships look and feel like

(using scenarios and case studies from

the media). My approach is aimed to

equip and encourage young people to

listen to their bodies, believe that they

are in control of their bodies and take

responsibility for being respectful of the

boundaries and bodies of others. I use

many of the questions and resources at

the back of ‘What Does Consent Really

Mean?’ to open discussions with young

people both 1:1 and in groups, as we

know an understanding of consent

and healthy relationships is one of

the biggest protective factors against

sexual violence.

Pete: Most of my work is in the youth

justice field, with young people who

have caused harm or been harmed,

including cases involving sexual abuse.

I use the restorative approach, which is

neutral, impartial and non-judgmental,

and starts with exploring where each

young person is at, individually. The

approach offers a safe space for

young people - both the harmed

and the harmer - to share what has

happened, if they would like to, and

invites them to explore their thoughts

and feelings about their experience. It

considers who has been affected by

what happened, and then encourages

each young person to explore what

they need to feel better. Finally, it

empowers the young people to find

their own way forward, ensuring that

they feel in control and have choices.

Often these individual conversations

are as far as the restorative process

goes (although there may be other

ongoing interventions, for example,

if the perpetrator is on a court order

or other programme addressing their

behaviour). It can sometimes be the

case, however, that what will really meet

the needs of both parties is a face to

face meeting. With proper assessment

and preparation, restorative meetings

can be powerful and helpful, potentially

enabling the person who caused the

harm to face up and take responsibility

for their actions, and the person harmed

to regain a sense of control and safety,

and receive reassurance that they won’t

be targeted again.

Pete Wallis, Senior Practitioner in

Restorative Justice

Thalia Wallis, Relational

Psychotherapist

www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents

| 29


Book Review: Allardyce, S & Yates, P. (2018)

Working with Children and Young People Who Have Displayed Harmful Sexual

Behaviour. Edinburgh: London: Dunedin

By Anna Hutchings

Had I been

observed

whilst

reading

this very

welcome

book by

Allardyce

and Yates,

the following

behaviours

would have been noted:

*Enthusiastic nodding of the head

*furious underlining of text

*enthusiastic nodding of the head

*folding down of pages for future

reference

*enthusiastic nodding of head…Ad

infinitum…

This response speaks volumes about

the accessibility and usefulness of

this text for anyone working in the

field of children and young people

who have displayed harmful sexual

behaviour. Having worked in the

field as a Senior Social Worker for

8 years, my knowledge base has

been informed by a variety of reading

materials, training opportunities,

practice experience and expert

supervision. What makes this such

an essential text is the fact that the

authors have successfully provided

a coherent narrative of my learning

over this time as well as introducing

me to newer ideas and concepts.

This includes broadly plotting the

evolving nature of this area of work

from the 90’s to the present day,

complemented by the exploration

of many contemporary themes

including sociological explanations

of the behaviour; work with special

populations, including girls; and

harmful sexual behaviour online. The

authors describe their intention that

this book serves as a “map” to aid

navigation of this field. This aim has

been triumphantly achieved.

One of the key reasons this book

resonates for me is its focus on the UK

scene including research, policy and

practice relevant in this context. The

authors’ commitment to a child rights

perspective is evident throughout

and is inspiring for practitioners and

academics alike. For example, the

authors describe how the use of the

past tense in the phrasing of the title

and throughout the book of ‘children

and young people who have displayed

harmful sexual behaviour’ is intentional.

They explain that the focus of any

intervention is to put the behaviour

in the past and the tone and content

of the book frequently remind the

reader that these are “children first and

foremost”. The authors also provide a

clear exploration of the complexities

of modern society’s responses to

childhood sexuality and how we might

begin to navigate this in an informed

and child-focused manner.

The structure of the book is enabling

and inviting to the reader, whether

they are a practitioner or an academic.

Beginning with an introduction which

explains the purpose and structure

of the book, it moves on to chapters

related to attitudes and values;

childhood sexualities; prevalence,

characteristics and backgrounds;

aetiology; assessment; interventions;

special populations; harmful sexual

behaviour online; and, prevention.

This allows the reader to engage with

key conceptual ideas early in the book

and then dip into chapters which may

be of particular relevance to one’s own

workplace setting, current caseload or

area of special interest.

One striking aspect of this book is

that it is not only a rich collection

of research, theory and practice

experience in the field but is unique in

its reflection upon the predicaments

of practitioners working in this field.

I was greatly impressed with the

informed descriptions of the dilemmas

faced by practitioners undertaking this

work and how they must be aware

of their own feelings and attitudes to

children and young people who have

displayed harmful sexual behaviour

and how this might impact upon their

work. There was a genuine sense

from this material that the authors are

experienced in the field not only as

academics, but also as practitioners

and supervisors.

The chapter on Assessment was

particularly useful, causing me to

step outside of my day job and reevaluate

what we hope to achieve

by assessment of children and

young people. The chapter made

me consider what assessments

actually tell professionals, children,

and families? Thereby enabling me to

consider the strengths and difficulties

of different assessment approaches

when working with ‘children and young

people who have displayed harmful

sexual behaviour’

The strength of this book is in the high

quality of writing, which means that

complex ideas are explored in a clear

and concise manner without dumbing

down. I believe this book will therefore

also be helpful in assisting me to

more effectively impart knowledge

about harmful sexual behaviour

in an accessible manner to other

professionals, children and families.

Given these factors, I would anticipate

this book as being invaluable to

newcomers to our field as well as to

seasoned practitioners and I applaud

the authors for providing us with this

much-needed text.

Anna Hutchings

Senior Practitioner, SWIFT Specialist

Family Service, East Sussex

Children’s Services

30 | www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents


Branch News

NOTA Northern Ireland

On Thursday 22 March, I attended

as a Youth Justice Agency

delegate, the NI NOTA Branch

Conference and Training Event

which this year was focussed on

females who sexually abuse. The

conference was close to the border,

at the beautiful Dromantine Retreat

and Conference Centre, which

meant that there were colleagues

present from across the island of

Ireland; in total, over 80 delegates

were present from a range of

organisations which resulted in

lively and wide-ranging debate.

The conference aimed to explore the

theory, research, assessment and

interventions in respect of females

who sexually abuse. Admittedly,

this was a subject that I had little

knowledge of and I was eager

to hear from others about their

experiences.

The day was opened by the NI

Branch Chair, Yvonne Adair, who

welcomed all and urged everyone

to appreciate the time out to come

together to discuss and learn about

this challenging group.

Gareth McGibbon, Independent

Social Worker, began the day with a

“myth or fact” quiz which highlighted

just how little I knew about the

subject at hand. This was followed

by a presentation by Stephen Sherry,

Public Protection Arrangements

for Norther Ireland, who gave an

insight into ‘The Challenges of

Females who Sexually Offend’. Val

Owens, Independent Social Worker,

then took the stage to share her

extensive knowledge of research into

this subject and its findings, which

gave food for thought to all. Val

highlighted, in particular, the difficulty

in gathering research on this subject

given the limited number of cases

reported each year.

As the second session got underway,

Marcella Leonard (Social Worker,

Leonard Consultancy) introduced

a look at ‘Female Sexuality - is it

Changing?’ Marcella left us in no

doubt about the ways in which

females differ from males in how they

view and experience sexual thoughts,

express intimacy and sexually offend.

Marcella provided much needed

humour to the session and directly

challenged my personal view that

females and males act alike in their

sexual offending. This was followed

by a powerful presentation from

Noelle Collins (Belfast and Lisburn

Women’s Aid) on ‘Exploitation

through Human Trafficking’ and

the reality of living in an oppressive

environment.

There was a lot to discuss with

colleagues over lunch, which

provided an opportunity to network

and compare our thoughts on the

morning’s proceedings.

The afternoon session commenced

with Gareth McGibbon providing

input on ‘Assessing Female Risk’.

This was followed by Marcella,

focusing on the ‘Impact [of

abuse by females] on Victims of

Sexual Abuse’. Both were highly

informative, with Marcella in

particular, shedding light on the

impact on young males who are

abused by a female. The final input

of the day was delivered by Gareth,

who looked at a range of current

interventions with female offenders

and the impact they have had.

The event, which covered much

ground and gained an excellent level

of engagement, was concluded

by Yvonne Adair, who summarised

and drew upon some of the more

pertinent points raised: Females

ARE sexual; their offending has a

very different pattern to males; and,

there is some correlation between

females who have experienced

childhood trauma and those who

become involved in sexual deviance.

It was heartening to attend an event

with focused inputs from all speakers

alongside space given to delegates

to interact and share their learning

from the events of the day.

Immediate and spontaneous

feedback on the day was very

positive, and that received

from those who completed the postevent

survey was most encouraging.

For example:

• “This was an excellent conference

that provided realistic overview

on research and current views on

required interventions for females

with HSB”

• “Every presentation provided

much food for thought”

• “Has really shaken up my preconceived

notions about F.S.O.s”

All presentations from the day are

available under the Northern Ireland

section of the NOTA web site.

Gary Halliday

Youth Conference Co-ordinator

Youth Justice Agency

www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents

| 31


Branch News

NOTA Scotland

Evaluation of NOTA Scotland

Conference 2018, Stirling Court

Hotel, Glasgow – Elisabet

Vandelanotte

Attendance from a range of different

agencies was high at this year’s NOTA

Scotland conference and it was good

to see so many professionals happy

to network, catch up and share their

expertise. Perhaps some shared the

imposter syndrome to which Paul

Rigby (Lecturer in social work) referred,

but this was certainly not apparent

from the intelligent questions and

comments that were made during the

two days in the various presentations

and workshops. I appreciate the

different perspectives the conference

continues to offer professionals as

described by Paul Rigby, the ‘multiagency

integration of research into the

field and questioning of practice’ - and

I came away with renewed energy

to try something out, to look into

something and to tell others about it.

The golden thread throughout this

year’s conference was internet sexual

offending. Alison Di Rollo (QC and

solicitor general for Scotland) pointed

out initially that there is a systematic

increase in sexual offending, especially

on the internet, with offenders

becoming increasingly younger.

Angela Eke (research coordinator for

the Criminal Behaviour Analysis Unit

of the Ontario Provincial Police) told

us that not only is this the case, but

there is also a decrease in detection in

such a fast-growing cyber-world visited

by such a vast population. Many of

us were pleasantly surprised by the

‘Thorn’ tool they use in Canada, a fake

child sexual abuse site that interrupts

viewing and tells viewers they are not

as anonymous as they might think,

resulting in fewer people ignoring this

and continuing on to illegal sites.

Michael Sheath (who previously

worked at the Lucy Faithfull

Foundation and is currently a staff

trainer at Europol) mentioned the

’Triple A Engine theory’ stating there

are 3 drivers for the use of online

images of CSA: Access, Affordability,

and Anonymity. Previous research

has indicated, when asked what

crimes people would commit if they

could get away with them without

consequence it was found that people

would commit most crimes. When

online, people don’t tend to inhibit

themselves as they feel anonymous

and therefore think they can get away

with it (this is also thought to be one

of the reasons why we see things like

‘trolling’ on Twitter), which makes the

internet a prefect space for people to

engage in criminogenic behaviour.

Angela Eke spoke about the C-PORT

(Child Pornography Offender Risk

Tool, Seto, and Eke, 2015) and CASIC

(Correlates of Admission to Sexual

Interest in Children, Seto and Eke,

2016) risk assessment tools and some

of the other speakers also presented

their developments and research

in this field which aim to support

case prioritisation and intervention

design. Mark Farmer gave us an

overview of how the English system of

intervention, post sentence, for those

who have committed sexual offences

has changed (i.e. the development

and implementation of Horizon and

Kazien) in order to incorporate the

most recent research findings.

Gemma Lockwood (Senior Probation

Officer and MAPPA coordinator

for Guernsey) and David Briggs

(Consultant Forensic Clinical

Psychologist) pointed out that we are

working with ‘old world’ approaches

to ‘new world’ problems, which

allow people to become increasingly

versed in ways of hiding their tracks or

deceiving the system. The ‘dark’ web

is one example of this and it seems

appropriate that facilitators of internet

programmes, such as that to which

Mark Farmer refers, receive some kind

of training on this. As somebody in

the audience so rightly pointed out,

we need to understand the language

of those abusing online to be able

to understand them, see through

deception and help them. They have

learned our ‘psycho-babble’, perhaps

we need to educate ourselves a little

more about the internet. As Wayne

Denner (motivational speaker and

trainer on online safety) put it, we

need to become digitally resilient: The

internet can be threatening, but it can

also be incredibly useful.

As a general comment from the day, it

was pointed out to me by others that

female sexual offending is still hugely

under-researched and also underprosecuted;

therefore, we are unable

to adequately manage or intervene

for those few women that have been

convicted.

Prevention is a core element of what

we do in working with individuals who

commit sexual offences. We learn

from the past to prevent in the future

(risk assessment all over, right?), but

as Stephen Smallbone (retired former

prison Psychologist and University

Professor Emeritus) put it so nicely:

“The end goal is to promote healthy

physical, social and psychological

development and the focus is on the

interest of the child”.

Elisabet Vandelanotte

Forensic Psychologist

32 | www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents


Branch News

NOTA Wales Branch News

Reflections on the NOTA Wales

Spring Conference 2018

– Dr Cerys Miles

On the 26th April 2018 the 5th

annual NOTA Wales Spring

Conference took place at the Angel

Hotel, Cardiff, directly opposite

the castle. Delegates were warmly

welcomed by the NOTA Wales Chair,

Sharron Wareham, who introduced

our Conference Chair, Malcolm

Muskett, NOTA General Manager.

We were privileged to have two

eminent keynote speakers at the

event. In the morning, Professor

Tony Ward presented on dynamic

and protective factors, challenging

us to think of them as more than

‘just labels’ or a ‘collection of things’

and to consider how they should

be meaningfully built into treatment.

He urged caution against focusing

on prediction at the expense of

explanation when considering

dynamic risk factors, and suggested

that practitioners may have

been historically constrained by

applications of the Risk, Need

and Responsivity approach and

its inherent conceptual problems.

Professor Ward encouraged

attendees to see our clients as

relational individuals who interact

with their environment in a social

context. We were further urged to

think beyond a single discipline to

aid our understanding of our clients

as complex individuals and to

support them to identify what would

help them to achieve their goals,

thereby capitalising on the forwardlooking

tendency of human beings.

Professor Ward ended his thoughtprovoking

key note by encouraging

us to build resilience in our clients

by strengthening their capacity to

engage in goal-directed actions.

In the second keynote of the day,

Dr Angela Wyatt Eke focused on

working with individuals involved in

the use of Child Sexual Exploitation

Material (CSEM), emphasising the

importance of understanding the

nature and extent of the problem

globally, and drawing links to the

growth in internet use (and that

of the ‘dark web’) in recent years.

Dr Eke proposed that technology,

deterrence and education all

have a role to play in addressing

this issue. She considered how

evidence can be used to support

the identification of individuals with

a specific sexual interest in children,

as well as reflecting on how those

who commit contact offences may

differ from those who use CSEM but

do not commit contact offences. Dr

Eke used her unique experience of

working with the Ontario Provincial

Police to encourage the audience

to reflect on their own approach to

this specialist area of research and

practice.

Attendees had the opportunity

to attend two out of a choice of

four workshops across the day.

In their very popular workshop,

Woodlands therapists, Mary

Morgan and Hannah Parry, shared

their experiences of working with

adolescent males with sexualised

histories by applying the Good Lives

Model. Kathryn Lawrence and Ian

Burke used a case study approach

to run their ‘toys for teens’ workshop,

engaging the audience in practicing

exercises aimed at working with

children while giving appropriate

consideration to their developmental

stage in order to effectively meet

their needs.

Dr Angela Wyatt Eke focused her

workshop on the application of a

tool to risk assess users of CSEM,

building on her key note address.

She used case studies to challenge

attendees to recognise the value of

understanding why individuals start

to offend, how we might deter them

from further offending, and why they

desist. Noting the lack of agreement

across agencies applying risk

assessments to this client group, she

presented the evidence in support

of the ‘Child Pornography Offender

Risk Tool’ (CPORT), proposing its

role in supporting criminal justice

organisations to prioritise cases.

In the final workshop, Polly Pascoe

and Matthew Sedgebeer of the

Centre of Expertise on Child Sexual

Abuse discussed the CSA Centre’s

approach to research, policy and

practice. They encouraged attendees

to engage in subgroup work in

order to identify the challenges

and benefits of taking a typology

approach to understanding CSA.

Feedback from the conference was

extremely positive, with all attendees

submitting an evaluation indicating

that it had met its stated objectives

‘well’ or ‘completely’, that the level

of the programme was ‘just right’

and that it would influence their

practice to some degree. NOTA

Wales Committee members are

keen to take on board suggestions

for improvement and any ideas for

next year’s conference so that it

can continue to grow and meet the

needs of our members. We look

forward to welcoming everyone to

Wales again in 2019.

Dr Cerys Miles

NOTA Wales Committee

www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents

| 33


Branch News

South East Branch News

Evaluation of the Study Day on

Children and Young People who

have displayed Sexually Harmful

Behaviour, presented by Stuart

Allardyce on 19th February 2018

Sarah Stinton

On 19th February 2018, the NOTA

South East branch hosted an event

by Stuart Allardyce, ‘Children and

Young People who have displayed

Sexually Harmful Behaviour: A

Study Day – applying typologies

to assessment and intervention’.

Stuart is the National Manager

for Stop It Now! Scotland, which

is provided by the Lucy Faithfull

Foundation, the only UK-wide

charity dedicated solely to tackling

child sexual abuse.

Stuart set the learning outcomes

of the day:

- to be able to identify key

typologies in relation to both

adolescents and children under

the age of 12 who display

problematic sexual behaviour;

- to understand the strengths and

weaknesses of typology-based

models; and

- to be able to apply typology

models to cases we are

involved in, to assist with risk

assessment and to inform our

intervention work.

Stuart was due to start his

presentation with a clip, however

when technology failed him

he moved on seamlessly, not

allowing this to affect his flow. His

presentation style is interactive and

animated, which encouraged great

participation from the room. Lively

discussions also took place with

safe, yet energising, challenging of

ideas.

I particularly liked Stuart comparing

the risk factors of harmful sexual

behaviour with smoking, in that,

“the reason someone starts

smoking is unlikely to be the same

reason they continue to smoke”.

It was helpful to be reminded

of statistics regarding further

offending i.e. that the vast majority

of young people who have

displayed HSB do not sexually

reoffend, although up to 6 times as

many commit further non-sexual

offences (Caldwell, 2002). This

was a stark reminder of the reality

of how being labelled an offender

as a 13-year old can affect what

they believe they can achieve in

later life.

I also particularly liked the concept

of ‘Scenario Planning’; an exercise

which considers what would need

to be in place to ensure the young

person does re-offend, which

then informs recommendations to

decrease the likelihood that this

does not happen.

I came away from the day with

an understanding of all of the

stated objectives as well as

an understanding of why it is

important to be able to use

assessment methods to classify

young people – essentially, so we

can provide evidence to referrers

and funders about the level and

type of resources required to

help the young person and to

inform clinicians of those issues

which require therapeutic focus in

treatment.

I would recommend this day of

training to anyone who wants to

learn about risk assessments or

who would like to build on their

existing knowledge.

An added bonus for me was

that, at the end of the day, while

sitting at home with a cup of tea

and mulling over the differing

assessment formats, I thought I’d

look up the link that technology

had prevented Stuart from

showing. See for yourself – https://

youtube/1CaqoQYakjw. It was

the perfect 1 minute 39 seconds

chuckle- inducing finale.

Sarah Stinton

Senior Practitioner at Barnardo’s

Chilston Service

Certified Play Therapist &

Theraplay Therapist

References

Caldwell, M. J. (2002). What We Do Not

Know About Juvenile Sexual Reoffense Risk.

Child Maltreatment, Vol. 7:4, pp. 291 – 302.

34 | www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents


Recent Press Releases and Reports:

Keeping up in 2018

- Helen Masson

These press releases and reports

have been published in the last few

months. I hope they are of interest

to the membership but the editorial

team welcomes information from

NOTA members about

developments that have been

missed and which should be items

for inclusion in the next newsletter.

Please contact the editorial team at

notanews@nota.co.uk

SCR Reviews published by the

NSPCC

1.Serious Case Review:

Child H1 NSPCC,

February 2018

In June 2015 Child H1 disclosed that

she had been sexually assaulted by

Young Person 1 (YP1). H1 had made a

previous disclosure that she had been

sexually abused by her older brother

Sibling 1; H1 was 12 years old at the

time and Sibling 1 was 14 years old.

The family received support from Early

Help Services and H1 was subject to a

Child Protection Plan and

subsequently an Interim Care Order

was granted by the Court. At the time

of the Review H1 had returned home

to live with her parents.

The 33 page report, published by the

NSPCC, can be accessed at:

https://library.nspcc.org.uk/

HeritageScripts/Hapi.dll/file-

transfer/2018AnonymousChild-

H1Overview.pdf?filename=AA58F-

75CEDE68892A73FB681FE246B-

8371684F102152F0AA780A14959D-

3BCE5767137B3B2A935011CBAE-

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357BAB96C006752CCD756759AD-

77BD1E389823A55CFAAE-

74B2EE64F46C611AD-

1724BE1AC50776135EBAAAFF-

ECACF7BE1247BFC24B13289

4BF73FE4702BE67987822FEE-

4AEAD558BC2F7C37DAF958D-

94CEB3D6F9833D72099D6B-

6B153E1004B5335EDC9D5&-

DataSetName=LIVEDATAfile-

transfer/2018AnonymousChild-

H1Overview.

pdf?filename=AA58F75CEDE68892A73F-

B681FE246B8371684F-

102152F0AA780A14959D3B-

CE5767137B3B2A935011CBAE-

C3068664FF681AA6D2524E-

357BAB96C006752CCD756759AD-

77BD1E389823A55CFAAE-

74B2EE64F46C611AD-

1724BE1AC50776135EBAAAFF-

ECACF7BE1247BFC24B13289

4BF73FE4702BE67987822FEE-

4AEAD558BC2F7C37DAF958D-

94CEB3D6F9833D72099D6B-

6B153E1004B5335EDC9D5&Data-

SetName=LIVEDATA

SCR Reviews published by the

NSPCC

2. Serious Case Review:

Charlie and Sam – NSPCC,

February 2018

Sam, aged 12 years, and Charlie,

aged 11 years, are of Roma heritage

and moved from Slovakia to the UK in

2012. Charlie has significant learning

difficulties.

From January 2015-July 2016 there

were concerns around episodes of

missing from home, missing school,

risk of sexual abuse and child sexual

exploitation (CSE), physical assault

and two allegations of rape. In

February 2016 both children became

subject to child protection plans under

the category of sexual abuse due to

CSE concerns. Sam had also been

assaulted by an older male following

a refusal to engage in a sexual activity

with an adult male. Charlie was the

victim of two rape incidents by different

perpetrators and both children

became subject to police protection

orders and interim care orders.

The 59 page report, published by the

NSPCC, can be accessed at:

https://library.nspcc.org.uk/

HeritageScripts/Hapi.dll/filetrans-

fer/2018AnonymousCharlieAnd-

SamOverview.pdf?filename=AA58F-

75CEDE68892A73FB681FE246B-

8371684F102152F0AA780A14959D-

3BCE5767137B3B2A935011CBAE-

C3068664FF681AA6D2524E-

357BAB96C006752CCD756759AD-

77BD1E389823A55CFAAE-

74B2EE64F46C611AD-

1724BE1AC50776135EBAAAFFECA

CF7BE1247BFC24B132894BF73FE

47835EE58D38C37EF6BFDD172B-

D647E25D539BB976096C12A-

F0E63E50FDB6DEC746D9173762C-

36D2A8207D515CBA87E&DataSet-

Name=LIVEDATA

Joint Serious Case Review

Concerning Sexual Exploitation

of Children and Adults with

Needs for Care and Support in

Newcastle-upon-Tyne

Newcastle Safeguarding Adults

Board (NSAB)/Newcastle

Safeguarding Children Board

(NSCB), February 2018

The NSAB and NSCB decided

to undertake the joint review in

2015 when there was increased

awareness of the prevalence of sexual

exploitation that had been occurring in

the Newcastle area.

The review was undertaken by an

Independent Review Team with

experience in safeguarding adults and

children from police, health, education

and social work perspectives.

The report contains a number of local

and national recommendations. Some

of the key learning points include: the

complex nature of sexual exploitation;

the extreme and long-lasting impact it

has on victims; that sexual exploitation

www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents

| 35


happens to adults as well as children;

and the difficulties in identifying and

preventing exploitation.

The 150 page report can be accessed

at: https://www.nscb.org.uk/sites/

default/files/Final%20JSCR%20

Report%20160218%20PW.pdf

Interim Report of the

Independent Inquiry into Child

Sexual Abuse Professor Alexis

Jay (chair) IICSA, 2018

The Independent Inquiry into Child

Sexual Abuse (‘the Inquiry’) was

established as an independent

statutory inquiry in March 2015.

The purpose and scope of the Inquiry

are set out in its Terms of Reference,

which state that it is:

to consider the extent to which

State and non-State institutions

have failed in their duty of care to

protect children from sexual abuse

and exploitation; to consider the

extent to which those failings

have since been addressed; to

identify further action needed to

address any failings identified;

to consider the steps which it is

necessary for State and non-State

institutions to take in order to

protect children from such abuse

in future; and to publish a report

with recommendations.

The Inquiry’s Terms of Reference

require it to publish an interim report

by the end of 2018. The publication of

this report fulfils that responsibility.

The report sets out how the Inquiry

has undertaken its work and describes

the nature and effects of child sexual

abuse. It provides an update on the

public hearings held by the Inquiry

to date and on the Inquiry’s work

considering current responses to

tackling child sexual abuse. The

report also considers what the Inquiry

has learned so far in relation to four

key strategic themes and concludes

by setting out the Inquiry’s work

programme for the coming year.

Recommendations for change are

made throughout this report.

Download PDFs of a summary report

and of the full 109 page report are

available at:

https://www.iicsa.org.uk/about-us/

interim-report

Deflection, denial and disbelief:

social and political discourses

about child sexual abuse and

their influence on institutional

responses: a rapid evidence

assessment.

London Metropolitan University.

Child and Woman Abuse

Studies Unit, Jo Lovett, Maddy

Coy and Liz Kelly

Format: Online report

Summary: Summarises existing

evidence about social and political

discourses concerning child sexual

abuse in England and Wales from the

1940s to 2017 and identifies the ways

in which those discourses may have

influenced institutional responses to

abuse. An evidence assessment of

37 discourses between the 1940s

and 2017 identified from the literature

reviewed finds that: there has not

been an agreed, uniform definition,

explanation or theory of child sexual

abuse over these decades.

Publication details: [London]:

Independent Inquiry Into Child Sexual

Abuse (IICSA), 2018

To access the 161 page report, go

to: https://www.iicsa.org.uk/keydocuments/3848/view/Social%20

and%20political%20discourses%20

about%20child%20sexual%20

abuse%20and%20their%20

influence%20on%20institutional%20

responses%20%28full%20report%29.

pdf

Independent Inquiry into Child

Sexual Abuse: Rapid Evidence

Assessments

IICAS, 29 January 2018

The Independent Inquiry into Child

Sexual Abuse (IICAS) held public

hearings in early 2018 into the

response of law enforcement agencies

to child sexual abuse facilitated by the

internet.

The five day hearing examined

the response of the police and

the National Crime Agency (which

includes the Child Exploitation and

Online Protection command) and

considered how those responses

impact on child protection. It also

considered a number of other issues

including an assessment of the current

scale of online facilitated child sexual

abuse and how the police nationally

and regionally respond to it.

In coordination with the hearings,

the Inquiry has published three rapid

evidence assessments on its website:

https://www.iicsa.org.uk/document/

rapid-evidence-assessmentbehaviour-and-characteristicsperpetrators-online-facilitated

https://www.iicsa.org.uk/document/

rapid-evidence-assessmentcharacteristics-and-vulnerabilitiesvictims-online-facilitated

https://www.iicsa.org.uk/document/

rapid-evidence-assessmentquantifying-extent-online-facilitatedchild-sexual-abuse

IICSA publishes its report into

the Rochdale child sexual

abuse scandal

April 2018

The report is concerned with the

institutional responses of the council,

the police and the Crown Prosecution

Service into child sexual abuse in

Rochdale between the early 1960s

and the mid-1990s.

For all relevant information, go to:

https://www.iicsa.org.uk/news/

independent-inquiry-publishesrochdale-report

The Alexi Project – Findings

University of Bedfordshire, 2018

The Alexi Project was a large-scale

longitudinal evaluation of the impact

of a ‘Hub and Spoke’ model of service

36 | www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents


delivery on improving local responses

for children at risk or victims of child

sexual exploitation (CSE).

These four briefing papers set out the

findings from the evaluation:

The Challenge of Outcomes

Measurement in CSE Services - One

of the key findings of the evaluation

was that the CSE services struggled

to evidence ‘top-level’ outcomes,

because of a range of challenges

around impact measurement. This

8 page briefing considers these

in more detail and in the context

of the experience of voluntary and

community sector organisations more

generally.

The Children and Social Work Act:

The Role of Voluntary Sector CSE

Services in New Safeguarding

Arrangements - Over 2018/19 new

local safeguarding arrangements

will be agreed, published and

implemented, as the local authority

(LA), local police chief and clinical

commissioning group take joint

responsibility for safeguarding in

place of Local Safeguarding Children

Boards (LSCBs). Safeguarding

partners will have responsibility

to identify ‘relevant agencies’ and

publish plans that outline how they will

work with those agencies to safeguard

and promote children’s welfare. This

7 page briefing will therefore be of

particular interest to independent

chairs of LSCBs, new safeguarding

partners and local agencies with

responsibility for responding to CSE.

Voluntary and Statutory Sector

Partnerships in Local Responses

to Child Sexual Exploitation - This

6 page briefing focuses on evidence

that can support the development

of effective partnerships between

voluntary and statutory sector

agencies when responding to CSE.

The Role of the Voluntary Sector

in Protecting Children from Sexual

Exploitation - This 7 page briefing

highlights evidence on the role of the

voluntary sector in responding to CSE

within the 50 local authorities where

these services operated.

Child Sexual Exploitation

Perpetrator Research

Centre of Expertise on Child

Sexual Abuse, February 2018

The purpose of these exploratory

studies was to increase understanding

of CSE perpetration and perpetrators

and identify the strengths and

limitations of research approaches.

The studies varied in their approach

including: identifying findings from

research to date, undertaking

interviews with experts and in some

cases, case file analysis, and

pursuing new empirical evidence on

the characteristics and perspectives

of individuals who sexually exploit

young people.

• Young People Who Engage in CSE

Behaviours: An Exploratory Study

• Characteristics and Motivations

of Perpetrators of Child Sexual

Exploitation: A Rapid Evidence

Assessment of Research

• Characteristics and Perspectives

of Adults who Have Sexually

Exploited Children: Scoping

Research

• Interventions for Perpetrators

of Child Sexual Exploitation: a

Scoping Study

• Interventions for Perpetrators of

Online Child Sexual Exploitation: a

Scoping Review and Gap

Review of International Survey

Methodology on Child Sexual

Abuse and Child Sexual

Exploitation

Lorraine Radford, Centre of

Expertise on Child Sexual

Abuse, 2018

This rapid evidence assessment was

commissioned to inform work on

improving the collection of data in

England and Wales.

It looks at the differences in victim

and perpetrator self-report survey

methodologies used internationally to

measure the prevalence of CSA and

CSE, in order to identify good practice

that could be replicated here (and

which might facilitate comparisons

with studies in other countries).

The 66 page report can be accessed

at: https://www.csacentre.org.uk/

research-publications/scale-andnature-of-child-sexual-abuse-andexploitation/a-review-of-internationalsurvey-methodology-on-child-sexualabuse-and-child-sexual-exploitation/

Local commissioning of

services addressing child

sexual abuse and exploitation

in England: a rapid review

incorporating findings from five

locations

Cordis Bright Consulting,

Centre of Expertise on Child

Sexual Abuse, Kam Kaur and

Christine Christie,

January 2018

Presents findings from a rapid review

of local commissioning looking at how

child sexual abuse (CSA) and child

sexual exploitation (CSE) services

were commissioned in five local areas

in England. The report describes

findings from a review of the literature

and interviews with 30 commissioners

which show that CSE service

commissioning practice appears

well-developed, but there is a need

to invest in CSA and harmful sexual

behaviour (HSB) commissioning

practice and service provision. The

report points out that there is concern

among stakeholders about the

increasing demand for CSA, CSE

and HSB services, including the need

for a service response to the online

facilitation of these abuses.

The 56 page online report can be

accessed at:

https://www.csacentre.org.uk/

research-publications/localcommissioning-of-servicesaddressing-child-sexual-abuseand-exploitation-in-england/

local-commissioning-of-servicesaddressing-child-sexual-abuse-andexploitation-in-england/

www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents

| 37


Evidence-based models of

policing to protect children from

sexual exploitation

Authors: Debra Allnock, Jenny

Lloyd and Jenny Pearce,

University of Bedfordshire 2017

This online report looks at ways in

which some police forces in England

have structured their child sexual

exploitation (CSE) responses and

assesses the features of CSE policing

responses in relation to the outcomes

for victims. Findings from interviews

with 30 police professionals from CSE

teams across the eight forces and

six stakeholders show that: models

of police structures developed to

respond to CSE differ among forces,

and these structures are fluid and

evolving; responsibility for victim

support within these models varies

among forces.

The 91 page report can be accessed

at: https://www.beds.ac.uk/__data/

assets/pdf_file/0005/571145/

Evidence-based-models-of-policing.

pdf

Guidance for Joint Targeted

Area Inspections on the

themes: child sexual

exploitation, children

associated with gangs and at

risk of exploitation and children

missing from home, care or

education.

HM Inspectorate of Probation,

Her Majesty’s Inspectorate

of Constabulary and Fire &

Rescue Services, Care Quality

Commission and OFSTED

Format: Online report

Summary: The report comprises

updated inspection guidance on the

multi-agency response to child sexual

exploitation and missing children. The

guidance widens the scope to include

children associated with gangs or

involved with gangs who are at risk

of exploitation. This is in response to

increasing awareness of the risks to

children being exploited for criminal

reasons by gangs, in particular the

risk of involvement in ‘county lines’.

Other updates include: the inspection

now considers the role of schools;

and references to Local Safeguarding

Children Boards have been changed

to local safeguarding arrangements.

The 20 page online guidance can be

accessed at:

https://www.gov.uk/government/

uploads/system/uploads/

attachment_data/file/680088/

Child_sexual_exploitation_gangs_

and_children_missing_from_home_

care_or_education_joint_targeted_

inspection_guidance.pdf

Child sexual exploitation: advice

for healthcare staff.

Authors: NHS England, 2018

An online pocket guide providing

practical information for health care

staff on child sexual exploitation

(CSE) and how to safeguard children

and young people. Topics covered

include: signs and indicators of CSE;

risk factors; information sharing; and

what to do if you suspect CSE.

To access the 20 page guide go

to: https://www.england.nhs.uk/

wp-content/uploads/2017/02/csepocket-guide.pdf

Online Child Sexual Abuse

Imagery - Alex Krasodomski-

Jones

Demos, 29 January 2018

This briefing paper examines child

sexual abuse images and their

distribution and consumption online.

The 35 page report is based on

a review of existing literature and

interviews with various experts,

including the Internet Watch

Foundation, CEOP, law enforcement,

academics, internet companies and

third-sector organisations that work

with offenders and victims.

https://www.iwf.org.uk/.../

Technology%20Briefing%201%20

-%20Online%20CSAI%20v5.4%20

%28002%29_0.pdf

Ten Years Since the Byron

Review: Are Children Safer in

the Digital World?

NSPCC, February 2018

This 24 page document reviews the

38 recommendations made in the

Byron Review Safer Children in a

Digital World and discusses how

these have been implemented. It also

considers the influence of political

change and online developments

in the past decade, in order to

contextualise the changes being

brought about to keep children and

young people safe online in 2018.

www.nspcc.org.uk/.../byron-review-

10-years-on-report.pdf

Advice for Parents - What to do

if your child sees something

upsetting online.

UK Safer Internet Centre, 2018

Format: Digital media

Summary: Advises parents on

keeping their children safe from

upsetting, frightening, adult or illegal

content online. Tips for preventing

children from seeing this content

include: use parental controls to block

content from your child’s device; have

open conversations about what your

child is doing online. Tips for parents

whose child has seen something

upsetting include: remain calm and

ask questions to understand how the

content has appeared; don’t place

blame; use resources such as the

NSPCC website for support.

To access the online advice go to:

https://www.saferinternet.org.uk/

blog/advice-parents-what-do-if-yourchild-sees-something-upsettingonline

Safer internet day 2018:

(Resources)

UK Safer Internet Centre, 2018

Summary: Six education packs

with age appropriate content to help

teachers across the UK educate

children and young people aged 3

38 | www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents


-18 about online safety issues. The

packs and other resources have been

created for Safer Internet Day 2018.

To access the Resources go to:

https://www.saferinternet.org.

uk/blog/safer-internet-day-2018-

education-packs-and-sid-tv-videoslaunched

Screen Time

Professor Andy Phippen

South West Grid for Learning,

28 March 2018

This report draws from a survey

sample of 6,620 young people from

year 4 to year 13 across over 100

schools in the UK and explores

whether there is data to suggest the

time spent online results in differences

in attitudes and behaviours,

specifically related to wellbeing.

To access the 17 page report go to:

https://swgfl.org.uk/

Uploads/9a/9a287121-2579-43bc-

9bdd-fa8e0dac1603.pdf

Safety Net

Children’s Society/Young

Minds, February 2018

This report contains recommendations

calling on social media companies to

take faster and firmer action to stop

cyberbullying. The inquiry led by Alex

Chalk MP heard from young people,

adult industry experts, and social

media companies on what more can

be done to tackle cyberbullying and

promote good mental health.

The 72 page report is available at:

https://www.childrenssociety.org.

uk/sites/default/files/social-mediacyberbullying-inquiry-full-report_0.

pdf

“Is this sexual abuse?”

NSPCC, April 2018

The NSPCC wanted to find out more

about how to support children and

young people who have experienced

peer sexual abuse, so they undertook

an analysis of the concerns being

raised by those who contact the

NSPCC helpline and Childline.

The report looks at how peer sexual

abuse takes place; the impact it has

on young people’s lives; how best

to provide support after peer sexual

abuse; and how to prevent it from

happening.

For further details and to download a

copy of the report, go to:

https://www.nspcc.org.uk/servicesand-resources/research-andresources/2018/nspcc-helplinesreport-peer-sexual-abuse/

Publication of IWF Annual

Report 2017

Go to the following link to access the

full Annual Report which, amongst

other findings, reports that IWF global

figures show online child sexual abuse

imagery is up by a third and that there

has been a 37% increase in child

sexual abuse URLs:

https://www.iwf.org.uk/report/2017-

annual-report

Briefing from the Children’s

Society about sexual offences

reported to the police by

gender, April 2018

To access the 5 page briefing, go to:

https://www.childrenssociety.org.uk/

sites/default/files/police-briefingssexual-offences-by-gender.pdf

Briefing from the Children’s

Society on attrition rates in

reported cases of sexual

offences against children under

18, April 2018

To access the 12 page briefing go to:

https://www.childrenssociety.org.

uk/sites/default/files/attrition-ratesbriefing-final.pdf

Journey to justice: prioritising

the wellbeing of children

involved in criminal justice

processes relating to sexual

exploitation and abuse.

Hannah Marsden Online report,

2017 Barnardo’s

The report explores Barnardo’s role in

supporting the wellbeing of children

and young people who are victims or

witnesses of child sexual exploitation

(CSE) in the police investigation and

prosecution process. The report

draws on data from a literature review,

interviews with children and young

people, and parents and carers; and

interviews and focus groups with CSE

practitioner and other professionals.

The key findings include: the

importance of one-to-one support

from an independent, voluntary sector

specialist worker for the promotion

of children and young people’s

wellbeing; children and young people

require support both in relation to an

active police investigation or trial, and

in relation to ongoing risks of sexual

exploitation and abuse that they may

have faced. To access the 116 page

report, go to:

https://www.barnardos.org.uk/

journey_to_justice_full_report.pdf

Beyond referrals: levers for

addressing harmful sexual

behaviour in schools.

Contextual Safeguarding

Network, Bedford: University of

Bedfordshire, 2018

Format: Digital media

Comprise online resources to help

address harmful sexual behaviour

(HSB) in schools. Resources include:

a traffic-light tool for self-assessment,

webinars that explain how to use the

tool and a spreadsheet to record the

scores of self-assessment. These

resources align with the multi-agency

HSB framework produced by the

NSPCC, Research in Practice and the

University of Durham.

Further information and access to the

resources are available at:

https://contextualsafeguarding.

org.uk/beyond-referrals-leversfor-addressing-harmful-sexualbehaviour-in-schools

www.nota.co.uk conference@nota.co.uk @notaevents

| 39


A long established provider working with

young people who have sexualised histories

together with other complex needs.

Now in its 18th year

Woodlands Residential Therapeutic Services

We provide outcome focussed therapeutic residential care for adolescent boys. Our in-house salaried

therapists and our own registered school are vital components of a genuine therapeutic milieu, which

benefits from our own Family and Systemic Psychotherapist, offering a service for all the young people

and their families. Our ratio of 4 qualified therapists to 16 young people is the best ratio in the UK.

Therapeutically we offer:

• A person centred approach to continued development

• High care staffing ratios

• Large in-house multi-disciplinary team of therapists (4 therapists to 16 young people)

• External expert clinical consultancy

Our education team offers:

• Registered School with ESTYN “Best Practice” Award Approval

• One-to-one (high care staffing ratios) or small group educational support

• In the summer of 2016, 7 of our students obtained a total of 33 GCSE’s

Ad?

CATS (Community Assessment and Treatment Service)

is an integrated family and individual community assessment and intervention programme which

provides services focused on trauma, attachment issues and sexual abuse to the Family Courts, Child

Safeguarding Agencies and the Criminal Justice System including:

• Individually tailored assessment and intervention for children, young people and families

• Therapeutic work with children, young people and adults

• Consultancy on individual cases to professionals, including teams

• Training to multi agency professionals on trauma, sexual abuse and attachment, awareness

raising, assessment, intervention and creating a safe environment

• Expert witness reports to court proceedings

Woodlands is pleased to announce it is undertaking long term longitudinal

research with Glyndwr University looking at therapeutic outcomes for the

young people who have resided at Woodlands

For further information on all the above services contact:

WOODLANDS

3 Bellevue Road • Wrexham LL13 7NH

t 01978 262777 • f 01978 290893 • e info@woodlandslimited.com

www.woodlandslimited.com

Woodlands is registered as a children’s home organisation with the Care and Social Services

Inspectorate for Wales (CSSIW) Company No: 4197547

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